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The Empire of Rome
At the height of its power after the conquest of the fall of the Grecian Empire, the Roman empire became a reality in 44 BC and lasted until 476 AD. The empire encompassed 2.5 million square miles spanning three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe. At its greatest extent under Trajan, the Roman empire expanded eastward to the Persian Gulf and even to Susa. The Roman Empire also reached to the Rhine and Danube in the north, the Atlantic Ocean in the west, to the Arabian and Sahara deserts in the south.
The largest boundaries of the
Empire of Rome around 116 AD were as follows:
1. The Northern Boundaries were the natural courses of the Rhine and Danube Rivers.
2. The Western Boundaries were Brittania, Spain, and Mauritania, and the Atlantic Ocean.
3. The Eastern Boundaries were the Euphrates River, Persian Gulf, and the city of Susa.
4. The Southern Boundary went all the way to the Arabian desert in the Middle East and the Sahara in North Africa.
Map of the Roman Empire at it's Height in 116 AD (Click to Enlarge)
History of the Roman Empire
The "Roman Empire" (Imperium Romanum) is used to denote that part of the world under Roman rule from approximately 44 B.C.E. until 476 C.E. The term also distinguished imperial from Republican Rome. The expansion of Roman territory beyond the borders of the initial city-state of Rome started long before the state became an Empire. In its territorial peak after the conquest of Dacia by Trajan, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5,900,000 km² (2,300,000 sq.mi.) of land surface, thereby being one of the largest ancient empires, exceeded only by the Persian Empire and by the Chinese Empire. At an early period, Rome adopted a republican structure with the Senate exercising power although all legislation had to be approved by an assembly of the people. The precise date at which the Roman Republic changed into the Roman Empire is disputed, with the dates of Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 B.C.E.), the battle of Actium (September 2, 31 B.C.E.), and the date in which the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title Augustus (January 16, 27 B.C.E.), all being advanced as candidates. Octavian/Augustus officially proclaimed that he had saved the Roman Republic and carefully disguised his power under republican forms. Republican institutions were maintained throughout the imperial period: consuls continued to be elected annually, tribunes of the plebeians continued to offer legislation, and senators still debated in the Roman Curia. However, it was Octavian who influenced everything and controlled the final decisions, and in final analysis, had the Roman legions to back him up, if it ever became necessary. The end of the Roman Empire is traditionally placed on 4 September 476 C.E., as the Western Roman Empire fell to Germanic invaders. However, the Eastern Roman Empire, known to modern-day historians as the Byzantine Empire continued until 1453 C.E. From the time of Augustusto the Fall of the Western Empire, Rome dominated Western Eurasia, comprising the majority of its population. The legacy of Rome on culture, law, technology, arts, language, religion, government, military, and architecture upon Western civilization remains to the present day. - New World Encyclopedia
In 113 C.E., provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some 50 years earlier, Trajan marched first on Armenia. He deposed the king and annexed it to the Roman Empire. Then he turned south into Parthia itself, taking the cities of Babylon, Seleucia and finally the capital of Ctesiphon in 116 C.E. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, whence he declared Mesopotamia a new province of the empire and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. But he did not stop there. Later in 116 C.E., he captured the great city of Susa. He deposed the Parthian King Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne. Never again would the Roman Empire advance so far to the east. - New World Encyclopedia
498 Persian invasion of Greece
498-448 Greco-Persian Wars
336 Death of Philip of Macedon
334 Alexander the Great begins his conquests
334 Battle of the Granicus
333 Battle of Issus
331 Battle of Arbela
323 Death of Alexander
146 Greece is made a Roman Province
(From Augustus to Trajan)
Augustus 31-14 AD
Tiberius 14-37 AD
Gaius (Caligula) 37-41 AD
Claudius 41-54 AD
Nero 54-68 AD
C. Iulius Vindex 68 AD
L. Clodius Macer 68 AD
Galba 68 AD
C. Nymphidius Sabinus 69 AD
Otho 69 AD
Vitellius 69 AD
Vespasian 69-79 AD
Titus 79-81 AD
Domitian 81-96 AD
L. Antonius Saturninus 89 AD
Nerva 96-98 AD
Trajan 98-117 AD
The Roman Empire
Roman Empire in the Smith's Bible Dictionary
2. Extent of the empire. --Cicero's description of the Greek states and colonies as a "fringe on the skirts of barbarism" has been well applied to the Roman dominions before the conquests of Pompey and Caesar. The Roman empire was still confined to a narrow strip encircling the Mediterranean Sea. Pompey added Asia Minor and Syria. Caesar added Gaul. The generals of Augustus overran the northwest Portion of Spain and the country between the Alps and the Danube. The boundaries of the empire were now the Atlantic on the west, the Euphrates on the east, the deserts of Africa, the cataracts of the Nile and the Arabian deserts on the south, the British Channel, the Rhine, the Danube and the Black Sea on the north. The only subsequent conquests of importance were those of Britain by Claudius and of Dacia by Trajan. The only independent powers of importance were the Parthians on the east and the Germans on the north. The population of the empire in the time of Augustus has been calculated at 85,000,000.
