Quick Summary of the Old Testament
Introduction. The Old Testament is the period from creation (4000 BC) to the
period of the Persian Empire and Cyrus who allowed the Jews to return from
captivity and rebuild their temple. The Old Testament ended around 400 BC.
After reading this summary follow along on the right-hand side and learn about the main events that took
place in Old Testament times.
Quick Summary of the Bible
The Bible covers the period from the creation of man which took
place approximately 4000 BC, all the way to the coming of Jesus Christ, his
death and his resurrection, and the good news (gospel) which spread rapidly in
the first century A.D. with the preaching of Paul the apostle and the
establishment of churches throughout the Roman Empire. The New Testament ends
around the same time that the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in
70 A.D. This quick summary will cover the main events that took place during the
periods of the Old and New Testaments. After reading this brief overview you can
follow the outline of the right hand side and quickly go through each of the
main sections of the Bible.
The Old Testament Main Historical Periods
The Old Testament can be summarized by nine main historical periods which are: The
Creation, Abraham and the Hebrew Patriarchs, Moses and the Exodus, Joshua and the
Conquest of Canaan, Samson and the Judges, David and Solomon, The Divided
Kingdom, The Destruction of Israel and Judah, and Ezra and the Return from
Captivity. It would be good to memorize these main sections to create a summary
took place. Here are the brief sections.
(Dates are Approximate)
Historical Period #1
The Creation and Fall Period
The main events of creation (Genesis 1-11) were:
The Creation of the heavens and the earth, and all living things
including mankind. God created everything in six days and rested on the seventh
day to establish the Sabbath day.
The Fall of Adam and Eve and sin and death entering into the world.
God made a covering for them indicating that it was only through the blood of a
substitute that they could approach God. God pronounced a curse upon the man,
woman, and serpent, and he also declared that the Messiah would someday come and
crush the head of the serpent.
The Flood which came upon the whole world and God saved Noah and his
The Tower of Babel where rebellious mankind gathered and God divided
Historical Period #2
The Abraham and Sons Period
The main people surrounding Abraham and the Hebrews
(Genesis 12-50) were:
Abraham was the first Hebrew, God called him from a distant land in
the Middle East called Ur of the Chaldees. God promised him that if he obey him
God would multiply his descendants as the sand in the seashore and the stars in
the sky, and one of his descendants would be the Savior of all mankind.
Isaac was Abraham's child that was born in his old age according to
the promise of the Lord. His name means laughter because Abraham's wife Sarah
laughed that she was going to bear a son in her old age.
Jacob was the father of the 12 tribes of Israel. Jacob's name actually
means deceiver but he trusted God, and God turned everything about his life into a blessing. Later God appeared to him and changed his name to Israel.
Joseph was the favorite son of Jacob, his beloved wife Rachel died
giving birth to Joseph. He was gifted in that he could interpret dreams, and
his brothers were jealous of him and sold him into slavery in the land of Egypt.
But God was with him and through these peculiar circumstances Joseph was able to save the Hebrews
Historical Period #3
The Moses and Exodus Period
The main events of the period of Moses (Exodus, Numbers, and
The Calling of Moses when the Hebrews were in the land of Egypt. The
Pharaoh had ordered the death of all Hebrew male babies because they were
growing so rapidly. Moses was born and grew up in the house of Pharaoh. Later he
developed a yearning to seek after the Hebrew God whom he met at a burning bush.
Moses later returned to free the Hebrew slaves.
The 10 Plagues and the Exodus was the period of time when Moses and
Aaron came into the house of Pharaoh and demanded to let the people of Israel
go. Pharaoh refused and after a series of 10 plagues the Hebrews escaped Egypt
after putting the blood of a lamb upon the doorpost of their homes to protect
them from the death Angel that would strike the land of Egypt. The Hebrews
escaped with all the wealth of Egypt and the Lord appeared in a pillar of fire
and led them through the Red Sea. Later the Egyptians became furious and chased
after them and the waters collapsed upon the chariots of Egypt.
