Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online
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David
        beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of
        Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life.
        His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash
        of 2 Sam. 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know
        that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1
        Sam. 16:12; 17:42).
        His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on
        the uplands of Judah. From what we know of his after history,
        doubtless he frequently beguiled his time, when thus engaged,
        with his shepherd's flute, while he drank in the many lessons
        taught him by the varied scenes spread around him. His first
        recorded exploits were his encounters with the wild beasts of
        the field. He mentions that with his own unaided hand he slew a
        lion and also a bear, when they came out against his flock,
        beating them to death in open conflict with his club (1 Sam.
        17:34, 35).
        While David, in the freshness of ruddy youth, was thus engaged
        with his flocks, Samuel paid an unexpected visit to Bethlehem,
        having been guided thither by divine direction (1 Sam. 16:1-13).
        There he offered up sacrifice, and called the elders of Israel
        and Jesse's family to the sacrificial meal. Among all who
        appeared before him he failed to discover the one he sought.
        David was sent for, and the prophet immediately recognized him
        as the chosen of God, chosen to succeed Saul, who was now
        departing from the ways of God, on the throne of the kingdom. He
        accordingly, in anticipation, poured on his head the anointing
        oil. David went back again to his shepherd life, but "the Spirit
        of the Lord came upon David from that day forward," and "the
        Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul" (1 Sam. 16:13, 14).
        Not long after this David was sent for to soothe with his harp
        the troubled spirit of Saul, who suffered from a strange
        melancholy dejection. He played before the king so skilfully
        that Saul was greatly cheered, and began to entertain great
        affection for the young shepherd. After this he went home to
        Bethlehem. But he soon again came into prominence. The armies of
        the Philistines and of Israel were in battle array in the valley
        of Elah, some 16 miles south-west of Bethlehem; and David was
        sent by his father with provisions for his three brothers, who
        were then fighting on the side of the king. On his arrival in
        the camp of Israel, David (now about twenty years of age) was
        made aware of the state of matters when the champion of the
        Philistines, Goliath of Gath, came forth to defy Israel. David
        took his sling, and with a well-trained aim threw a stone "out
        of the brook," which struck the giant's forehead, so that he
        fell senseless to the ground. David then ran and slew him, and
        cut off his head with his own sword (1 Sam. 17). The result was
        a great victory to the Israelites, who pursued the Philistines
        to the gates of Gath and Ekron.
        David's popularity consequent on this heroic exploit awakened
        Saul's jealousy (1 Sam. 18:6-16), which he showed in various
        ways. He conceived a bitter hatred toward him, and by various
        stratagems sought his death (1 Sam. 18-30). The deep-laid plots
        of the enraged king, who could not fail to observe that David
        "prospered exceedingly," all proved futile, and only endeared
        the young hero the more to the people, and very specially to
        Jonathan, Saul's son, between whom and David a life-long warm
        friendship was formed.
        A fugitive. To escape from the vengeance of Saul, David fled
        to Ramah (1 Sam. 19:12-18) to Samuel, who received him, and he
        dwelt among the sons of the prophets, who were there under
        Samuel's training. It is supposed by some that the sixth,
        seventh, and eleventh Psalms were composed by him at this time.
        This place was only 3 miles from the residence of Saul, who soon
        discovered whither the fugitive had gone, and tried
        ineffectually to bring him back. Jonathan made a fruitless
        effort to bring his father to a better state of mind toward
        David (1 Sam. 20), who, being made aware of the fact, saw no
        hope of safety but in flight to a distance. We accordingly find
        him first at Nob (21:1-9) and then at Gath, the chief city of
        the Philistines. The king of the Philistines would not admit him
        into his service, as he expected that he would, and David
        accordingly now betook himself to the stronghold of Adullam
        (22:1-4; 1 Chr. 12:8-18). Here in a short time 400 men gathered
        around him and acknowledged him as their leader. It was at this
        time that David, amid the harassment and perils of his position,
        cried, "Oh that one would give me drink of the water of the well
        of Bethlehem;" when three of his heroes broke through the lines
        of the Philistines and brought him the water for which he longed
        (2 Sam. 23:13-17), but which he would not drink.
        In his rage at the failure of all his efforts to seize David,
        Saul gave orders for the massacre of the entire priestly family
        at Nob, "persons who wore a linen ephod", to the number of
        eighty-five persons, who were put to death by Doeg the Edomite.
