2 Chronicles Images and
The Books of 2 Chronicles
2 Chr 36:15 - And the LORD God of their fathers sent to them
by his messengers, rising up betimes, and sending; because he
had compassion on his people, and on his dwelling place:
2 Chr 36:16 - But they mocked the messengers of God, and
despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the wrath of
the LORD arose against his people, till [there was] no remedy.
2 Chr 36:17 - Therefore he brought upon them the king of the
Chaldees, who slew their young men with the sword in the house
of their sanctuary, and had no compassion upon young man or
maiden, old man, or him that stooped for age: he gave [them] all
into his hand.
2 Chr 36:18 - And all the vessels of the house of God, great
and small, and the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the
treasures of the king, and of his princes; all [these] he
brought to Babylon.
2 Chr 36:19 - And they burnt the house of God, and brake
down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof
with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof.
The Old Testament - A Brief Overview
Bible Survey - Chronicles
Hebrew Name - Divrei Hayamim "Words of the Days"
Greek Name - Paralipomenon
(Greek form of the Hebrew)
Author - Ezra (According to Tradition)
Date - From 4004-536 BC Approximately
Theme of 1 Chronicles - The reign of King David
Theme of 2 Chronicles - The history of the Southern Kingdom of Judah
Types and Shadows - In Chronicles Jesus is the builder of the house of God
The Seal of Megiddo
"Shema servant of Yarob'oam"
This oval shaped jasper
seal reveals the name of one of the Hebrew kings,
Jeroboam. The seal was discovered in 1904 during the
earliest excavation of Megiddo. This was a seal
belonging to a royal minister in the 8th century BC. It
is engraved with the figure of a roaring lion (symbol of
the kingdom of Judah) with a beautiful curved tail and
was skillfully executed. The inscription reads "Shema"
on top, and "Servant of Jeroboam" on the bottom.
Summary of The Books of Chronicles
The English version of the Bible places the books of
Chronicles after Kings, but in the Hebrew text they are placed
at the very end of the Old Testament. (See this
chart of Old Testament books in Hebrew order). The books of
Chronicles were originally one book, as in the case of Samuel
and Kings. The Hebrew title is translated the "words of the
days", yet the word Chronicles is mainly adopted by a theologian
named Jerome who thought that they ought to bear the title from
the Greek word for time which is "Chronos". This title created a
distraction from the true meaning and purpose of this wonderful
book. The main purpose of Chronicles was to form a genealogical
description of the 12 tribes of Israel from the earliest
recorded time. This was very important considering that there
was a mixed multitude that had returned from Babylon, and it was
also important to determine the lineage of Judah, and to
reestablish the functions and order in which each individual
tribe was required to perform.
The author of Chronicles has a fervent desire to make the
people of Israel aware of the true glory of their kingdom,
realizing that it traces back to David and Solomon. There is
nothing that would impress upon them a greater understanding
than taking them back through a detailed history of their
kingdom, with all of its glory and prosperity and also the
horrible sin that led to the captivity and the downfall of the
theocracy. The author of Chronicles had a constant focus on the
Temple which had been destroyed and the dynasty of King David.
There is hardly any mention of the northern kingdom of Israel,
it is mainly concerned with Judah and the events in connection
with King David, and the building of the Temple. Solomon is not
necessarily a huge focus other than his preparations for
building the Temple and its dedication. The worship of the
Temple is paramount and the functions of the Levites as well.
The Kings of Judah are stressed with great importance as well as
the idolatry that seduced the people of God.
Hebrew tradition credits Ezra has the author of the books of
Chronicles, in the beginning of the books trace the genealogical
records all the way back to Adam which took place in
approximately 4004 BC. The book concludes with the Jews in
Babylon after the captivity.
Quick Reference Map
Map of the Empires of David and
Solomon (Click to Enlarge)
The contents of the books of Chronicles may be outlined as follows:
Outline of the Books of Chronicles
I. Genealogical Matters (1 Chronicles 1-9) These genealogies begin with Adam (1
Chronicles 1:1) and are
brought up to the time of the writer (1 Chronicles 9). It is surprising to note the
large number of historical incidents mentioned in connection with the
individuals named in these lists. Many of these are taken from other Old
Testament scripture, but some find their origin elsewhere (1 Chronicles 4:9, 10, 38-43).
II. The Reign of David (1 Chronicles 10 -29)
1) The last days and death of Saul and the early reign of David (1 Chronicles 10-12).
2) The return of the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 13-16). Included in this section is the
account of the misfortune of Uzzah, who was killed when he reached forth to save
the ark from falling (1 Chronicles 13).
3) David purposes to build the temple but is forbidden because of the great
amount of bloodshed to which he has been a party (1 Chronicles 17).
4) The account of David's conquests (1 Chronicles 18-20).
5) The census and the plague (1 Chronicles 21).
6) David's preparations for building the temple (1 Chronicles 22). Although David was
himself forbidden to build a temple for God, he set about to collect the
necessary materials for such a temple, that the task of his son Solomon might be
7) Designation of the duties of the Levites (1 Chronicles 23).
8) Organization of the government (1 Chronicles 24).
9) David's last words and his death (1 Chronicles 28-29).
III. The Reign of Solomon (2 Chronicles 1-9) This section includes the further preparation,
the building and the dedication of the Temple, as well as various other
activities of Solomon.
IV. The History of Judah to Its Fall (2 Chronicles 10 -36)
1) The revolt of the ten tribes and the reign of Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 10-12).
2) The reign of Abijah (2 Chronicles 13).
3) The reign of Asa (2 Chronicles 14-16). This was a period of prosperity in Judah as Asa
instituted a number of moral and religious reforms, establishing himself as a
servant of the Lord.
