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Mauritania Tingitana
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Ancient Mauritania Tingitana  - Mauretania. Ruled by Bocchus in alliance with Rome, and afterwards by Juba II. Made into two Roman provinces, Tingitana, Morocco, and Caesariensis, Algiers, by Claudius. Conquered by the Vandals under Genseric, A. D. 429. — Mountains: Atlas. — Rivers: Multicha. — Fretum Gaditanum, Strait of Gibraltar. — Columns of Hercules. — Masssesylii. - Ancient Geography

Mauritania Tingitana was a Roman province located in northwestern Africa, coinciding roughly with the northern part of modern Morocco and Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The province extended from the northern peninsula, opposite Gibraltar, to Chellah (or Sala) and Volubilis to the south, and as far east as the Oued Laou river. Its capital city was the city of Tingis, modern Tangier, after which it was named. Other major cities of the province were Iulia Valentia Banasa and Lixus.

After the death of Ptolemy of Mauretania, the last king of Mauretania in AD 40, Roman emperor Claudius changed the kingdom Mauretania into two Roman provinces: Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. The Mulucha (Moulouya River), about 60 km west of modern Oran, Algeria became the border separating them. The Roman occupation did not extend very far into the continent. In the far west, the southern limit of imperial rule was Volubilis, which was ringed with military camps such as Tocolosida slightly to the south east and Ain Chkour to the north west, and a fossatum or defensive ditch. On the Atlantic coast Sala Colonia was protected by another ditch and a rampart and a line of watchtowers. This was not a continuous line of fortifications: there is no evidence of a defensive wall like the one that protected the turbulent frontier in Britannia at the other extremity of the Roman Empire. Rather, it was a network of forts and ditches that seems to have functioned as a filter. The limes– the word from which the English word “limit” is derived – protected the areas that were under direct Roman control by funnelling contacts with the interior through the major settlements, regulating the links between the nomads and transhumants with the towns and farms of the occupied areas. The same people lived on both sides of these limes, although the population was really quite small. Volubilis had perhaps twenty thousand inhabitants at most in the second century. On the evidence of inscriptions, only around ten per cent of them were of European origin, mainly Spanish; the rest were local. Roman historians (like Ptolemeus) considered that all actual Morocco until the Atlas mountains was part of the Roman Empire, because in the Augustus times Mauretania was a vassal state and his rulers (like Juba II) controlled all the areas south of Volubilis. But the effective control of Roman legionaries was until the area of Sala Colonia (the castra "Exploratio Ad Mercurios" south of Sala is the southernmost discovered until now). Anyway some historians believe the Roman frontier reached actual Casablanca, founded by Romans as a port.

The Roman Province.
During the reign of Juba II Emperor Augustus, had already founded three colonias (with Roman citizens) in Mauretania close to the Atlantic coast: Iulia Constantia Zilil, Iulia Valentia Banasa and Iulia Campestris Babba. This western part of Mauretania was to become the province called Mauretania Tingitana shortly afterwards. The region remained a part of the Roman Empire until 429 as the Vandals overran the area and Roman administrative presence came to an end. The most important city of Mauretania Tingitana was Volubilis. This city was the administrative and economic center of this province in western Roman Africa. The fertile lands of the province produced many commodities such as grain and olive oil, which were exported to Rome, contributing to the province's wealth and prosperity. Archaeology has documented the presence of a Jewish community in the Roman period. The principal exports from Mauretania Tingitana were purple dyes and valuable woods; Tingitana also supplied Rome with agricultural goods and animals, such as lions and leopards. The native Mauri were highly regarded and recruited by the Romans as soldiers, especially as light cavalry. Clementius Valerius Marcellinus is recorded as governor (praeses) between 24 October 277 and 13 April 280. According to tradition, the martyrdom of St Marcellus took place on 28 July 298 at Tingis (Tangier). During the Tetrarchy (Emperor Diocletian's reform of Roman governmental structures in 296), Mauretania Tingitana became part of the Diocese of Hispaniae, 'the Spains', and, by extension, part of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls. (Mauretania Caesariensis was in the Diocese of Africa. Lucilius Constantius is recorded as governor (praeses) in the late fourth century. The Notitia Dignitatum shows also, in its military organisation, a Comes Tingitaniae with a field army composed of two legions, three vexillations, and two auxilia palatina. Flavius Memorius held this office (comes) at some point during the middle of the fourth century. However, it is implicit in the source material that there was a single military command for both of the Mauretanian provinces, with a Dux Mauretaniae (a lower rank) controlling seven cohorts and one ala. The Germanic Vandals established themselves in the province of Baetica in 422 under their king, Gunderic, and, from there, they carried out raids on Mauretania Tingitana. In 427, the Comes Africae, Bonifacius, rejected an order of recall from the Emperor Valentinian III, and he defeated an army sent against him. He was less fortunate when a second force was sent in 428. In that year, Gunderic was succeeded by Gaiseric, and Bonifacius invited Gaiseric into Africa, providing a fleet to enable the passage of the Vandals to Tingis. Bonifacius intended to confine the Vandals to Mauretania, but, once they had crossed the straits, they rejected any control and marched on Carthage, inflicting grievous suffering. - Wikipedia

