Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online
Bible History Online



Smith's Bible Dictionary
 

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X    Y    Z   



Medicine
        Egypt was the earliest home of medical and other skill for the region of the Mediterranean basin, and every Egyptian mummy of the more expensive and elaborate sort involved a process of anatomy. Still we have no trace of any philosophical or rational system of Egyptian origin; still medicine in Egypt was a mere art or profession. Compared with the wild countries around them, however, the Egyptians must have seemed incalculably advanced. Representations of early Egyptian surgery apparently occur on some of the monuments of Beni-Hassan. Those who have assisted at the opening of a mummy have noticed that the teeth exhibited a dentistry not inferior in execution to the work of the best modern experts. This confirms the statement of Herodotus that every part of the body was studied by a distinct practitioner. The reputation of Egypt's practitioners in historical times was such that both Cyrus and Darius sent to that country for physicians or surgeons. Of midwifery we have a distinct notice, Ex 1:1 and of women as its Practitioners, which fact may also be verified from the scriptures. The scrupulous attention paid to the dead was favorable to the health of the living. The practice of physic was not among the Jews a privilege of the priesthood. Any one might practice it, and this publicity must have kept it pure. Rank and honor are said to be the portion of the physician, and his office to be from the Lord. Ecclus. 38:1,3,12. To bring down the subject to the period of the New Testament, St. Luke, "the beloved physician," who practiced at Antioch whilst the body was his care, could hardly have failed to be convenient with all the leading opinions current down to his own time. Among special diseases named in the Old Testament is ophthalmia, Ge 29:17 which is perhaps more common in Syria and Egypt than anywhere else in the world; especially in the fig season, the juice of the newly-ripe fruit having the power of giving it. It may occasion partial or total blindness. 2Ki 6:18 The "burning boil," Le 13:23 is merely marked by the notion of an effect resembling that of fire, like our "carbuncle." The diseases rendered "scab" and "scurvy" in Le 21:20; 22:22; De 28:27 may be almost any skin disease. Some of these may be said to approach the type of leprosy. The "botch (shechin) of Egypt," De 28:27 is so vague a term as to yield a most uncertain sense. In De 28:35 is mentioned a disease attacking the "knees and legs," consisting in a "sore botch which cannot be healed," but extended, in the sequel of the verse, from the "sole of the foot to the top of the head." The Elephantiasis gracorum is what now passes under the name of "leprosy;" the lepers, e.g., of the: huts near the Zion gate of modern Jerusalem are elephantissiacs. [LEPROSY] The disease of King Antiochus, 2 Macc. 9:5-10, etc., was that of a boil breeding worms. The case of the widow's son restored by Elisha,
        2Ki 4:19 was probably one of sunstroke. The palsy meets us in the New Testament only, and in features too familiar to need special remark. palsy, gangrene and cancer were common in all the countries familiar to the scriptural writers, and neither differs from the modern disease of the same name. Mention is also made of the bites and stings of poisonous reptiles. Nu 21:6 Among surgical instruments or pieces of apparatus the following only are alluded to in Scripture: A cutting instrument, supposed a "sharp stone," Ex 4:25 the "knife" of Jos 5:2 The "awl" of Ex 21:6 was probably a surgical instrument. The "roller to bind" of Eze 30:21 was for a broken limb, and is still used. A scraper, for which the "potsherd" of Job was a substitute. Job 2:8; Ex 30:23-25 is a prescription in form. An occasional trace occurs of some chemical knowledge, e.g. the calcination of the gold by Moses, Ex 32:20 the effect of "vinegar upon natron," Pr 25:20; comp. Jere 2:22
        The mention of "the apothecary," Ex 30:35; Ec 10:1 and of the merchant in "powders," So 3:6 shows that a distinct and important branch of trade was set up in these wares, in which, as at a modern druggist's, articles of luxury, etc., are combined with the remedies of sickness. Among the most favorite of external remedies has always been the bath. There were special occasions on which the bath was ceremonially enjoined. The Pharisees and Essenes aimed at scrupulous strictness in all such rules. Mt 15:2; Mr 7:5; Lu 11:38 River-bathing was common but houses soon began to include a bathroom. Le 15:13; 2Sa 11:2; 2Ki 5:10


Bibliography Information
Smith, William, Dr "Meaning and Definition for 'medicine' in Smiths Bible Dictionary".
bible-history.com - Smith's; 1901.

Copyright Information
© Smith's Bible Dictionary


Smith's Bible Dictionary Home
Bible History Online Home

 

Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE)
Online Bible (KJV)
Naves Topical Bible
Smith's Bible Dictionary
Easton's Bible Dictionary
Schaff's Bible Dictionary
Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Matthew Henry Bible Commentary
Hitchcock's Bible Dictionary

Related Bible History

Popular and Trending:

Meaning and Definition of Pharaoh, Who Was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, Did God Harden Pharaoh's Heart, Which Pharaoh Reigned during the Time of Joseph and Moses, How Many Watches of the Night, What were the Jewish Watches of the Night, What Is the Meaning of the Fourth Watch, Midnight and the Cock Crowing, What Were Thorns and Thistles in the Bible, What were the Different Thorns and Thistles, How Many Different Plants And Trees Had Thorns In the Time of Jesus, Where Was Nineveh, Definition and Meaning of Nineveh, Who Were the Assyrians, Which the Syrian King Made Nineveh Their Capital, Which Palaces Were Nineveh, Did Archaeologists Discovered Nineveh, What is the meaning of Edom and Idumea, Where the Edomites Descendents of Esau, Was Herod and Edomite, When was Petra A City of Edom, Why Did the Edomites Fail When They Attacked Israel After Jerusalem Fell, Why did Noah send a Raven? Was The Biblical Raven A Crow, Why Are Raven's Black, What Was the Raven in the Mosaic Law, Do Raven's Attack the Eyes, What was a Crown of Thorns, Which Thorny Shrub or Plant Was the Crown of Thorns Made from, What Color Was the Crown of Thorns, in Matthew 27:29 Why did the Roman soldiers mock Jesus using a Crown of Thorns, What was a Gergesenes, Where Was Gadara And What Is the Modern Name, Where Was the Place That Jesus Healed the Two Demon Possessed Man, What Is the Meaning of Gadarenes, What Is a Demoniac, What were the 10 Plagues, What Does the Bible Say about Each of the 10 Plagues, Did God Use the 10 Plagues to Mock the Gods of Egypt, in Exodus 3-12 How Are the Plagues Described, Was the Passover Part of the 10th Plague, Where was Zoar, What Is the Biblical Meaning of okaythe Land of Zoar, Has Zoar Been Discovered, Where Was Zoar in Relation to Sodom and Gomorrah