3. The provinces. --The usual fate of a country conquered by Rome was to be come a subject province, governed directly from Rome by officers sent out for that purpose. Sometimes, however, petty sovereigns were left in possession of a nominal independence on the borders or within the natural limits of the province. Augustus divided the provinces into two classes -- (1) Imperial; (2) Senatorial; retaining in his own hands, for obvious reasons, those provinces where the presence of a large military force was necessary, and committing the peaceful and unarmed provinces to the senate. The New Testament writers invariably designate the governors of senatorial provinces by the correct title anthupatoi, proconsuls. Ac 13:7; 18:12; 19:38 For the governor of an imperial province, properly styled "legatus Caesaris," the word hegemon (governor) is used in the New Testament. The provinces were heavily taxed for the benefit of Rome and her citizens. They are said to have been better governed under the empire than under the commonwealth, and those of the emperor better than those of the senate. Full Article
in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
Roman Empire and Christianity
Octavian (Augustus) proved the potent factor of the second triumvirate. The field of Actiuim on September 2, 31 BC, decided the fate of the old Roman republic. The commonwealth sank in exhaustion after the protracted civil and internecine strife. It was a case of the survival of the fittest. It was a great crisis in human history, and a great man was at hand for the occasion. Octavian realized that supreme power was the only possible solution. On his return to Rome he began to do over again what Caesar had done--gather into his own hands the reins of government. He succeeded with more caution and shrewdness, and became the founder of the Roman empire, which formally began on January 16, 27 BC, and was signalized by the bestowal of the title AUGUSTUS (which see). Under republican forms he ruled as emperor, controlling legislation, administration and the armies. His policy was on the whole adhered to by the Julio-Claudian line, the last of which was Nero (died 68 AD). Full Article
The Bible Mentions "Rome" in many places:
Acts 23:11 - And the
night following the Lord stood by him, and said, Be of good cheer,
Paul: for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou
bear witness also at Rome.
2 Timothy 4:22 - The Lord Jesus Christ [be] with thy spirit. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[The second [epistle] unto Timotheus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians, was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time.]>
Acts 18:2 - And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.
Colossians 4:18 - The salutation by the hand of me Paul. Remember my bonds. Grace [be] with you. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Colossians by Tychicus and Onesimus.]>
Ephesians 6:24 - Grace [be] with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen. <[To [the] Ephesians written from Rome, by Tychicus.]>
Philemon 1:25 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[Written from Rome to Philemon, by Onesimus a servant.]>
Acts 2:10 - Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,
Acts 19:21 - After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.
Acts 28:16 - And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.
Romans 1:7 - To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Galatians 6:18 - Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Amen. <[To [the] Galatians written from Rome.]>
Philippians 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Amen. <[To [the] Philippians written from Rome, by Epaphroditus.]>
Acts 28:14 - Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.
Romans 1:15 - So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.
2 Timothy 1:17 - But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found [me].
The Word "Caesar" is Mentioned many Times
in the Bible
(Note: It was not always Tiberius because he died in 37 A.D.)
Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene.
Matthew 22:21 - They
say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them,
Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are
Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.
Luke 3:1 - Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,
John 19:15 - But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.
John 19:12 - And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.
Luke 20:25 - And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.
Mark 12:14 - And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
Mark 12:17 - And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.
Acts 27:24 - Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be brought before Caesar: and, lo, God hath given thee all them that sail with thee.
Luke 23:2 - And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this [fellow] perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
Acts 11:28 - And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.
Acts 25:11 - For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Caesar.
Acts 25:21 - But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.
Acts 17:7 - Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, [one] Jesus.
Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
Acts 28:19 - But when the Jews spake against [it], I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.
Matthew 22:17 - Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not?
Acts 25:8 - While he answered for himself, Neither against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Caesar, have I offended any thing at all.
Acts 26:32 - Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, if he had not appealed unto Caesar.
Luke 20:22 - Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no?
Acts 25:12 - Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, Hast thou appealed unto Caesar? unto Caesar shalt thou go.
Sites to Visit:
Julius Caesar in Wikipedia
Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a
Roman general and statesman. He played a critical role in the
transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. During
the late 60s and into the 50s BC, Caesar entered into a political
alliance with Crassus and Pompey that was to dominate Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power for themselves
through populist tactics were opposed within the Roman Senate by a
conservative elite, among them Cato the Younger, with the sometime
support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended the Roman
world to the North Sea, and in 55 BC he conducted the first Roman
invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched
military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's. The balance of
power was further upset by the death of Crassus. Political
realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and
Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. With the
order that sent his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil
war in 49 BC from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the
Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began
extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised
the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed
"dictator in perpetuity". A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius
Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44
BC, hoping to restore the constitutional government of the Republic.
However, the result was a series of civil wars, which ultimately led
to the establishment of the permanent Roman Empire by Caesar's
adopted heir Octavius (later known as Augustus). Much of Caesar's
life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and
other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of
Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies
of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources...
Augustus Caesar in Wikipedia
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14)
was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from
27 BC until his death in 14 AD.[note 1] Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus,
he was adopted posthumously by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar
in 44 BC via his last will and testament, and between then and 27 BC
was officially named Gaius Julius Caesar. In 27 BC the Senate
awarded him the honorific Augustus ("the revered one"), and thus
consequently he was Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus.[note 2] Because of
the various names he bore, it is common to call him Octavius when
referring to events between 63 and 44 BC, Octavian (or Octavianus)
when referring to events between 44 and 27 BC, and Augustus when
referring to events after 27 BC. In Greek sources, Augustus is known
as Ὀκτάβιος (Octavius), Καῖσαρ (Caesar), Αὔγουστος (Augustus), or
Σεβαστός (Sebastos), depending on context. The young Octavius came
into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. In 43
BC, Octavian joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius
Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate.
