Bible History Online
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
lat'-in: Was the official language of the Roman Empire as Greek was that of commerce. In Israel Aramaic was the vernacular in the rural districts and remoter towns, while in the leading towns both Greek and Aramaic were spoken. These facts furnish the explanation of the use of all three tongues in the inscription on the cross of Christ (Mt 27:37; Mk 15:26; Lk 23:38; Jn 19:19). Thus the charge was written in the legal language, and was technically regular as well as recognizable by all classes of the people. The term "Latin" occurs in the New Testament only in Jn 19:20, Rhomaisti, and in Lk 23:38, Rhomaikois (grammasin), according to Codices Sinaiticus, A, D, and N. It is probable that Tertullus made his plea against Paul before Felix (Acts 24) in Latin, though Greek was allowed in such provincial courts by grace of the judge. It is probable also that Paul knew and spoke Latin; compare W.M. Ramsay, Pauline and Other Studies, 1906, 65, and A. Souter, "Did Paul Speak Latin?" The Expositor, April, 1911. The vernacular Latin had its own history and development with great influence on the ecclesiastical terminology of the West. See W. Bury, "The Holy Latin Tongue," Dublin Review, April, 1906, and Ronsch, Itala und Vulgata, 1874, 480 f. There is no doubt of the mutual influence of Greek and Latin on each other in the later centuries. See W. Schulze, Graeca Latina, 1891; Viereck, Sermo Graecus, 1888.
It is doubtful if the Latin syntax is clearly perceptible in the koine (see LANGUAGE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT).
Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, 117 f) finds ergasian didomi (operam dare) in an xyrhynchus papyrus letter of the vulgar type from 2nd century BC (compare Lk 12:58). A lead tablet in Amorgus has krino to dikaion (compare Lk 12:57). The papyri (2nd century AD) give sunairo logon (compare Mt 18:23 f). Moulton (Expositor, February, 1903, 115) shows that to hikanon poiein (satisfacere), is as old as Polybius. Even sumbouilion lambanien (concilium capere), may go with the rest like su opes (Mt 27:4), for videris (Thayer). Moulton (Prol., 21) and Thumb (Griechische Sprache, 121) consider the whole matter of syntactical Latinisms in the New Testament inconclusive. But see also C. Wessely, "Die lateinischen Elemente in der Gracitat d. agypt. Papyrusurkunden," Wien. Stud., 24; Laforcade. Influence du Latin sur le Grec. 83-158.
There are Latin words in the New Testament: In particular Latin proper names like Aquila, Cornelius, Claudia, Clemens, Crescens, Crispus, Fortunatus, Julia, Junia, etc., even among the Christians in the New Testament besides Agrippa, Augustus, Caesar, Claudius, Felix, Festus, Gallio, Julius, etc.
Besides we find in the New Testament current Latin commercial, financial, and official terms like assarion (as), denarion (denarius), kenturion (centurio), kenos (census), kodrantes (quadrans), kolonia (colonia), koustodia (custodia), legeon (legio), lention (linteum), libertinos (libertinus), litra (litra), makellon (macellum), membrana (membrana), milion (mille), modios (modius), xestes (sextarius), praitorion (praetorium), sikarios (sicarius), simikinthion (semicinctium), soudarion (sudarium), spekoulator (speculator), taberna (taberna), titlos (titulus), phelones (paenula), phoron (forum), phragellion (flagellum), phragelloo (flagello), chartes (charta?), choros (chorus).
Then we meet such adjectives as Herodianoi, Philippesioi, Christianoi, which are made after the Latin model. Mark's Gospel shows more of these Latin words outside of proper names (compare Rom 16), as is natural if his Gospel were indeed written in Rome.
See also LATIN VERSION, THE OLD.
Besides the literature already mentioned see Schurer, Jewish People in the Time of Christ, Div II, volume I, 43 ff; Krauss, Griechische und lateinische Lehnworter im Talmud (1898, 1899); Hoole, Classical Element in the New Testament (1888); Jannaris, Historical Greek Grammar (1897); W. Schmid, Atticismus, etc. (1887-97); Kapp, Latinismis merito ac falso susceptis (1726); Georgi, De Latinismis N T (1733); Draeger, Historische Syntax der lat. Sprache (1878-81); Pfister, Vulgarlatein und Vulgargriechisch (Rh. Mus., 1912, 195-208).
A. T. Robertson
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Definition for 'LATIN'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". bible-history.com - ISBE
; 1915.Copyright Information
© International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE)
ISBE Bible Encyclopedia Home
Bible History Online Home
Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE)
Online Bible (KJV)
Naves Topical Bible
Smith's Bible Dictionary
Easton's Bible Dictionary
Schaff's Bible Dictionary
Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Matthew Henry Bible Commentary
Hitchcock's Bible Dictionary
Related Bible History
Popular and Trending:
Meaning of the name
Alexander, Alexander the Great, Alexander the Coppersmith,
Syria and Bible Prophecy,
Bible Study about Syria, What the Bible Says about Syria and Damascus, Isaiah 17,
The Bible and Palm
Trees, Bible Study about the Palm Tree, The Righteous Will Flourish like a Palm
Tree Psalm 92:12,
Definition of Paraclete, Bible study about the Holy Spirit and the Paraclete,
Paracletus in the Greek,
Games in the Bible, What
Games Did Kids Play in Biblical Times? Which Kinds of Games Existed in the Time
of Jesus?, The
Church at Thyatira, What Was the Message to Thyatira, Revelation 2 and Thyatira,
history of Thyatira,
David and Goliath, How Tall Was Goliath, Archaeological Discoveries and Goliath,
Goliath And Philistine History,
Who Was Titus in the Bible,
Paul's Letter to Titus, Bible Study Lessons in Titus,
Meaning of the Name
Tanner, Bible Study about Simon the Tanner, Acts 10:6 Peter Was Staying at the
House of Simon the Tanner, What Was a Tanner