Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online
Bible History Online
Picture Study Bible with Maps and Background Information

Galatians 4

1 - But I say that so long as the heir is a child, he is no different from a bondservant, though he is lord of all;

2 - but is under guardians and stewards until the day appointed by the father.

3 - So we also, when we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental principles of the world.

4 - But when the fullness of the time came, God sent out his Son, born to a woman, born under the law,

5 - that he might redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of children.

6 - And because you are children, God sent out the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!"

7 - So you are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.

8 - However at that time, not knowing God, you were in bondage to those who by nature are not gods.

9 - But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do you turn back again to the weak and miserable elemental principles, to which you desire to be in bondage all over again?

10 - You observe days, months, seasons, and years.

11 - I am afraid for you, that I might have wasted my labor for you.

12 - I beg you, brothers, become as I am, for I also have become as you are. You did me no wrong,

13 - but you know that because of weakness in the flesh I preached the Good News to you the first time.

14 - That which was a temptation to you in my flesh, you didn't despise nor reject; but you received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.

15 - What was the blessing you enjoyed? For I testify to you that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me.

16 - So then, have I become your enemy by telling you the truth?

17 - They zealously seek you in no good way. No, they desire to alienate you, that you may seek them.

18 - But it is always good to be zealous in a good cause, and not only when I am present with you.

19 - My little children, of whom I am again in travail until Christ is formed in you-

20 - but I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my tone, for I am perplexed about you.

21 - Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to the law?

22 - For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the servant, and one by the free woman.

23 - However, the son by the servant was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free woman was born through promise.

24 - These things contain an allegory, for these are two covenants. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children to bondage, which is Hagar.

25 - For this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is in bondage with her children.

26 - But the Jerusalem that is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

27 - For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear.Break out and shout, you that don't travail.For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband."Isaiah 54:1

28 - Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise.

29 - But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now.

30 - However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the servant and her son, for the son of the servant will not inherit with the son of the free woman."Genesis 21:10

31 - So then, brothers, we are not children of a servant, but of the free woman.

Galatians Images and Notes

The Book of Galatians

Galatians 1:11-12 - But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man. For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught [it], but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.

Galatians 4:4 - But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,

Galatians 5:22-23 - But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

Galatians in The New Testament - A Brief Overview

Painting of the Apostle Paul by Rembrandt - 1657
Painting of Paul the Apostle by Rembrandt - 1657

Introduction to The Book of Galatians

Brief Summary. Paul instructs the churches that he established in Galatia. He defends his apostleship against the Judaizers who wanted to mix Christianity with the Law of Moses. Paul says that salvation is by grace and not by law.

Summary of The Book of Galatians

Purpose. Paul was so well received by the Galatians that they even looked upon him as an angel or God himself (Galatians 4:14). The churches that he established had become strong churches, yet they were severely affected by the false teaching of the Judaizers. Paul deals with their false doctrines and their attacks at his apostleship, and shows clearly how Christianity cannot be mingled with Jewish laws and circumcision. He reminds them that his authority and ministry was not passed on through the other apostles, but came directly through Jesus Christ. Regarding Christianity he uses sound doctrine, Scripture, and allegory to show how Christianity is greater than the law. The true purpose of the law was to point to Jesus Christ, and the gospel does not see any difference between the Jew, the Greek, the free man, the slave, nor male nor female. Paul's message in the book of Galatians regarding Christianity and its relationship to the law of Moses is theologically brilliant, and some have referred to it as the Christian Declaration of Independence.

Audience. Scholars agree that paul was writing to the churches in Galatia which he established on his  first missionary journey.

Authorship. Paul the Apostle was the author of the book of Galatians. Scholars agree that Paul was the author of the epistle to the Galatians. Paul refers to his own name as "Paul" twice in Galatians (Galatians 1:1 and 5:2). The second reference is very conclusive that it was Paul writing. There were several references to the life of Paul which can easily be harmonized with the Book of Acts.

Date. it is very difficult to be certain about the date of the epistle to the Galatians. Most scholars give it a 50 or 55 AD date.

Place Written. It is also difficult to be certain about the location where Paul wrote his epistle to the Galatians. Most likely it was written from either Syrian Antioch before the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15) or it could have been written from Ephesus on Paul's second or third missionary journey.

Outline of the Book of Galatians

Paul's Message of the Gospel - Chapter 1:1-10
Paul Defends Justification by Faith -  Chapters 1:11-2:21
Paul Explains Justification by Faith - Chapters 3:1-4:31
Paul Explains Applying Justification by Faith 5:1-6:18

Jesus written in Hebrew
The Name Jesus In Ancient Hebrew Text
"Yeshua" in First Century Hebrew Text. This is how the name "Jesus" would have been written in ancient Hebrew documents. The four letters or consonants from right to left are Yod, Shin, Vav, Ayin (Y, SH, OO, A). Jesus is the Greek name for the Hebrew name Joshua or Y'shua which means "The LORD or Yahweh is Salvation".

Galatians Maps and Resources

Map of the Roman Empire (14 A.D.) - This map reveals the Roman Empire during the time shortly after the birth of Jesus, in 14 AD at the time of the death of Augustus. The order which prevailed in this extensive empire, the good military roads, and the use of Koine Greek as the general language of culture throughout the area were among the factors which multiplied the rapid spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. (Color Map)

Map of Paul's First Missionary Journey (48 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia Minor where Paul visited in his first missionary journey. Around 48 AD, in the springtime, Paul and his companions Barnabas and Mark were sent on a mission from the church in Antioch. This would be the first of Paul's Missionary Journey's. (Color Map)

Map of Paul's Second Missionary Journey (51 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia and Greece where Paul visited in his second missionary journey. Paul re-visits a couple cities in Asia, one of which was Lystra where he was stoned and left for dead a few years earlier. He later has a vision that leads him over to Greece and Paul and his companions travel and minister in various cities in Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens and Corinth. Later Paul returns to Ephesus and finally to Caesarea and Antioch. (Color Map)

Map of Paul's Third Missionary Journey (54 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia and Greece where Paul visited in his third missionary journey. On Paul's third missionary journey he returned to the cities he had first visited on his first missionary journey. During this time he decided to remain in Ephesus for about 3 years, and this city was the main focus of his activities and an important Christian community (Acts 19). (Color Map)

Map of the New Testament World - This map reveals the "Nations" within the ancient world during the first century A.D., the time of the New Testament. The map includes the areas of Israel, Asia, Greece, and Italy. (Color Map)

Map of New Testament Asia - This map shows the cities within Asia Minor during the first century A.D., the time of the New Testament. The map includes the principal cities of Asia including Tarsus, Ephesus, and Colossae, and provinces like Galatia and Pamphilia. (Color Map)