As a triumvir, Octavian ruled Rome and many of its provinces[note 3]
The triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing
ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile, and Antony
committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by
the fleet of Octavian commanded by Agrippa in 31 BC. After the
demise of the Second Triumvirate, Octavian restored the outward
facade of the Roman Republic, with governmental power vested in the
Roman Senate, but in practice retained his autocratic power. It took
several years to determine the exact framework by which a formally
republican state could be led by a sole ruler; the result became
known as the Roman Empire. The emperorship was never an office like
the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him;
indeed, he declined it when the Roman populace "entreated him to
take on the dictatorship". By law, Augustus held a collection of
powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including those of
tribune of the plebs and censor. He was consul until 23 BC. His
substantive power stemmed from financial success and resources
gained in conquest, the building of patronage relationships
throughout the Empire, the loyalty of many military soldiers and
veterans, the authority of the many honors granted by the Senate,
and the respect of the people. Augustus' control over the majority
of Rome's legions established an armed threat that could be used
against the Senate, allowing him to coerce the Senate's decisions.
With his ability to eliminate senatorial opposition by means of
arms, the Senate became docile towards him. His rule through
patronage, military power, and accumulation of the offices of the
defunct Republic became the model for all later imperial
governments. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative
peace known as the Pax Romana, or Roman peace. Despite continuous
wars on the frontiers, and one year-long civil war over the imperial
succession, the Mediterranean world remained at peace for more than
two centuries. Augustus enlarged the empire dramatically, annexing
Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Raetia, expanded possessions in
Africa, and completed the conquest of Hispania. Beyond the
frontiers, he secured the empire with client states, and made peace
with Parthia through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of
taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier
system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian
Guard, and created official police and fire-fighting services for
Rome. Much of the city was rebuilt under Augustus; and he wrote a
record of his own accomplishments, known as the Res Gestae Divi
Augusti, which has survived. Upon his death in 14 AD, Augustus was
declared a god by the Senate - to be worshipped by the Romans.
His names Augustus and Caesar were adopted by every subsequent
emperor, and the month of Sextilis was officially renamed August in
his honour. He was succeeded by his stepson, former son-in-law and
adopted son, Tiberius...
Vespasian. The Flavians and the Antonines. Vespasian is the first of the good emperors. He restored the discipline of the army and of the Praetorian guards, abolished the treason courts, improved the administration of justice, and filled the state treasury by economy and sagacity. He built the temple of peace, and the Colosseum, whose ruins still excite the admiration of the traveler, brought back the Batavians of the lower Rhine to the obedience, and enlarged the borders of the i empire, by the conquests of Judea and of Britain. The oppressions of the Roman officers who governed Judea, especially the cruelty and greed of Gessius Florus, drove the people finally to rebellion. They fought with the courage of desparation, but were conquered by the Roman legions and forced into Jerusalem, which was besieged at first by Vespasian, and then afterward by his son Titus. The crowded city was so wasted by pestilence and starvation, that thousands plunged into the grave. Titus offered pardon in vain; rage and fanaticism urged the Jews to a desperate struggle. They defended their temple, until the magnificent building broke into flames, and death in every form raged among the vanquished. The victory of Titus was followed by the complete destruction of Jerusalem. Among the prisoners that followed the victorious chariot of the Roman, was the Jewish historian Josephus. The triumphal arch of Titus still standing in Rome, shows pictures of the Jewish sacred vessels, that were carried to the city. The Jews who were left at home, suffered terribly from Roman rule. But sixty years after the destruction of Jerusalem, Hadrian established a pagan colony on its sacred soil, which was called Alia Capitoltna : and erected on the heights, where the temple of Jehovah had been built by Solomon, a temple to Jupiter. The exasperated Jews, led by the fanatical Simon, " son of the star," took arms again to prevent this insult. In a murderous war of three years, in which half a million inhabitants were slaughtered, they were conquered by tlie Romans. The survivors wandered out in throngs. The laud resembled a desert, and the Jewish commonwealth came to an end. Since then the Jews live scattered over the whole earth, faithful to their customs, their religion, and their superstition ; but wholly separate from other peoples. Subsequently, the exiles were allowed, once a year, on payment of a certain sum, to weep over the ruins of their sacred city. During the reign of Vespasian, Agricola, the father-in-law of Tacitus, conquered Britain as far as the Scotch highlands, and introduced Roman institutions, customs, and speech. Britain remained subject to the Romans 400 years. The religion of the Druids yielded gradually to Roman paganism, and the foreign civilization struck root in the land. But the warlike strength of the people was weakened by' this contact with the Romans, so that the Britains were unable to resist the rough Picts and Scots, from whom the wall, erected by Hadrian, was not sufficient to protect them. The plain but powerful Vespasian was succeeded by his son Titus. The faults and sins of his youth were laid aside by the new emperor, and he earned for himself the splendid name " Love and Delight of the Human Race." During his reign Herculaneum and Pompeii were destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius. Pliny, the elder, lost his life in this eruption, as we learn from a letter of his nephew to the historian Tacitus. The excavations made at these buried cities, especially at Pompeii, have been of immense importance to our knowledge of antiquity, and to the art of our own times. [Ancient World]