Mauretania and Mauritania (“black”) (Pausan. i. 33.5; viii. 43.3). The most westerly of the principal divisions of northern Africa, lying between the Atlantic on the west, the Mediterranean on the north, Numidia on the east, and Gaetulia on the south; but the districts embraced under the names of Mauretania and Numidia respectively were of very different extent at different periods. The earliest known inhabitants of all northern Africa west of the Syrtes were the Gaetulians, who were displaced and driven inland by peoples of Asiatic origin, who are found, in the earliest historical accounts, settled along the northern coast under various names; their chief tribes being the Mauri or Maurusii, west of the river Malva or Malucha (Muluia); thence the Massaesylii to (or nearly to) the river Ampsaga (Wady-el-Kebir), and the Massylii between the Ampsaga and the Tusca (Wady-Zain), the western boundary of the Carthaginian territory. Of these people, the Mauri, who possessed a greater breadth of fertile country between the Atlas and the coasts, seem to have applied themselves more to the settled pursuits of agriculture than their kindred neighbours on the east, whose unsettled warlike habits were moreover confirmed by their greater exposure to the intrusions of the Phœnician settlers. Hence arose a difference, which the Greeks marked by applying the general name of ??µ?de? to the tribes between the Malva and the Tusca; whence came the Roman names of Numidia for the district, and Numidae for its people. (See Numidia.) Thus Mauretania was at first only the country west of the Malva, and corresponded to the later district of Mauretania Tingitana, and to the modern empire of Morocco, except that the latter extends further south; the ancient boundary on the south was the Atlas. The Romans first became acquainted with the country during the war with Iugurtha in B.C. 106. From 106 to 33 the kingdom of Mauretania was increased by the addition of the western part of Numidia, as far as Saldae, which Iulius Caesar bestowed on Bogud, as a reward for his services in the African war. A new arrangement was made about 25, when Augustus gave Mauretania to Iuba II., in exchange for his paternal kingdom of Numidia. Upon the murder of Iuba's son, Ptolemaeus, by Caligula (A.D. 40), Mauretania became finally a Roman province, and was formally constituted as such by Claudius, who added to it nearly half of what was still left of Numidia—namely, as far as the Ampsaga, and divided it into two parts, of which the western was called Tingitana, from its capital Tingis (Tangier), and the eastern Caesariensis, from its capital Iulia Caesarea (Zershell), the boundary between them being the river Malva, the old limit of the kingdom of Bocchus I. The latter corresponded to the western and central part of the modern French department of Algiers. These “Mauretaniae duae” were governed by an equestrian procurator. In the later division of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine, the eastern part of Mauretania Caesariensis, from Saldae to the Ampsaga, was erected into a new province, and called Mauretania Sitifensis from the inland town of Sitifi (Setif); at the same time the western province, Mauretania Tingitana, seems to have been placed under the same government as Spain, so that we still find mention of the two Mauretanias, meaning now, however, Caesariensis and Sitifensis. From A.D. 429 to 534 Mauretania was in the hands of the Vandals, and in 650 and the following years it was conquered by the Arabs. Its ancient inhabitants still exist as powerful tribes in Morocco and Algeria, under the names of Berbers, Kabyles, and Tuariks. Under the later Roman emperors Mauretania was remarkable for the great number of its episcopal sees. - Harry Thurston Peck. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. New York. Harper and Brothers. 1898.

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MAURETA´NIA the NW. coast of Africa, now known as the Empire of Marocco, Fez, and part of Algeria, or the Mogh'rib-al-akza (furthest west) of the natives.
I. Name, Limits, and Inhabitants.