        The sad tidings of the massacre were brought to David by
        Abiathar, a son of Ahimelech, the only one who escaped. Compare
        Ps. 52.
        Hearing that Keilah, a town on the western frontier, was
        harassed by the Philistines, David with his men relieved it (1
        Sam. 23:1-14); and then, for fear of Saul, he fled to the
        strongholds in the "hill country" of Judah. Compare Ps. 31. While
        encamped there, in the forest in the district of Ziph, he was
        visited by Jonathan, who spoke to him words of encouragement
        (23:16-18). The two now parted never to meet again. Saul
        continued his pursuit of David, who narrowly escaped from him at
        this time, and fled to the crags and ravines of Engedi, on the
        western shore of the Dead Sea (1 Sam. 23:29). Here Saul, who
        still pursued him with his army, narrowly escaped, through the
        generous forbearance of David, and was greatly affected by what
        David had done for him. He returned home from pursuing him, and
        David betook himself to Maon, where, with his 600 men, he
        maintained himself by contributions gathered from the district.
        Here occurred the incident connected with Nabal and his wife
        Abigail (1 Sam. 25), whom David married after Nabal's death.
        Saul again went forth (1 Sam. 26) in pursuit of David, who had
        hid himself "in the hill Hachilah, which is before Jeshimon," in
        the wilderness of Ziph, and was a second time spared through his
        forbearance. He returned home, professing shame and penitence
        for the way in which he had treated David, and predicting his
        elevation to the throne.
        Fighting against Israel. Harassed by the necessity of moving
        from place to place through fear of Saul, David once more sought
        refuge among the Philistines (1 Sam. 27). He was welcomed by the
        king, who assigned him Ziklag as his residence. Here David lived
        among his followers for some time as an independent chief
        engaged in frequent war with the Amalekites and other tribes on
        the south of Judah.
        Achish summoned David with his men to join his army against
        Saul; but the lords of the Philistines were suspicious of
        David's loyalty, and therefore he was sent back to Ziklag, which
        he found to his dismay may had been pillaged and burnt during
        his brief absence. David pursued after the raiders, the
        Amalekites, and completely routed them. On his return to Ziklag
        tidings reached him of Saul's death (2 Sam. 1). An Amalekite
        brought Saul's crown and bracelet and laid them at his feet.
        David and his men rent their clothes and mourned for Saul, who
        had been defeated in battle near Mount Gilboa. David composed a
        beautiful elegy, the most beautiful of all extant Hebrew odes, a
        "lamentation over Saul and over Jonathan his son" (2 Sam.
        1:18-27). It bore the title of "The Bow," and was to be taught
        to the children, that the memory of Saul and Jonathan might be
        preserved among them. "Behold, it is written in the book of
        Jasher" (q.v.).
        David king over Judah. David and his men now set out for
        Hebron under divine direction (2 Sam. 2:1-4). There they were
        cordially welcomed, and he was at once anointed as king. He was
        now about thirty years of age.
        But his title to the throne was not undisputed. Abner took
        Ish-bosheth, Saul's only remaining son, over the Jordan to
        Mahanaim, and there crowned him as king. Then began a civil war
        in Israel. The first encounter between the two opposing armies,
        led on the one side by Abner, and on the other by Joab, took
        place at the pool of Gibeon. It resulted in the defeat of Abner.
        Other encounters, however, between Israel and Judah followed (2
        Sam. 3:1, 5), but still success was on the side of David. For
        the space of seven and a half years David reigned in Hebron.
        Abner now sided with David, and sought to promote his
        advancement; but was treacherously put to death by Joab in
        revenge for his having slain his brother Asahel at Gibeon
        (3:22-39). This was greatly to David's regret. He mourned for
        the death of Abner. Shortly after this Ish-bosheth was also
        treacherously put to death by two Canaanites of Beeroth; and
        there being now no rival, David was anointed king over all
        Israel (4:1-12).
        David king over all Israel (2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Chr. 11:1-3). The
        elders of Israel now repaired to Hebron and offered allegiance
        to David in name of all the people, among whom the greatest
        enthusiasm prevailed. He was anointed king over all Israel, and
        sought out a new seat of government, more suitable than Hebron,
        as the capital of his empire. At this time there was a Jebusite
        fortress, "the stronghold", on the hill of Zion, called also
        Jebus. This David took from the Jebusites, and made it Israel's
        capital, and established here his residence, and afterwards
        built for himself a palace by the aid of Tyrian tradesmen. The
        Philistines, who had for some time observed a kind of truce, now
        made war against David; but were defeated in battle at a place
        afterwards called, in remembrance of the victory, Baal-perazim.