Titus in Wikipedia (Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81), was Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own father. Prior to becoming Emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War. The campaign came to a brief halt with the death of emperor Nero in 68, launching Vespasian's bid for the imperial power during the Year of the Four Emperors. When Vespasian was declared Emperor on 1 July 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion. In 70, he successfully laid siege to and destroyed the city and Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained notoriety in Rome serving as prefect of the Praetorian Guard, and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian in 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. As emperor, he is best known for completing the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and a fire in Rome in 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on 13 September 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. [Wikipedia]
Nero, A.D. 54-68. The first five years of his reign were marked by the mildness and equity of his government. He discouraged luxury, reduced the taxes, and increased the authority of the Senate. His two preceptors, Seneca and Burrus, controlled his mind, and restrained for a time the constitutional insanity of the Claudian race. At length, however, he sank into licentiousness, and from licentiousness to its necessary attendants, cruelty and crime. From a modest and philosophic youth, Nero became the most cruel and dissolute of tyrants. He quarreled with his mother Agrippina, who for his sake had murdered the feeble Claudius; and when she threatened to restore Britannicus to the throne, he ordered that young prince to be poisoned at an entertainment. In order to marry Poppaca Sabina, a beautiful and dissolute woman, wife of Salvius Otho, he resolved to divorce his wife Octavia, and also to murder his mother Agrippina. Under the pretense of a reconciliation, he invited Agrippina to meet him at Baiae, where she was placed in a boat, which fell to pieces as she entered it. Agrippina swam to the shore, but was there assassinated by the orders of her son. The Roman Senate congratulated Nero upon this fearful deed, while the philosopher Sepeca wrote a defense of the matricide. The philosopher, the Senate, and the emperor seem worthy of each other. It would be impossible to enumerate all the crimes of Nero. In A.D. 64 a, fire broke out in Rome, which lasted for six days, consuming the greater part of the city. Nero was supposed to have ordered the city to be fired, to obtain a clear representation of the burning of Troy, and, while Rome was in flames, amused himself by playing upon musical instruments. He sought to throw the odium of this event upon the Christians, and inflicted upon them fearful cruelties. The city was rebuilt upon an improved plan, and Nero's palace, called the Golden House, occupied a large part of the ruined capital with groves, gardens, and buildings of unequaled magnificence. In A.D. 65 a plot was discovered in which many eminent Romans were engaged. The poet Lucan, Seneca, the philosopher And defender of matricide, together with many others, were put to death. In A.D. 67 Nero traveled to Greece, and performed on the cithara at the Olympian and Isthmian games. He also contended for the prize in singing, and put to death a singer whose voice was louder than his own. Stained with every crime of which human nature is capable, haunted by the shade of the mother he had murdered, and filled with remorse, Nero was finally dethroned by the Praetorian Guards, and died by his own hand, June 9, A.D. 68. He was the last of the Claudian family. No one remained who had an hereditary claim to the empire of Augustus, and the future emperors were selected by the Praetorian Guards or the provincial legions. During this reign, Boadicea, the British queen, A.D. 61, revolted against the Romans and defeated several armies; but the governor, Suetonius Paulinus, conquered the insurgents in a battle in which eighty thousand Britons are said to have fallen. Boadicea, unwilling to survive her liberty, put an end to her life. On the death of Nero, Servius Sulpicius Galba, already chosen emperor by the Praetorians and the Senate, was murdered in the Forum, January, A.D. 69. He was succeeded by Salvius Otho, the infamous friend of Nero, and the husband of Poppsea Sabina. The legions on the Rhine, however, proclaimed their own commander, Vitellius, emperor, and Otho's forces being defeated in a battle near Bedriacum, between Verona and Cremona, he destroyed himself. Vitellius, the new emperor, was remarkable for his gluttony and his coarse vices. He neglected every duty of his office, and soon became universally contemptible. Vespasian, the distinguished general, who had been lighting successfully against the Jews in Palestine, was proclaimed emperor by the governor of Egypt. Leaving his son Titus to continue the war, Vespasian prepared to advance upon Rome. His brave adherent, Antonius Primus, at the head of the legions of the Danube, without any orders from Vespasian, marched into Italy and defeated the army of Vitellius. The Praetorians and the Roman populace still supported Vitellius; a fearful massacre took place in the city, and the Capitoline Temple was burned; but Antonius Primus took the Praetorian camp, and Vitellius was dragged from his palace and put to death, December 20, A.D. 69. [History of Rome]
also see: Roman Emperors
Traiānus, M. Ulpius in Harpers Dictionary
emperor (A.D. 98-117), born at Italica, near Seville, in Spain,
September 18th, A.D. 52 or 53. He was trained to arms, and, after
ten years' service as military tribune, rose through the lower
offices to the rank of praetor in 85, served with distinction in the
East and in Germany, to which country he was sent from Spain by
Domitian on the occasion of the revolt of Antonius Saturninus,
legatus, with the Spanish legion Adiutrix under his command. He was
consul in 91, and at the close of 97 he was adopted by the emperor
Nerva , who gave him the rank of Caesar and the names of Nerva and
Germanicus, and shortly after the title of Imperator, and the
tribunicia potestas. His style and title after his elevation to the
imperial dignity were Imperātor Caesar Traiānus Augustus. He was the
first Roman emperor who was born out of Italy. Nerva died in
January, 98, and was succeeded by Trajan, who was then at Colonia
(Cologne). His accession was hailed with joy, and he did not
disappoint the expectations of the people. He was a great soldier
both in the field and in military organization; and he was scarely
less great as an administrator. His finances were prosperous, partly
from his good economy, though partly also from the good fortune of
certain Dacian mining operations. Personally, he was strong and
healthy, of a majestic appearance, laborious, and inured to fatigue.