This district, which was separated on the E. from Numidia, by the river Ampsaga, and on the S. from Gaetulia, by the snowy range of the Atlas, was washed upon the N. coast by the Mediterranean, and on the W. by the Atlantic. From the earliest times it was occupied by a people whom the ancients distinguished by the name MAURUSII (Eth. Μαυρούσιος, Strab. i. p.5, iii. pp. 131, 137, xvii. pp. 825, 827; Liv. 24.49; Verg. A. 4.206; Μαυρήνσιοι, Ptol. 4.1.11) or MAURI (Μαυροί, “Blacks,” in the Alexandrian dialect, Paus. i, 33 § 5, 8.43. [2.297] § 3; Sal. Jug. 19; Pomp. Mela, 1.4.3; Liv. 21.22, 28.17; Hor. Carm. 1.22. 2, 2.6. 3, 3.10. 18; Tac. Ann. 2.52, 4.523, 14.28, Hist. 1.78, 2.58, 4.50; Lucan 4.678; Juv. 5.53, 6.337; Flor. 3.1, 4.2); hence the name MAURETANIA (the proper form as it appears in inscriptions, Orelli, Inscr. 485, 3570, 3672; and on coins, Eckhel, vol. vi. p. 48; comp. Tzchucke, ad Pomp. Mela, 1.5.1) or MAURITANIA (Μαυριτανία, Ptol. 4.1.2; Caes. B.C. 1.6, 39; Hirt. B. Afr. 22; Pomp. Mela, 1.5; Plin. Nat. 5.1; Eutrop. 4.27, 8.5; Flor. iv. (the MSS. and printed editions vary between this form and that of Mauretania); ἡ Μαυρούσιων γῆ, Strab. p. 827). These Moors, who must not be considered as a different race from the Numidians, but as a tribe belonging to the same stock, were represented by Sallust (Sal. Jug. 21) as a remnant of the army of Hercules, and by Procopius (B. V. 2.10) as the posterity of the Cananaeans who fled from the robber (ληστής) Joshua; he quotes two columns with a Phoenician inscription. Procopius has been supposed to be the only, or at least the most ancient, author who mentions this inscription, and the invention of it has been attributed to himself; it occurs, however, in the history of Moses of Chorene (1.18), who wrote more than a century before Procopius. The same inscription is mentioned by Suidas (s. v. Χανάαν), who probably quotes from Procopius. According to most of the Arabian writers, who adopted a nearly similar tradition, the indigenous inhabitants of N. Africa were the people of Palestine, expelled by David, who passed into Africa under the guidance of Goliah, whom they call Djalout. (St. Martin, Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. xi. p. 328; comp. Gibbon, c. xli.) These traditions, though so palpably fabulous, open a field to conjecture. Without entering into this, it seems certain that the Berbers or Berēbers, from whom it has been conjectured that N. Africa received the name of Barbary or Barbaria, and whose language has been preserved in remote mountainous tracts, as well as in the distant regions of the desert, are the representatives of the ancient inhabitants of Mauretania. (Comp. Prichard, Physical Hist. of Mankind, vol. ii. pp. 15--43.) The gentile name of the Berbers--Amazigh, “the noble language” --is found, according to an observation of Castiglione, even in Herodotus (4.191, ed. Bähr),--where the correct form is MAZYES (Μαζύες, Hecataeus, ap. Steph. B. sub voce s. u.), which occurs in the MSS., while the printed editions erroneously give Μαξύες (Niebuhr, Lect. on Anc. Ethnog. and Geog. vol. ii. p. 334),--as well as in the later MAZICES of Ammianus Marcellinus (29.5; Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. iii. p. 471; comp. Gibbon, c. xxv.).

II. Physical Geography.

From the extraordinary capabilities of the soil--one vast corn plain extending from the foot of Atlas to the shores of the Atlantic--Mauretania was formerly the granary of the world. (Plin. Nat. 18.20.) Under a bigoted and fanatical government, the land that might give food to millions, is now covered with weeds. Throughout the plains, which rise by three great steps to the mountains, there is great want of wood; even on the skirts of the Atlas, the timber does not reach any great size-nothing to justify the expression of Pliny ( “opacum nemorosumque” 5.1; comp. Journ. Geog. Soc. vol. i. pp. 123--155; Barth, Wanderungen).

