Daniel B. Wallace
Koine Greek (330 BC - 330 AD)
primitive tribes of Indo-Europeans moved into Greece,
presumably they spoke a single language. Geography and
politics caused it to fracture into a score of dialects,
only to be united once again on the battlefield.
ironically, the first military campaign in the third
millennium BC brought confusion of tongues, while the last
campaign not only restored linguistic unity, but forged a
new language which was destined to become a Weltsprache
Koine was born out of the conquests of Alexander the Great.
First, his troops, which came from Athens as well as other
Greek cities and regions, had to speak to one another. This
close contact produced a melting pot Greek that inevitably
softened the rough edges of some dialects and lost the
subtleties of others. Second, the conquered cities and
colonies learned Greek as a second language, this further
increased its loss of subtleties and moved it toward greater
explicitness (e.g., the repetition of a preposition with a
second noun where Attic Greek was usually comfortable with a
Greek became the lingua Franca of the whole Roman Empire by
the first century AD...Even after Rome became the world
power in the first century BC, Greek continued to penetrate
distant lands. (This was due largely to Rome's policy of
assimilation of cultures already in place, rather than
destruction and replacement) ...Greek continued to be a
universal language until at least the end of the first
century AD. From about the second century on, Latin began to
win out in Italy (among the populace)...
...Demotic is the spoken language of Greece today, the
direct descendant of the Koine."
Wallace "Greek Grammar Beyond The Basics" (Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Zondervan, 1996) p. 15-17