        Again they invaded the land, and were a second time routed by
        him. He thus delivered Israel from their enemies.
        David now resolved to bring up the ark of the covenant to his
        new capital (2 Sam. 6). It was in the house of Abinadab at
        Kirjath-jearim, about 7 miles from Jerusalem, where it had been
        for many years, from the time when the Philistines had sent it
        home (1 Sam. 6; 7). In consequence of the death of Uzzah (for it
        was a divine ordinance that only the Levites should handle the
        ark, Num. 4), who had put forth his hand to steady the ark when
        the cart in which it was being conveyed shook by reason of the
        roughness of the road, David stayed the procession, and conveyed
        the ark into the house of Obed-edom, a Philistine from Gath.
        After three months David brought the ark from the house of
        Obed-edom up to Jerusalem. Compare Ps. 24. Here it was placed in a
        new tent or tabernacle which David erected for the purpose.
        About seventy years had passed since it had stood in the
        tabernacle at Shiloh. The old tabernacle was now at Gibeah, at
        which Zadok ministered. David now (1 Chr. 16) carefully set in
        order all the ritual of divine worship at Jerusalem, along with
        Abiathar the high priest. A new religious era began. The service
        of praise was for the first time introduced into public worship.
        Zion became henceforth "God's holy hill."
        David's wars. David now entered on a series of conquests which
        greatly extended and strengthened his kingdom (2 Sam. 8). In a
        few years the whole territory from the Euphrates to the river of
        Egypt, and from Gaza on the west to Thapsacus on the east, was
        under his sway (2 Sam. 8:3-13; 10).
        David's fall. He had now reached the height of his glory. He
        ruled over a vast empire, and his capital was enriched with the
        spoils of many lands. But in the midst of all this success he
        fell, and his character became stained with the sin of adultery
        (2 Sam. 11:2-27). It has been noted as characteristic of the
        Bible that while his military triumphs are recorded in a few
        verses, the sad story of his fall is given in detail, a story
        full of warning, and therefore recorded. This crime, in the
        attempt to conceal it, led to anoter. He was guilty of murder.
        Uriah, whom he had foully wronged, an officer of the Gibborim,
        the corps of heros (23:39), was, by his order, "set in the front
        of the hottest battle" at the siege of Rabbah, in order that he
        might be put to death. Nathan the prophet (2 Sam. 7:1-17;
        12:1-23) was sent by God to bring home his crimes to the
        conscience of the guilty monarch. He became a true penitent. He
        bitterly bewailed his sins before God. The thirty-second and
        fifty-first Psalms reveal the deep struggles of his soul, and
        his spiritual recovery.
        Bathsheba became his wife after Uriah's death. Her first-born
        son died, according to the word of the prophet. She gave birth
        to a second son, whom David called Solomon, and who ultimately
        succeeded him on the throne (2 Sam. 12:24, 25).
        Peace. After the successful termination of all his wars, David
        formed the idea of building a temple for the ark of God. This he
        was not permitted to carry into execution, because he had been a
        man of war. God, however, sent Nathan to him with a gracious
        message (2 Sam. 7:1-16). On receiving it he went into the
        sanctuary, the tent where the ark was, and sat before the Lord,
        and poured out his heart in words of devout thanksgiving
        (18-29). The building of the temple was reserved for his son
        Solomon, who would be a man of peace (1 Chr. 22:9; 28:3).
        A cloudy evening. Hitherto David's carrer had been one of
        great prosperity and success. Now cloudy and dark days came. His
        eldest son Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam of Jezreel, was
        guilty of a great and shameful crime (2 Sam. 13). This was the
        beginning of the disasters of his later years. After two years
        Absalom terribly avenged the crime against Tamar, and put Amnon
        to death. This brought sore trouble to David's heart. Absalom,
        afraid of the consequences of his guilt, fled to Geshur beyond
        Jordan, where he remained for three years, when he was brought
        back through the intrigue of Joab (2 Sam. 14).
        After this there fell upon the land the calamity of three
        years' famine (2 Sam. 21:1-14). This was soon after followed by
        a pestilence, brought upon the land as a punishment for David's
        sinful pride in numbering the people (2 Sam. 24), in which no
        fewer than 70,000 perished in the space of three days.
