Timelines and Charts

Historical and Biblical Time Chart

          by Rusty Russell

HISTORICAL TIME CHART (Biblical and Historical) 2090 BC - 150 AD
Note: Biblical dating follows that of several scholars in my Bibliography, esp. Whitcomb and Boyer. Some dates are uncertain. There is also some overlap, especially in the case of the judges and the kings.

2090   Abraham called by God
2067   Isaac born
2007   Jacob born
1992   Abraham dies
1944   Isaac dies
1877   Jacob arrives in Egypt
1860   Jacob dies in Egypt
1806   Joseph dies in Egypt
1730   Hyksos invasion of Egypt; Hebrews bondage begins.
1728   Hammurabi of Sumer born
1570   Hyksos expelled from Egypt; Amose I founds 18th dynasty
1548   Amenhotep I becomes pharaoh of Egypt
         Hebrew midwives ordered to destroy all Hebrew male children
1528   Thutmose I becomes pharaoh
         All newborn Hebrew males are to be cast into the Nile
1525   Moses born
1510   Thutmose II becomes pharaoh
1504   Hatshepsut becomes pharaoh
1487   Moses flees Egypt
1483   Thutmose III becomes pharaoh
         The great oppression of the Hebrews begins
1450   Amenhotep II becomes pharaoh
1447   The Exodus begins
1446   The Tabernacle constructed
1423   Thutmose IV becomes pharaoh
1410   Amenhotep III becomes pharaoh
1407    Moses dies; Joshua conquers Canaan    
1400    Conquest of Canaan completed    
1377    Akhnaton becomes pharaoh; inaugurates monotheistic reforms     
1375    Othniel becomes judge    
1319    Ehud becomes judge    
1318    Rameses I founds the 19th dynasty in Egypt    
1240    Deborah and Barak judge Israel    
1194    Gideon becomes judge    
1167    Eli born    
1155    Abimelech usurps power in Israel    
1152    Tola becomes judge    
1131    Jair becomes judge    
1109    Eli becomes priest
1105    Samuel born
1089    Jephthah becomes judge    
1083    Ibzan becomes judge    
1071    Elon becomes judge        
          Samson becomes judge         
1069    Samuel begins to minister   
1066    Abdon becomes judge         
1043    Saul becomes king        
1011    Saul and Jonathan slain         
          David becomes king of Judah   
1004    David becomes king over all Israel         
971    Solomon ascends the throne         
966    Solomon begins to build the Temple in Jerusalem         
945    Sheshhonk ( Shishak) becomes pharaoh of Egypt         
931    Rehoboam becomes king of Israel and Judah         
         Jeroboam rebels; sets Up a rival kingdom in the north    
913    Abijam becomes king of Judah    
911    Asa becomes king of Judah
910    Nadab becomes king of Israel    
909    Bausha becomes king of Israel
890    Benhadad becomes king of Syria
886    Elah becomes king of Israel
         Zimri becomes king of Israel     
885    Tibni becomes king of Israel
883    Ashurbanipal II becomes king of Assyria
880    Omri becomes king of Israel
874    Ahab becomes king of Israel
873    Jehoshaphat becomes king of Judah
859    Shalmaneser III becomes king of Assyria
858    Elijah begins to prophesy
853    Ahaziah becomes king of Israel
         Jehoram becomes king of Judah
852    Joram becomes king of Israel
         Elisha begins to prophesy
841    Jehu becomes king of Israel
         Ahaziah becomes king of Judah
         Athaliah seizes the throne of Judah
         Hazael becomes king of Syria
835    Joash becomes king of Judah
830    Joel prophecies
814    Jehoahaz becomes king of Israel
801    Benhadad II becomes king of Syria
798    Jehoash becomes king of Israel
796    Amaziah becomes king of Judah
790    Uzziah becomes co-regent of Judah
783    Shalmaneser IV becomes king of Assyria
783    Jonah begins his ministry
782    Jeroboam II becomes king of Israel
776    Olympic games begin in Greece
767    Uzziah becomes full king of Judah
764    Amos begins to prophesy
755    Hosea begins to prophesy
753    Rome founded
         Zechariah becomes king of Israel
752    Shallum becomes king of Israel
         Menahem becomes king of Israel
745    Tiglath-pileser III becomes king of Assyria
742    Pekahiah becomes king of Israel
740    Pekah becomes king of Israel
739    Uzziah dies; Isaiah begins to prophesy
         Jotham becomes king of Judah
736    Micah begins to prophesy
735    Ahaz becomes king of Judah
732    Hoshea becomes king of Israel
727    Shalmaneser IV becomes king of Assyria
722    Sargon II becomes king of Assyria Samaria falls; the ten tribes go into captivity
715    Hezekiah becomes king of Judah
705    Sennacherib becomes king of Assyria
701    Judah invaded by the Assyrians
686    Manasseh becomes king of Judah
681    Esarhaddon becomes king of Assyria
669    Ashurbanipal becomes king of Assyria
660    Zoroaster born
648    Nahum predicts the fall of Nineveh
642    Amon becomes king of Judah
640    Josiah becomes king of Judah
634    Zephaniah begins to prophesy
627    Jeremiah begins to prophesy
626    Nabopolasser becomes king of Babylon
622    Revival in Judah
619    Habakkuk begins to prophesy
612    Nineveh falls
609    Neco II becomes pharaoh of Egypt
         Jehoahaz becomes king of Judah
         Jehoiakim becomes king of Judah
605    Nebuchadnezzar becomes king of Babylon
         The Babylonians invade Judah Daniel begins to prophesy
597    Jehoachin becomes king of Judah
         Zedekiah becomes king of Judah
593    Ezekiel begins to prophesy
586    The Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and the Temple
         The Jews deported to Babylon Gedaliah becomes governor of Jerusalem
         The rabbis preempt the priests as the chief custodians of divine truth
563    Buddhism founded by Siddhartha
553    Belshazzar becomes regent in Babylon
550    Cyrus becomes king of Persia
         The temple of Artemis erected at Ephesus
550    Confucius begins to teach
539    Babylon falls to the Medes and Persians         
         Darius the Mede rules in Babylon         
538    Zerubbabel and Joshua lead a small party of Jewish repatriates back to Palestine  
536    The Temple started in Jerusalem         
530    Cambyses becomes king of Persia         
521    Smerdis becomes king of Persia         
         Darius I Hystapses becomes king of Persia         