The Giving of the Law at Mount Sinai was when the Hebrews came to
Mount Sinai and God gave Moses the 10 Commandments. The Hebrews rebelled while
waiting for Moses and built a golden calf. When Moses came down from the
mountain he broke the tables of stone. Later God wrote the 10 Commandments with
his own fingers on a new set of stone tablets. He also gave Moses a description
of the tabernacle which was a tent that God's presence would dwell in throughout
their journeys until they entered the promised land.
The 40 Years of Wandering in the Wilderness was when the children of
Israel would not believe in the promises of God and they desired to go back to
the land of Egypt and into slavery again. When they came to Kadesh Barnea to
look over the land that God had promised them they sent 12 spies to look over the land, but when they heard that there were giants they became afraid and only Joshua
and Caleb had the courage to move with the promises of God. This lack of faith
caused them to wander in the wilderness for 40 years.
Historical Period #4
The Joshua and Conquest
The main events surrounding Joshua and the conquest (Joshua
The Death of Moses was the period when Moses gave his final speech to
the Hebrews regarding all the promises of God. He reminded them that if they
would obey God they would be blessed, but if they disobeyed they would be cursed
and scattered throughout the earth, and a sword of persecution would follow them
wherever they went. Moses died on Mount Nebo after becoming frustrated with the
people and losing the blessing of God in entering the land. He would only see
the land and then it would be Joshua who would lead them in.
The Crossing of the Jordan was the event when the Hebrews crossed into
the promised land, the land flowing of milk and honey. Joshua led them in
ordering the priests to carry the Ark of the covenant and the waters of the
Jordan split in two as they entered into the promised land. Joshua set up a
memorial to remember the great event.
7 Years Conquering the Land was a time of conquering the rebellious
idolaters that inhabited the land. They were instructed to conquer and destroy
yet they were disobedient, because they did not conquer all the land as they
were instructed. They did not drive out the Canaanites and they intermarried
with Canaanite women. The three most prominent deities of Canaanite worship were
Baal, Asherah, and Dagon.
Settling in the Land of Canaan where the territory was distributed
among the 12 tribes, and later Joshua gave a farewell speech to encourage the
people and also to warn them what would happen if they disobeyed. He told them
"choose you this day whom you will serve."
Historical Period #5
The Judges and Samuel Period
The main events during the period of the Judges (Judges 1-21)
The 7 Cycles of Sin, Bondage, Deliverance, Blessing. Every generation
fell into a terrible cycle. First they would forget God's commands and commit
idolatry. Second a foreign invasion would take place and bring severe
oppression. Third they would cry out to God for help. Fourth God would send a
judge or deliverer to save them.
The first 300 Years of Israel's history. The book of Judges begins
just after the death of Joshua, and ends with Samuel the last judge of Israel.
After this was the period of the Kings.
The Deliverer Judges came by the hand of God to help the oppressed
Israelites. The main judges were: Othniel a nephew of Caleb, delivered
Israel from the Mesopotamians. Ehud was left-handed and killed Eglon,
king of Moab. Jephthah was a harlot's son who defeated the Amorites.
Gideon led 300 Israelites to defeat the army of 130,000 Midianites.
Samson, known for his great strength, delivered Israel from the Philistines. Deborah urged Barak to attack the mighty army of the Canaanites. (See
The Oppressors were foreign invaders that came to torment Israel. The
first were the Mesopotamians, then the Moabites, next was the Philistines, then
came the Canaanites, after that was the Midianites, later the Ammonites, and
then again came the Philistines.
Historical Period #6
The David and Solomon Period
The main people during the period of the Kings (Samuel and 1
Samuel was the first of the great prophets of Israel. His mother
Hannah had been barren her whole life and prayed to the Lord for a son promising
that she would dedicate his life to the service of the Lord if he would fulfill
her desire. God answered her prayer and Samuel became famous in the land for his
prophecies. He anointed the first king of Israel Saul, as well as David.