        Rebellion of Absalom. The personal respect for David was sadly
        lowered by the incident of Bathsheba. There was a strong popular
        sentiment against the taking of the census, and the outburst of
        the plague in connection with it deepened the feeling of
        jealously that had begun to manifest itself among some of the
        tribes against David. Absalom, taking full advantage of this
        state of things, gradually gained over the people, and at length
        openly rebelled against his father, and usurped the throne.
        Ahithophel was Absalom's chief counsellor. The revolt began in
        Hebron, the capital of Judah. Absalom was there proclaimed king.
        David was now in imminent danger, and he left Jerusalem (2 Sam.
        15:13-20), and once more became a fugitive. It was a momentous
        day in Israel. The incidents of it are recorded with a fulness
        of detail greater than of any other day in Old Testament
        history. David fled with his followers to Mahanarm, on the east
        of Jordan. An unnatural civil war broke out. After a few weeks
        the rival armies were mustered and organized. They met in
        hostile array at the wood of Ephraim (2 Sam. 18:1-8). Absalom's
        army was defeated, and himself put to death by the hand of Joab
        (9-18). The tidings of the death of his rebellious son filled
        the heart of David with the most poignant grief. He "went up to
        the chamber over the gate, and wept" (33), giving utterance to
        the heart-broken cry, "Would God I had died for thee, O Absalom,
        my son, my son!" Peace was now restored, and David returned to
        Jerusalem and resumed the direction of affairs. An unhappy
        dispute arose between the men of Judah and the men of Israel
        (19:41-43). Sheba, a Benjamite, headed a revolt of the men of
        Israel. He was pursued to Abelbeth-maachah, and was there put to
        death, and so the revolt came to an end.
        The end. After the suppression of the rebellion of Absalom and
        that of Sheba, ten comparatively peaceful years of David's life
        passed away. During those years he seems to have been
        principally engaged in accumulating treasures of every kind for
        the great temple at Jerusalem, which it was reserved to his
        successor to build (1 Chr. 22; 28; 29), a house which was to be
        "exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all
        countries" (22:5). The exciting and laborious life he had spent,
        and the dangers and trials through which he had passed, had left
        him an enfeebled man, prematurely old. It became apparent that
        his life was now drawing to its close. A new palace conspiracy
        broke out as to who should be his successor. Joab favoured
        Adonijah. The chiefs of his party met at the "Fuller's spring,"
        in the valley of Kidron, to proclaim him king; but Nathan
        hastened on a decision on the part of David in favour of
        Solomon, and so the aim of Adonijah's party failed. Solomon was
        brought to Jerusalem, and was anointed king and seated on his
        father's throne (1 Kings 1:11-53). David's last words are a
        grand utterance, revealing his unfailing faith in God, and his
        joyful confidence in his gracious covenant promises (2 Sam.
        23:1-7).
        After a reign of forty years and six months (2 Sam. 5:5; 1
        Chr. 3:4) David died (B.C. 1015) at the age of seventy years,
        "and was buried in the city of David." His tomb is still pointed
        out on Mount Zion.
        Both in his prophetical and in his regal character David was a
        type of the Messiah (1 Sam. 16:13). The book of Psalms commonly
        bears the title of the "Psalms of David," from the circumstance
        that he was the largest contributor (about eighty psalms) to the
        collection. (See PSALMS T0003013.)
        "The greatness of David was felt when he was gone. He had
        lived in harmony with both the priesthood and the prophets; a
        sure sign that the spirit of his government had been throughly
        loyal to the higher aims of the theocracy. The nation had not
        been oppressed by him, but had been left in the free enjoyment
        of its ancient liberties. As far as his power went he had
        striven to act justly to all (2 Sam. 8:15). His weak indulgence
        to his sons, and his own great sin besides, had been bitterly
        atoned, and were forgotten at his death in the remembrance of
        his long-tried worth. He had reigned thirty-three years in
        Jerusalem and seven and a half at Hebron (2 Sam. 5:5). Israel at
        his accession had reached the lowest point of national
        depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory
        assailed by the Philistines. But he had left it an imperial
        power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria. The
        sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned
        from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to
        the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.
Bibliography Information
Easton, Matthew George. M.A., D.D., "Biblical Meaning for 'David' Eastons Bible Dictionary".
bible-history.com - Eastons; 1897.

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