Though not a man of letters, he had good sense, a knowledge of the
world, and a sound judgment. His mode of living was very simple, and
in campaigns he shared all the sufferings and privations of the
soldiers, by whom he was both loved and feared. He was a friend to
justice, and had a sincere desire for the happiness of the people.
His career led to a proverbial expression which after this time was
formulated in a wish to each new emperor that in his reign he might
be even “more fortunate than Augustus, and better than Trajan”
(Augusto felicior, melior Traiano). Trajan did not return to Rome
for some months, being employed in settling the frontiers on the
Rhine and the Danube. Especially, he completed the fortifications of
the Rhine and of the Agri Decumates (q.v.), founded a new military
station, Colonia Traiana, near Vetera, and constructed new roads by
the Rhine and by the Danube, the latter work in preparation for the
Dacian War. In 99 he proceeded to Rome, which he entered on foot,
accompanied by his wife, Pompeia Plotina. In March, A.D. 101, Trajan
left Rome for his campaign against the Daci. Decebalus, king of the
Daci, had compelled Domitian to purchase peace by an annual payment
of money; and Trajan determined on hostilities, which should settle
matters so as to secure the peace of the frontier. This war employed
Trajan between two and three years, but it ended with the defeat of
Decebalus, who sued for peace at the feet of the Roman emperor.
Trajan assumed the name of Dacius, and entered Rome in triumph (103
A.D.). In the following year (104 A.D.) Trajan commenced his second
Dacian war against Decebalus, who had accepted the Roman terms
merely to gain time, and now showed his intentions by building
forts, collecting war material, and welcoming Roman deserters.
Decebalus was completely defeated, and put an end to his life (106
A.D.). In the course of this war Trajan built (105 A.D.) a permanent
bridge across the Danube at the modern Turn Severin. The piers were
of stone and of an enormous size, but the arches were of wood. (See
Pons.) After the death of Decebalus, Dacia was reduced to the form
of a Roman province, strong forts were built in various places, and
Roman colonies were planted. (See Dacia.) The Column of Trajan at
Rome was erected to commemorate his Dacian victories. In its
sculptured illustrations of the campaign it has an historical value
which has been well compared to that of the Bayeux Tapestry. (See
Columna.) On his return Trajan had a triumph, and he exhibited games
to the people for 123 days. It is said that 11,000 animals were
slaughtered during these amusements, and that 10,000 gladiators
fought in the arena. About this time Arabia Petraea was subjected to
the Empire by A. Cornelius Palma, the governor of Syria, and an
Indian embassy came to Rome. (See Arabia.) The dominions of Agrippa
II., who died A.D. 100, were also added to the province of Syria. In
114 Trajan left Rome to make war on the Armenians and the Parthians,
the cause of the war being that the Parthian king, Chosroes, had
deposed from the throne of Armenia Axidares, the Roman nominee.
Trajan spent the winter of 114 at Antioch, and in the following year
he invaded the Parthian dominions. The most striking and brilliant
success attended his arms. In the course of two campaigns (115-116),
he conquered the greater part of the Parthian Empire, and took the
Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. In 116 he descended the Tigris and
entered the Erythraean Sea (Persian Gulf). While he was thus engaged
the Parthians rose against the Romans, but were again subdued by the
generals of Trajan, Erucius Clarus, who reduced Babylonia and burned
Seleucia, and Lucius Quietus, who reduced Mesopotamia. On his return
to Ctesiphon, Trajan determined to give the Parthians a king, and
placed the diadem on the head of Parthamaspates, son of Chosroes. In
117 Trajan fell ill, and as his complaint grew worse he set out for
Italy. He lived to reach Selinus in Cilicia, afterwards called
Traianopolis, where he died in August, 117, after a reign of
nineteen years, six months, and fifteen days (C. I. L. vi. 1884).
His ashes were taken to Rome in a golden urn, carried in triumphal
procession, and deposited under the column which bears his name. He
left no children, and he was succeeded by Hadrian. (See Hadrianus.)
Trajan constructed several great roads in the provinces and in
Italy: among them was the road across the Pomptine Marshes, which he
constructed with magnificent bridges over the streams. At Ostia he
built a large new basin. At Rome he constructed the aqueduct called
by his name, built a theatre in the Campus Martius, and, above all,
made the Forum Traianum, with its basilicas and libraries, and his
column in the centre. See the account of Trajan by Dierauer in vol.
i. of Büdinger's Untersuchungen (1868), that by De la Berge (1877),
and in Schiller's Geschichte der röm. Kaiserzeit (Gotha, 1883).