4) The reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17-20). This king was also diligent in his efforts
to serve God. He made considerable efforts to acquaint his people with the Law.
5) The reigns of Jehoram and Ahaziah (2 Chronicles 21:1—22:9).
6) The reign of Athaliah, the only queen of Judah (2 Chronicles 22:10-23:21).
7) The reign of Joash (2 Chronicles 24). Ascending to the throne at the age of seven,
Joash, advised by the high priest Jehoida, brought about the restoration of true
worship. After Jehoida's death, however, Joash himself slipped into the worship
8) Amaziah, Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz (2 Chronicles 25-28).
9) The reign of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29-32). After beginning his rule with a great
religious restoration, Hezekiah helped his nation to regain a measure of power
10) Manasseh and Amon (2 Chronicles 33).
11) The reign of Josiah (2 Chronicles 34-35). In the eighteenth year of a reign that began
when he was only eight years old, Josiah began the most sweeping religious
reforms which Judah had ever known. During the renovation of the temple, the
"book of the Law" was found, encouraging the people greatly in this time of
12) The last days of Judah (2 Chronicles 36). After a brief reign by Jehoahaz, the throne
was taken by Jehoiakim, who reigned for eleven years. During this period he was
a vassal alternatively to Egypt and Babylon. In an effort to revolt against the
Babylonian rule, he lost his life. He was succeeded by Jehoiachin, who reigned
only three months, after which he was carried to Babylon, where he lived a
number of years. The last of the Judean kings was Zedekiah. Nebuchadnezzar had
already plundered Jerusalem of much of its treasures and a considerable number
of its most promising men. This took place in two raids, in 606 and 597 BC. In
586 BC, during the reign of Zedekiah, the Babylonians struck once again, this
time leaving none but the poorest class of people to remain in Jerusalem. Five
years later, the Babylonians came to collect about 750 more captives, even after
a number, including Jeremiah, had fled to Egypt (Jeremiah 43).
Quick Reference Maps -
The Empire of David and Solomon during the Chronicles
Sites and Events in 2 Kings
Israel and Judah - The kingdoms of Israel and Judah during
the period of the kings can be seen on this map. After Solomon
had died there was a civil war and 10 tribes took to the north
and were called the northern kingdom of Israel, and every king
was evil and forsook the LORD. The remaining 2 tribes stayed in
the south and were called the southern kingdom of Judah, several
of those kings trusted in the LORD.
Mesha's Kingdom - The Bible reveals that Mesha, the king of
Moab rebelled against Jehoram the king of Israel (2 Kings
3:4-5). Jehoram requested the help of Judah and Jehoshaphat
allied with him, he sought Elisha the prophet and victory was
predicted, only because of the faith of Jehoshaphat. Mesha
sought the god Chemosh and sacrificed his own son (2 Kings
Israel and Syria Naaman the leper, captain of the Syrian
army was healed by a miracle at the command of Elisha the
prophet (2 Kings 5). At that time Aram (Syria) was a dominant
fighting machine in the north under the leadership of Ben-Hadad,
who was later murdered by Hazael (2 Kings 8:15).
Syria at Its Height - 2 Kings 10 reveals that Hazael of
Syria smote all the coasts of Israel and the east Jordan
territory expanding the kingdom of Damascus. Jehu knew that he
would need to rely on a foreign power for help and he turned to
Shalmanessar IV, King of Assyria.
The Kingdom of Jeroboam II - 2 Kings 14:25 indicates that
Jeroboam II, fourth king from the line of Jehu, brought the
northern kingdom of Israel to its greatest extent in the north.
This was just after Syria was severely crushed by the Assyrians
who had recently returned home to regroup.
Habor, the River of Gozan - In 2 Kings 17:6 the Bible says
that the King of Assyria (Sargon II) conquered Samaria and took
away the remaining inhabitants of Israel as prisoners to
Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of
Gorzan, and in the cities of the Medes. The river of Gorzan is
identified as the river Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates
river which flows into it from the north from southern Turkey.
The Cities of Samaria and the Surrounding Lands - The Bible
records in second Kings 17:24 that the King of Assyria (Sargon
II) brought colonists from many of the cities within the
Assyrian Empire: Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and from
Sepharvaim, and placed the inhabitants within the cities of
Samaria to replace the children of Israel who would been taken
The Assyrian Empire When Sennacherib Came to Power - Israel
was destroyed, Judah was left and Hezekiah a man who sought the
LORD had come to power in 720 BC. He offered tribute to
Sennacherib but Jerusalem was was still a target for the
The Assyrian Empire During the Reign of Esarhaddon -
Esarhaddon marches into Egypt and extends the Assyrian Empire. 2
Necho Battles Josiah - Pharaoh Necho on his way to the
Euphrates slays King Josiah at Megiddo. 2 Kings 23
The Captivity of the Ten Tribes - The ten tribes in the
northern kingdom of Israel were conquered by the Assyrians in
722 BC and taken to the land of Assyria as captives.
Judah Captives in Babylon - The remaining remnant of Judah
were taken as prisoners to Babylon as predicted by Jeremiah the
The Babylonian, Mede and Persian Empires - Pharaoh Necho is
defeated by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon who also destroyed
Jerusalem in 586 BC. Later the Mede and Persian Empires defeated
Babylon and governed the world in the sixth century BC until
Alexander the Great.
2 Chronicles Resources
Israel's First King
The Divided Kingdom
Northern Kingdom of Israel
Southern Kingdom of Judah
The Assyrian Captivity
The Babylonian Captivity
More About the Book of
More About the Book of
Chronicles in the Picture
Chronicles in the Picture
Timeline of the Ancient
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