Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online
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Exodus 28:30 "And you shall put in the breastpiece of judgment the Urim and the Thummim, and they shall be over Aaron's heart when he goes in before the LORD; and Aaron shall carry the judgment of the sons of Israel over his heart before the LORD continually.

< Exodus 28:29
Exodus 28:31 >

      30. thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and Thummim--The words signify "lights" and "perfections"; and nothing more is meant than the precious stones of the breastplate already described (compare Ex 39:8-21; Le 8:8). They received the name because the bearing of them qualified the high priest to consult the divine oracle on all public or national emergencies, by going into the holy place--standing close before the veil and putting his hand upon the Urim and Thummim, he conveyed a petition from the people and asked counsel of God, who, as the Sovereign of Israel, gave response from the midst of His glory. Little, however, is known about them. But it may be remarked that Egyptian judges wore on the breast of their official robes a representation of Justice, and the high priest in Israel long officiated also as a judge; so that some think the Urim and Thummim had a reference to his judicial functions.

JFB.


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Exodus 28 Images and Notes

Brief Summary: Orders being given for the fitting up of the place of worship, in this and the following chapter care is taken about the priests that were to minister in this holy place, as the menial servants of the God of Israel. He hired servants, as a token of his purpose to reside among them. In this chapter, I. He pitches upon the persons who should be his servants (v. 1). II. He appoints their livery; their work was holy, and so must their garments be, and unanswerable to the glory of the house which was now to be erected (v. 2-5). He appoints the garments of his head-servant, the high priest, which were very rich. (1.) An ephod and girdle, (v. 6-14). (2.) A breast-plate of judgment (v. 15-29), in which must be put the urim and thummim (v. 30). (3.) The robe of the ephod (v. 31-35). (4.) The mitre (v. 36-39). The garments of the inferior priests (v. 40-43). And these also were shadows of good things to come.

Outline
Aaron and his sons set apart for the priest's office, Their garments. (1-5)
The ephod. (6-14)
The breastplate, The Urim and Thummim. (15-30)
The robe of the ephod, The plate of the mitre. (31-39)
The garments for Aaron's sons. (40-43)

ILLUSTRATION

Garments of the High Priest

Garments of the High Priest

Aaron, the brother of Moses, was the first high priest in Israel. He was succeeded by his eldest (surviving) son, Eleazar. The high priest (Heb. hakkohen, "the priest," hakkohen haggadol, "the great Priest") had the highest position in the Israelite hierarchy. Like a king in his coronation the high priest also was anointed. He wore special garments, had a crown, and a breastplate which contained the urim and the thummim. He entered the holy of holies in person on Yom Kippur to make atonement for the sins of his own house as well as the sins of the nation.

Exodus 28:2 And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty.


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