ligure Summary and Overview
ligure in Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Heb. leshem) occurs only in Ex. 28:19 and 39:12, as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The "ligurite" is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found.
ligure in Smith's Bible Dictionary
(Heb. leshem), a precious stone mentioned in #Ex 28:19; 39:12| as the first in the third row of the high priest's breastplate. It is impossible to say, with any certainty, what stone is denoted by the Hebrew term; but perhaps tourmaline, or more definitely the red variety known as rubellite, has better claims than any other mineral. Rubellite is a hard stone, and used as a gem, and is sometimes sold for red sapphire.
ligure in Schaff's Bible Dictionary
LIG'URE . There is more difficulty in identifying this stone than any other in the breastplate of the high priest, Ex 28:19. No mineral is at the present day known by this name. Some high authorities suppose that the ligure is amber because Pliny and Theophrastus mention that amber is found in Liguria, whence this name might naturally be derived. But it is objected that amber was too soft for permanent engraving. The opinion that the ligure was red tourmaline or rubellite -- sometimes called red sapphire -- finds much favor. This hard and often transparent stone is certainly used as a gem. See Amber.
ligure in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
leshem Hebrew, the first in the third row of jewels on the high priest's breast-plate (Exodus 28:19). Septuagint and Vulgate translated ligure, and as Theophrastus (de Lap. 29) and Pliny (H. N. 37:11) say amber came from Liguria, probably Septuagint and Vulgate understand by "ligure" amber. But Theophrastus distinguishes the lyncurium of Liguria from electron, "amber." Amber is too soft for engraving; but lyncurium was hard, and at the same time attracted light particles of wood, iron and brass. The red variety of tourmaline, the rubellite, which is electrically polar when heated, maybe meant. The jacinth also is electric.