1st Century BC - Ancient History Timeline
100 - 4 BC
Near East Egypt Persia Europe Greece Rome India Far
98 BC: Rome - Lucretius, author of On the Nature of Things, is the most renowned
of the Roman Epicureans. Epicureanism is one of the most notable influences the
Greek world bestows on Roman civilization. Lucretius' poetry explains the
Epicurean beliefs of obtaining the "good life" through peace of mind and
disbelief in the fear of the supernatural and any afterlife. He dies in 55 BC.
82 BC: Rome - Following the death of Marius, the ruthless aristocrat Sulla is
appointed dictator and retires after three years. Because Sulla grants full
control of the Roman empire to the aristocracy, his efforts are challenged by
two leaders in defense of the Roman people, Julius Caesar and Pompey. These two
leaders join their efforts to seize the Roman government but soon become rivals.
70 BC: Rome - A close friend of Horace, the poet VIRGIL (or VERGIL) authors The
Eclogues and The Aeneid. He is later considered a prophet of CHRISTIANITY in the
Middle Ages. He dies in 19 BC.
65 BC: Rome - Horace authors the Odes, which glorify Roman imperialism. Horace's
literature exemplifies the fusion of Epicureanism and STOICISM. He dies in 8 BC.
52 BC: Rome - Pompey is elected as sole consul by the Senate,
and Caesar is declared an enemy of the Roman Republic. Caesar, at first
stationed in Gaul, marches into Rome in 49 BC, and in 48 BC, the two men war at
Pharsalus in Greece. With the defeat of Pompey, Caesar campaigns in Egypt and
Asia Minor before returning to Rome.
46 BC: Rome - Caesar is appointed dictator and assumes total control from the
Senate. On a charge that he intends to make himself king, he is assassinated on
the Ides of March (44 BC) by a group leadership led by Brutus and Cassius. Among
Caesar's contributions to Rome are the 365 day calendar with an extra day every
four years, agricultural wealth for Rome and urban culture in the West due to
his efforts to expand westward, and the cultural assimilation of the various
regions under Roman rule.
42 BC: Rome - Having learned of Caesar's death while stationed in Gaul, Octavian
returns to Rome to collect his inheritance as sole heir to his granduncle's
empire. Upon his arrival he aligns himself with two of Caesar's friends, Mark
Antony and Lepidus, in an attempt to overthrow the aristocratic group
responsible for Caesar's murder. Octavian and his allies defeat Brutus and
Cassias near Philippi. Following the victory, a quarrel develops between
Octavian and his forces in the west and Mark Antony and his new ally, Cleopatra.
31 BC: Rome - Antony and Cleopatra are defeated by Octavian, ensuring the
prosperity of Greek ideals without threat from the eastern principles of
despotism. His victory begins a new Roman era, called the Principate or Early
Empire. The Senate and army bestow the name of Augustus and emperor ("victorious
general") upon Octavian, and he is commonly referred to as Augustus. Having
gained more land for Rome than any other ruler before him, Augustus dies in 14
CE with his rule having lasted 44 years.
1 AD: Rome - Though the exact year is not known, a sixth century monk attributes
this time to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth in Judea. The first four books of
the New Testament (written later) are the only surviving account of Jesus'
career which consists of preaching love of God and one's neighbor, healing the
sick, teaching humility by example and professing the end of the world and the
establishment of heaven.
Chronological Table of the Ancient World
Ps 33:8-9 "Let all the earth fear the LORD; Let all the inhabitants of the
world stand in awe of Him, For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and
it stood fast"
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