Trajan in Roman Biography Tra'jan, (Lat. Traja'nus; It. Trajano, tRa-ya'no ; Fr. Trajan, tRi'zhoN'; Ger. Trajan, tRa-yan',1 or, more fully, Mar'cua Ul'pl-us Ner'va Tra-ja'nus, Emperor of Rome, born near Seville, in Spain, about 52 A.n., was the son of Trajan, an Iberian officer, whom he accompanied in his campaigns in Asia' Minor. He was chosen consul in 91 A.n., and was afterwards appointed to command the legions on the Lower Rhine. His eminent virtues and ability obtained for him the favour and confidence of the emperor Nerva, who adopted him and made him his successor. On the death of Nerva, in 98 A.D., Trajan was proclaimed emperor, and soon after marched against Decebalus, King of the Dacians, whom he repeatedly defeated. In 106 A.D. Dacia became a Roman province, and a column (which is still extant) was erected on the Forum Trajani, in commemoration of these victories, by Apollodorusof Damascus. In the year 115 he commanded in person an army which invaded Parthia, and defeated the Parthians in several battles. He took Ctesiphon, the capital of Parthia, and deposed the king of that country. In 116 he descended the Tigris to the Persian Gulf. He was returning to Rome, when he died, without issue, at Selinus, in Cilicia, in 117 a.d., and was succeeded by Hadrian. Trajan was one of the greatest and best emperors of Rome. He is commended for his moderation, sound judgment, and the simplicity of his mode of living. Yet he persecuted the Christians, and presided as judge at the tribunal when the martyr Ignatius was sentenced to death. Among his friends was Pliny the Younger, who wrote a " Panegyric on Trajan." SeeTn.i.KMONT, " Histoiredes Emperettrs;" Rittkr, "Trajanus in Lucent reproduces," 1768 ; H. Franckk, " Zur Geschichte Trajan's," etc., 1840: Gknf.rsich, "Trajan ; biographisches GemiiMe," 1811 ; Msrivale, "History of the Romans tinder the Empfre ;" Mokalss, " Hechos y Diclios de Trajano," 1654; "Nottvelle Biojrapliie Generate. "
Trajan in Wikipedia Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (18 September 53 – 9 August 117), commonly known as Trajan, was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, Trajan successfully put down the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. In September 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on 27 January 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. Early in his reign he annexed the Nabataean kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. His conquest of Dacia enriched the empire greatly - the new province possessed many valuable gold mines. His war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. His campaigns expanded the Roman Empire to its greatest territorial extent. In late 117 while sailing back to Rome, Trajan fell ill and died of a stroke in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan's Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan's reputation has endured — he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived nineteen centuries. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano, meaning "may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan". Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second...
Bible Prophecies Mentioning the Roman Empire
The prophet Daniel might be considered the "Empire Predicting Prophet" and he was given the discerning ability to understand the dream of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. He saw in the king's dream 4 kingdoms: Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome. Then in the far future and the end of the ages the 4th kingdom will rise again as a world power and the stone from heaven will break the statue at its feet and grow into a mountain to fill the whole earth.
This [is] the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof
before the king.
37 - Thou, O king, [art] a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory.
38 - And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou [art] this head of gold.
39 - And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.
40 - And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.
41 - And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.
42 - And [as] the toes of the feet [were] part of iron, and part of clay, [so] the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.
43 - And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.
44 - And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, [but] it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.
45 - Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it break in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream [is] certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.
46 - Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and commanded that they should offer an oblation and sweet odours unto him.
These great beasts, which are four, [are] four kings, [which] shall
arise out of the earth.
18 - But the saints of the most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.