520    Zechariah begins to prophesy         
         Haggai begins to prophesy         
         Construction of the Jerusalem Temple resumed    
516    The Temple completed    
509    The Roman Republic founded    
486    Xerxes becomes king of Persia
484    Herodotus the historian born
480    The Greeks defeat Xerxes at Salamis    
479    The Greeks defeat Xerxes at Thermopalye    
478    Esther becomes queen of Persia and later saves the Jews of the empire from             extermination
473    The Feast of Purim started
469    Socrates born        
464    Artaxerxes Longimanus becomes king of Persia         
458    Ezra takes a small contingent of Jews back to Palestine         
447    The building of the Parthenon commenced
445    Nehemiah takes a small contingent of Jews back to Palestine
443    Nehemiah and Ezra read the Scriptures to the Jews and help them understand
         the first roots of the Midrash begin to sprout; the Sopherim (Scribes) flourish
436    Malachi begins to prophesy    
423    Darius II becomes king of Persia         
404    Artaxerxes II becomes king of Persia    
400    The Midrash begins to develop    
399    Socrates condemned to death    
359    Artaxerxes III becomes king of Persia         
         Philip becomes king of Macedonia     
342    Epicurius teaches his philosophy
336    Darius III Codomannus becomes king of Persia
         Alexander the Great becomes king of Greece
335    Aristotle teaches at Athens
333    The Battle of Issus fought; Alexander defeats the Persians
         Alexander takes Egypt
332    Alexander destroys Tyre
331    Alexander seizes Babylon
330    Darius III of Persia slain
329    Alexander marries Roxana in a symbolic gesture of uniting East and West
327    Alexander invades India
323    Alexander claims to be the son of Zeus
         Alexander dies
         Alexander's empire divided between his four chief generals
         Ptolemy I Soter takes Egypt
320    Ptolemy I seizes Palestine
311    Seleucus I Nicator takes Babylon
300    Rome becomes a major world power in the western Mediterranean
         Seleucus I adds Syria to his realm
285    Ptolemy II Philadelphius becomes king of Egypt
         Between 285 and 130 the Septuagint translated
280    Antiochus I Soter becomes king of Syria
276    The first Syro-Egyptian war begins
275    Ptolemy of Egypt invades Syria
274    Hinduism codified in India
264    Rome's first Punic war against Carthage begins
261    Antiochus II Theos (the God) becomes king of Syria
260    The second Syro-Egyptian war begins
252    Antiochus II marries Bernice, daughter of Ptolemy II
250    The Parthian kingdom founded
246    Seleucus II Callinicus becomes king of Syria
         Ptolemy III Euergetes becomes king of Egypt
         The third Syro-Egyptian war begins
245    Ptolemy invades Syria
240    Seleucus invades Egypt
223    Antiochus III (the Great) becomes king of Syria
221    Ptolemy IV Philopater becomes king of Egypt
         The fourth Syro-Egyptian war begins
219    Antiochus the Great invades Egypt
218    Rome's second Punic war against Carthage begins
217    Hannibal invades Italy Ptolemy IV invades Syria; Battle of Raphia
215    Rome's first Macedonian war begins
206    Rome drives Carthage out of Spain
203    Ptolemy V ( Epiphanes ) becomes king of Egypt
201    The fifth Syro-Egyptian war begins Carthage surrenders to Rome
200    Rome's second Macedonian war begins
200    The Mishna begins to appear among the Jews
193    Ptolemy V marries Cleopatra, daughter of Antiochus III
190    Antiochus III defeated by Romans at Magnesia
187    Seleucus IV Philopator becomes king of Syria
181    Ptolemy VI Philomater becomes king of Egypt
175    Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king of Syria
171    Ptolemy VII becomes co-regent of Egypt with Ptolemy VI
         Rome's third Macedonian war begins
         Mithridates I begins the conquest of Babylonia and Media, adding those countries to            Elam, Persia, and Bactra to form the Parthian Empire
169    Antiochus Epiphanes captures Jerusalem
168    The Romans interfere in Antiochus's war with Egypt and prevent his capturing
         Antiochus pollutes the Temple in Jerusalem and suspends the sacrifices of the Jews
166    Matthias leads the Jews in revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes
165    The Jerusalem Temple repaired and cleansed
164    Antiochus Epiphanes dies
154    The Jews in Egypt build a temple at Leontopolis
149    Rome's third Punic war against Carthage begins Rome's fourth Macedonian war                    begins
146    The Romans destroy Carthage
135    John Hyrcanus becomes high priest in Jerusalem
133    Rome begins to expand her empire eastward
130    The Pharisees begin to emerge as a sect
124    Mithridates II (the Great) conquers Scythia, adds it to the Parthian Empire, and                  makes a treaty with Rome
120    Hyrcanus repudiates the Pharisees and declares himself a Sadducee
106    Cicero born
88      Rome's first Mithridatic war begins
83      Rome's second Mithridatic war begins
74      Rome's third Mithridatic war begins
64      Pompey captures Jerusalem; leaves the Maccabean high priest Hyrcanus in power             with Antipater as civil adviser
60      The first Triumvirate at Rome (Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey )
59      Julius Caesar becomes proconsul; Pompey marries Julia, daughter of Caesar
58      Caesar conquers Gaul
54      Caesar invades Britain
49      Caesar crosses the Rubicon
48      Pompey slain in Egypt
         Caesar makes Cleopatra queen of Egypt
44      Caesar becomes dictator of Rome for life
         Caesar assassinated
43      The second Triumvirate at Rome (Anthony, Lepidus, and Octavian )
40      Herod appointed king
37      Herod captures Jerusalem
31      Battle of Actium, Anthony slain, Octavian becomes master of the Roman world, the             final triumph of Empire
30      Egypt becomes a Roman province
30      Shammai
         Philo of Alexandria
21      Octavian assumed the title of Augustus
20      Herod begins to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple
4       Herod dies