Saul was the first king of Israel. The people had cried for a King
because the lands around them all had a King, but the Lord was there King. The
Lord finally told Samuel to anoint Saul the tribe of Benjamin, a very
good-looking man who was head and shoulders taller than any other man in the
kingdom. Saul had an evil heart, and God gave them a king who was fashioned
after their own image because they had evil hearts. Saul spent most of his life
hunting down David so that he could destroy him because he knew that David was
the Lord's anointed.
David was Israel's rightful King chosen by the Lord and anointed by
Samuel the Prophet. David was a man after God's own heart, he was from
Bethlehem. When he was still a young boy he fearlessly slew the Philistine giant
Goliath who had taunted the armies of God. David defeated him with a sling and a
stone. David spent much of his life running from Saul, but finally when King
Saul died seven years later the tribes crowned David king at Hebron. David was a
warrior king and because of that he was not allowed to build the Temple which he
so longed to do. He would pass on that task to his son Solomon, the man of
Solomon was the son of David who built the Temple in Jerusalem. During
a dream God offered Solomon anything he wished for and Solomon asked for wisdom
to lead God's people. Because of this God gave him great power and wealth and
his fame was known throughout the world. Solomon made a mistake my marrying the
daughters of foreign Kings. He allowed them to build altars to their gods and
this brought a great downfall to Israel. By the time Solomon was in his old age
the kingdom was ready to be split in two.
Historical Period #7
The Divided Kingdom
The subject of a coming Messiah is woven into
every part of the Old Testament. The Bible traces the blood lineage
of the Messiah beginning with Adam and Eve, and then all the
way to Noah and his son Shem. Then the Bible reveals
that the Messiah would come through the line of Abraham, and
then Isaac, and then Jacob, and then from Jacobs 12
sons Judah would be the one that the Messiah would descend
from. Finally the lineage passes on to a man named Boaz who
had a grandson named Jesse who lived in Bethlehem, and
one of his sons was David who would be of the promised
seed and became king of Israel. The book of Matthew in the New
Testament traces the entire lineage of the Messiah from King David
all the way to Jesus Christ, the son of Joseph and Mary who
was born in a manger, a donkeys stable, in Bethlehem the city of
David. The Prophet Daniel around 550 BC predicted the exact date
that the Messiah would die and be "cut off" which would take place
483 years after the decree of the king of Persia to allow the Jews
to restore and rebuild Jerusalem.
The main events and people during the period of the Divided Kingdom
(Samuel and 1 Kings) were:
Civil War happened when Solomon died in 922 BC as Solomon's sons and
military commanders struggled for the throne. Solomon had blessed Rehoboam to be
the new King, but Jeroboam had more military influence. Each claimed to be God's
Israel and Judah. Finally after the struggle 10 tribes went to the
North following Jeroboam in the name of the northern kingdom was called
"Israel". The remaining two tribes in the South made Rehoboam their King and the
southern kingdom was called "Judah".
Isaiah was a great prophet who lived in Jerusalem during the time when
the Assyrians were rising to power (around 740 BC). He warned Jerusalem and her
Kings about their idolatry and their foreign allegiances. He spoke about the
captivity's that would come in the North and in the South. Isaiah was one of the
great prophets and he spoke more about the Messiah than any other book in the
Old Testament. when the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered the scroll of Isaiah
was found in perfect condition.
Jeremiah was one of the great prophets and he lived during the time
that the Babylonians were coming to power around 620 BC. He spoke against Judah
and all the cities in the whole territory about the folly of idolatry. He
prophesied that Jerusalem would be destroyed in her temple would be plundered by
the Babylonians. He said that the Jews would be taken away from their land to
the land of Babylon, the land of idolatry for 70 years and then they would
return. He also spoke about a new covenant (testament) in chapter 31 that would
come in the future where God would write the law on men's hearts.