19 - Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth [were of] iron, and his nails [of] brass; [which] devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet;
Ancient Rome in the Bible
ROME, the famous capital of the ancient world, is situated on the river Tiber, at a distance of fifteen miles from its mouth. The seven hills which formed the nucleus of the ancient city stand on the left bank. Rome is mentioned in the books of Maccabees and in the Hebrew Scriptures. It is also mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistle to the Romans, and the Second Epistle to Timothy. The conquests of Pompey seem to have given rise to the first settlements of the Jews at Rome. The Jewish King Aristobulus and his son formed a notable part of Pompey's triumphal procession, and many Jewish captives and emigrants were brought to Rome at that time. Many of these Jews were made freedmen. Julius Caesar showed them some kindness, and they were favored also by Augustus. Claudius, on the contrary, commanded all Jews to depart from Rome, on account of tumults connected, possibly, with the preaching of Christianity at Rome. This banishment cannot have been of long duration, for we find Jews residing at Rome apparently in considerable numbers at the time of St. Paul's visit. It is chiefly in connection with St. Paul's visit that Rome comes before us in the Bible. The Rome of the apostle's day was a large and irregular mass, of buildings unprotected by an outer wall; for it will be remembered that St. Paul's visit lies between two important epochs, viz.: its restoration by Augustus, and its restoration by Nero. The streets were generally narrow and winding, flanked by densely crowded lodging-houses of great height. St. Paul's first visit to Rome took place before the Neronian conflagration; but even after the restoration of the city, which followed upon that event, many of the old evils continued. The population of the city has been variously estimated at from half a million to over eight millions. Probably Gibbon's estimate of one million two hundred thousand is nearest the truth. One-half of the population consisted, in all probability, of slaves. The larger part of the remainder consisted of pauper-citizens, supported in idleness by the miserable system of public gratuities. There appears to have been no middle class, and no free industrial population. Side by side with the wretched classes just mentioned was the comparatively small body of the wealthy nobility, of whose luxury and profligacy we hear so much in the heathen writers of the time. Such was the population St. Paul found at Rome at the time of his visit. - Ancient Geography
Rome in Easton's Bible Dictionary the most celebrated city in the world at the time of Christ. It is said to have been founded B.C. 753. When the New Testament was written, Rome was enriched and adorned with the spoils of the world, and contained a population estimated at 1,200,000, of which the half were slaves, and including representatives of nearly every nation then known. It was distinguished for its wealth and luxury and profligacy. The empire of which it was the capital had then reached its greatest prosperity. On the day of Pentecost there were in Jerusalem "strangers from Rome," who doubtless carried with them back to Rome tidings of that great day, and were instrumental in founding the church there. Paul was brought to this city a prisoner, where he remained for two years (Acts 28:30, 31) "in his own hired house." While here, Paul wrote his epistles to the Philippians, to the Ephesians, to the Colossians, to Philemon, and probably also to the Hebrews. He had during these years for companions Luke and Aristarchus (Acts 27:2), Timothy (Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:1), Tychicus (Eph. 6: 21), Epaphroditus (Phil. 4:18), and John Mark (Col. 4:10). (See PAUL ¯T0002871.) Beneath this city are extensive galleries, called "catacombs," which were used from about the time of the apostles (one of the inscriptions found in them bears the date A.D. 71) for some three hundred years as places of refuge in the time of persecution, and also of worship and burial. About four thousand inscriptions have been found in the catacombs. These give an interesting insight into the history of the church at Rome down to the time of Constantine.
Rome in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Paul's first visit was between the restoration by Augustus, whose boast was "he had found the city of brick and left it of marble" (Suet., Aug. 28), and that by Nero after its conflagration. His residence was near the "barrack" (praetorium) attached to the imperial palace on the Palatine (Philemon 1:13). (See PALACE.) Modern Rome lies N. of ancient Rome, covering the Campus Martius, or "plain" to the N. of the seven hills; the latter (Revelation 17:9), the nucleus of the old city, stand on the left bank. On the opposite side of the Tiber is the higher ridge, Janiculum, also the Vatican. The Mamertine prison where legend makes Peter and Paul to have been fellow prisoners for nine months is still under the church of Giuseppe dei Falegnani; but see 2 Timothy 4:11. (See PETER.) The chapel on the Ostian road marks the legendary site of the two parting for martyrdom. The church of Paolo alle Tre Fontane on the Ostian road is the alleged site of Paul's martyrdom. The church of Pietro in Montorio on the Janiculum is that of Peter's martyrdom. The chapel "Domine quo Vadis?" on the Appian road marks where Peter in the legend met the Lord, as he was fleeing from martyrdom. (See PETER.) The bodies of the two apostles first lay in the catacombs ("cemeteries" or sleeping places: Eusebius, H. E. ii. 25); then Paul's body was buried by the Ostian road, Peter's beneath the dome of the famous basilica called after him (Caius, in Eusebius, H. E. ii. 25). All this is mere tradition. Real sites are the Colosseum and Nero's gardens in the Vatican near to Peter's; in them Christians wrapped in beasts' skins were torn by dogs, or clothed in inflammable stuffs were burnt as torches during the midnight games! Others were crucified (Tacitus, Annals xv. 44). The catacombs, "subterranean galleries" (whether sand pits or excavations originally is uncertain), from eight to ten feet, high, and four to six wide extending for miles, near the Appian and Nomentane ways, were used by the early Christians as places of refuge, worship, and burial. The oldest inscription is A.D. 71; thence to A.D. 300 less than thirty Christian inscriptions are known bearing dates, 4,000 undated are considered anterior to Constantine.
