First Mention of Herod in History
"Antipater's position was considerably enhanced in 48 B.C.E., when he was able to render invaluable assistance to Julius Caesar." Caesar, having defeated his rival Pompey in battle, became embroiled in the "Alexandrian War" and found himself in a dangerous situation. Antipater, displaying considerable courage, led a unit of ca. 3,000 soldiers to Caesar's aid in a battle that took place near the city of Memphis, in Egypt. The victorious Caesar confirmed Hyrcanus' appointment to the high priesthood and gave him governing powers (as ethnarch), whereas Antipater was awarded the administrative post of procurator of Judaea. Furthermore, he permitted the repair of the walls of Jerusalem, which had been destroyed by Pompey.' Antipater, exercising his new authority, and possibly also seeking to reinforce his personal position, now appointed his eldest son, Phasael, governor of Jerusalem and the surrounding region, and his second one, Herod, governor of the Galilee.""
Ehud Netzer, "Architecture of Herod, the Great Builder" (Jerusalem:
2006) p. 5