Historical Period #8
The Destruction of Israel and Judah Period
The main events and people during the period of the Fall of
Israel and Judah (2 Kings) were:
The Prophets appeared during the time of the Kings of Israel and
Judah. The prophets were mouthpieces of God bringing his message to a rebellious
people who had forsaken the Lord. The prophets of the Assyrian period were
Jonah, Joel, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Zephaniah, and Nahum. The prophets of
the Babylonian period were Jeremiah, Habakkuk, Ezekiel, Obadiah, and Daniel. The
last prophets were of the Persian period and they were Haggai, Zechariah, and
The Fall of Israel in 722 BC happened because all the Kings in the
northern kingdom of Israel were wicked, every one of them. They were idol
worshipers and they forsook the commandments of the Lord until the Assyrians
came, an unstoppable army and destroyed their capital in the North and led them
away as prisoners to the land of Assyria which is modern day Iraq in the
Northern portion of the Tigris River. These were known as the 10 lost Tribes of
Israel, because no one knows what happened to them. There are allusions to them
but nothing is certain.
Revival in Jerusalem happen because eight of the Kings in the southern
kingdom of Judah sought the Lord, and the other 20 were wicked. The Kings who
served the Lord were Asa, Jehoshaphat, Joash, Amaziah, Uzziah, Jotham, Hezekiah,
The Fall of Judah in 586 BC happened because they had forsaken the
Lord and disaster was inevitable. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon conquered
Jerusalem in 586 BC and took them out of the land to the land of Babylon, the
land of idolatry.
Historical Period #9
from Captivity Period
The main events and people during
the Return from Captivity (Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther) were:
Cyrus Allows the Jews to Return after 70 Years. Cyrus of Persia
conquered Babylon around 540 BC. It was by the hand of God that Persian
tradition was to allow conquered peoples to return to their homelands and
rebuild their cities and temples as long as they pay taxes to the Persian
Empire. Cyrus made a decree allowing the Jews to return home and rebuild their
temple. Unfortunately only a small portion returned.
Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah. The first move back to Israel was led
by Zerubbabel who was of royal blood from the house of David. they found
Jerusalem in ruins with a mixed breed of corrupt Jews (Samaritans) living there.
But in spite of this they laid the foundations for the new Temple, and built an
altar to the Lord in 536 BC. They finished the work on the Temple by 516 BC,
exactly 70 years after they were taken captive, just as Jeremiah had predicted.
Later (458 BC) more Jews returned with a man named Ezra, a Priest and a Scribe.
Shortly after this Nehemiah obtained permission to rebuild the walls of
Jerusalem, which miraculously happened within 52 days (444 BC).
The Temple of Zerubbabel was known as the Second Temple, it was a
remarkable achievement but nothing compared to Solomon's Temple. Later it was
Herod the Great who would beautify the Temple of Zerubbabel and so much so that
it became a marvel in the ancient world.
The Final Prophets and the Close of the Old Testament. The Prophet
Malachi warned Israel about turning form ther Lord. Ezra and Nehemiah canonized
the books of the Old Testament and they were read aloud to the people and
interpretation was given. It would not be long before they would again forget
about the Lord.
Between the Testaments
The 400 Years of Silence
The main events and people during the Intertestamental Period were:
No Anointed Prophet
Alexander the Great
Hellenization and the Greek Philosophers
Jewish Rabbinical Writings and Sects
The New Testament
The Coming of Jesus
events and people during the time of Jesus (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) were:
The Birth of John and Jesus
The Ministry of Jesus
The Death and Resurrection of Jesus
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
The Coming of the Church
The main events and people during the
early Church (Acts 1-7) were:
The Holy Spirit
Peter and the Believers
The Church in Jerusalem
The Stoning of StephenThe
Gospel to the Ends of the Earth
The main events and people
during the time of Paul (Acts 8-28) were:
Paul the Apostle
The Gentiles and Establishing Churches
Miracles and Persecution
Writing the New Testament
The Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.