Rome in Hitchcock's Bible Names strength; power
Rome in Naves Topical Bible (The capital of the Roman Empire) -Jews excluded from, by Claudius Caesar Ac 18:2 -Paul's visit to See PAUL -Visited by Onesiphorus 2Ti 1:16,17 -Paul desires to preach in Ro 1:15 -Abominations in Ro 1:18-32 -Christians in Ro 16:5-17; Php 1:12-18; 4:22; 2Ti 4:21 -Paul's letter to the Christians in Ro 1:7 -Paul testifies the gospel of Christ to them Ro 1:16 -The condemnation of the Gentiles Ro 1:18 -The condemnation of the Jews Ro 2 -God's judgment against all sin Ro 2:6; 3 -Justification by faith in Jesus Christ Ro 3:24; 4; 5 -The faith of Abraham Ro 4 -The fruits of faith Ro 5:7 -The works of the flesh and the Spirit Ro 8 -God's supreme power over everyone Ro 9; 11 -The righteousness the law and of faith Ro 10 -Exhorted humility, love, and good works Ro 12 -To obey magistrates Ro 13 -For mutual forbearance Ro 14:15 -Requested to greet various brethren Ro 16
Rome in Smiths Bible Dictionary the famous capital of the ancient world, is situated on the Tiber at a distance of about 15 miles from its mouth. The "seven hills," Re 17:9 which formed the nucleus of the ancient city stand on the left bank. On the opposite side of the river rises the far higher side of the Janiculum. Here from very early times was a fortress with a suburb beneath it extending to the river. Modern Rome lies to the north of the ancient city, covering with its principal portion the plain to the north of the seven hills, once known as the Campus Martius, and on the opposite bank extending over the low ground beneath the Vatican to the north of the ancient Janiculum. Rome is not mentioned in the Bible except in the books of Maccabees and in three books of the New Testament, viz., the Acts, the Epistle to the Romans and the Second Epistle to Timothy. 1. Jewish inhabitants. the conquests of Pompey seem to have given rise to the first settlement of Jews at Rome. The Jewish king Aristobulus and his son formed part of Pompey's triumph, and many Jewish captives and immigrants were brought to Rome at that time. A special district was assigned to them, not on the site of the modern Ghetto, between the Capitol and the island of the Tiber, but across the Tiber. Many of these Jews were made freedmen. Julius Caesar showed them some kindness; they were favored also by Augustus, and by Tiberius during the latter part of his reign. It is chiefly in connection with St. Paul's history that Rome comes before us in the Bible. In illustration of that history it may be useful to give some account of Rome in the time of Nero, the "Caesar" to whom St. Paul appealed, and in whose reign he suffered martyrdom. 2. The city in Paul's time. --The city at that time must be imagined as a large and irregular mass of buildings unprotected by an outer wall. It had long outgrown the old Servian wall; but the limits of the suburbs cannot be exactly defined. Neither the nature of the buildings nor the configuration of the ground was such as to give a striking appearance to the city viewed from without. "Ancient Rome had neither cupola nor camyanile," and the hills, never lofty or imposing, would present, when covered with the buildings and streets of a huge city, a confused appearance like the hills of modern London, to which they have sometimes been compared. The visit of St. Paul lies between two famous epochs in the history of the city, viz, its restoration by Augustus and its restoration by Nero. The boast of Augustus is well known, "that he found the city of brick, and left it of marble." Some parts of the city, especially the Forum and Campus Martius, must have presented a magnificent appearance, of which Niebur's "Lectures on Roman History," ii. 177, will give a general idea; but many of the principal buildings which attract the attention of modern travellers in ancient Rome were not yet built. The streets were generally narrow and winding, flanked by densely crowded lodging-houses (insulae) of enormous height. Augustus found it necessary to limit their height to 70 feet. St, Paul's first visit to Rome took place before the Neronian conflagration but even after the restoration of the city which followed upon that event, many of the old evils continued. The population of the city has been variously estimated. Probably Gibbon's estimate of 1,200,000 is nearest to the truth. One half of the population consisted, in all probability, of slaves. The larger part of the remainder consisted of pauper citizens supported in idleness by the miserable system of public gratuities. There appears to have been no middle class, and no free industrial population. Side by side with the wretched classes just mentioned...
Rome in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE rom: I. DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION 1. Original Roman State 2. The Struggle between Patricians and Plebeians 3. The Senate and Magistrates 4. Underlying Principles II. EXTENSION OF ROMAN SOVEREIGNTY III. THE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT 1. Imperial Authority 2. Three Classes of Citizens IV. ROMAN RELIGION 1. Deities 2. Religious Decay V. ROME AND THE JEWS 1. Judea under Roman Procurators and Governors 2. Jewish Proselytism VI. ROME AND THE CHRISTIANS 1. Introduction of Christianity 2. Tolerance and Proscription 3. Persecution LITERATURE Rome (Latin and Italian, Roma; Rhome): The capital of the Roman republic and empire, later the center of Lot Christendom, and since 1871 capital of the kingdom of Italy, is situated mainly on the left bank of the Tiber about 15 miles from the Mediterranean Sea in 41 degrees 53' 54 inches North latitude and 12 degrees 0' 12 inches longitude East of Greenwich. It would be impossible in the limited space assigned to this article to give even a comprehensive outline of the ancient history of the Eternal City. It will suit the general purpose of the work to consider the relations of the Roman government and society with the Jews and Christians, and, in addition, to present a rapid survey of the earlier development of Roman institutions and power, so as to provide the necessary historical setting for the appreciation of the more essential subjects. I. Development of the Republican Constitution. 1. Original Roman State: The traditional chronology for the earliest period of Roman history is altogether unreliable, partly because the Gauls, in ravaging the city in 390 BC, destroyed the monuments which might have offered faithful testimony of the earlier period (Livy vi.1). It is known that there was a settlement on the site of Rome before the traditional date of the founding (753 BC). The original Roman state was the product of the coalition of a number of adjacent clan-communities, whose names were perpetuated in the Roman genres, or groups of imaginary kindred, a historical survival which had lost all significance in the period of authentic history. The chieftains of the associated clans composed the primitive senate or council of elders, which exercised sovereign authority. But as is customary in the development of human society a military or monarchical regime succeeded the looser patriarchal or sacerdotal organs of authority. This second stage may be identified with the legendary rule of the Tarquins, which was probably a period of Etruscan domination. The confederacy of clans was welded...
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