14    Augustus dies
       Tiberius becomes Roman emperor
26    Jesus begins to teach; He characterizes rabbinic teaching (the Mishna) as "vain                  tradition'
30    Jesus crucified and raised from the dead
       Pentecost; the Christian church is born
37    Caligula becomes Roman emperor
40    Gentiles are added to the church with the conversion of Cornelius
41    Claudius becomes Roman emperor
       Antioch becomes the new center of church activity
43    Theudas claims to be Messiah and is executed
54    Nero becomes Roman emperor
59    The apostle Paul is imprisoned at Caesarea
60    Paul appears before Agrippa
61    Paul a prisoner at Rome
66    The Jews of Judea revolt against Rome
68    Paul martyred at Rome
69    Jerusalem beseiged by the Romans
       Jochanan ben Zakkai seeks an audience with Vespasian
       Vespasian becomes Roman emperor
70    Jerusalem falls; the Temple burned; the Jews deported
73    The last stand of the Jewish rebels at Masada
79    Titus becomes Roman emperor
81    Domitian becomes Roman emperor
96    Nerva becomes Roman emperor
98    Trajan becomes Roman emperor
113    Rome goes to war with Parthia
116    A further Jewish revolt against Rome is suppressed with great severity
117    Hadrian becomes Roman emperor
132    Bar Kochba claims to be Messiah and leads a revolt against Rome
         Judea depopulated and the Jews denationalized by the Romans
138    Antoninus Pius becomes Roman emperor
150    Tertullian born

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