Strabo (xvii. pp. 826--832) has given an account of the productions of Mauretania, marvellous enough, in some particulars, as where he describes weasels as large as cats, and leeches 10 ft. long; and among other animals the crocodile, which there can scarcely be any river of Marocco capable of nourishing, even if the climate were to permit it. (In Aegypt, where the average heat is equal to that of Senegambia, the crocodile is seldom seen so low as Siout.) Pliny (8.1) agrees with Strabo (p. 827) in asserting that Mauretania produced elephants. As the whole of Barbary is more European than African, it may be doubted whether the elephant, which is no longer found there, was ever indigenous, though it may have been naturalised by the Carthaginians, to whom elephants were of importance, as part of their military establishment. Appian (B. P. 9) says that when preparing for their last war with the Romans, they sent Hasdrubal, son of Gisco, to hunt elephants; he could have hardly gone into Aethiopia for this purpose. Shaw (Trav. p. 258; Jackson, Marocco, p. 55) confirms, in great measure, the statements of Strabo (p. 830) and of Aelian (Ael. NA 3.136, 6.20) about the scorpion and the “phalangium,” a species of the “arachnidae.” The “solitanus,” of which Varro (de Re Rustica, 4.14.4; Plin. Nat. 9.82) gives so wonderful an account, has not been identified. Copper is still worked as in the days of Strabo (p. 830), and the natives continue to preserve the grain, legumes, and other produce of their husbandry in “matmoures,” or conical excavations in the ground, as recorded by Pliny (18.73; Shaw, p. 221).

Mauretania, which may be described generally as the highlands of N.Africa, elevates itself like an island between the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the great ocean of sand which cuts it off towards the S. and E. This “plateau” separates itself from the rest of Africa, and approximates, in the form and structure, the height, and arrangement of its elevated masses, to the system of mountains in the Spanish peninsula, of which, if the straits of the Mediterranean were dried up, it would form a part. A description of these Atlantic highlands is given in the article ATLAS

Many rivers flow from this great range, and fall into the Mediterranean, and the Atlantic. Of these, the most important on the N. coast were, in a direction from E. to W., the AMPSAGA, USAR, CHINALAPH, and MULUCHA; on the W. coast, in a direction from NE. to SW., the SUBUR, SALA, PHUTH, and LIXUS.

The coast-line, after passing the AMPSAGA (Wadel-Kíbir) and SINUS NUMIDICUS, has the harbours IGILGILIS (Jijeli), SALDAE Ps. (Bujeiyah), and RUSUCURRIUM (Tedlez). Weighing from Algiers, and passing IOMNIUM (Ras-al-Kanatir), to stand towards the W., there is a rocky and precipitous coast, mostly bold, in which in succession were the ports and creeks IOL (Zershell), CARTENNA (Tenez), MURUSTAGA (Mostaghanom), ARSENARIA (Arzán), QUIZA (Wahran or Oran); PORTUS MAGNUS (Marsa Kíbir), within METAGONIUM PROM. (Ras-al-Harsbah); and ACRA (Ishgún). The MULUCHA falls into the Gulf of Melîlah of the charts. About 10 miles to the NW. of this river lay the TRES INSULAE (Zaphran or Ja'ferëi group); about 30 miles distant from these rocks, on a NW. by W. rhumb, was RUSADIR PROM. (Cap Tres Forcas of the Spanish pilots, or Ras-ud-Dehar of the natives), and in the bight formed between it and the Mulucha stood RUSADIR [2.298] (Melîlah.) W. of Cap Tres Forcas, which is a termination of an offshoot of the secondary chain of the Atlas, was the district of the METAGONITAE extending to ABYLA (Jebel-el-Mina). From here to TINGIS (Tangier) the coast is broken by alternate cliffs and coves; and, still standing to the W., a bold shore presents itself as far as the fine headland of AMPELUSIA (Cape Spartel; Ras-el-Shukkúr of the natives). From Cape Spartel to the SSW. as far as ZILIS (Arzila), the coast-line is a flat, sandy, and shingly beach, after which it becomes more bold as it reaches LIXUS (Al-Harátch or Laráiche). (Smyth, The Mediterranean, pp. 94--99.) A description of the SW. coast is given in the article LIBYA (Comp. C. Müller, Tab. ad Geog. Graec. Minors, ed. Didot, Paris, 1855; West Coast of Africa surveyed, by Arlett, Vidal, and Boteler, 1832; Côte occidentale de l'Afrique au Dépot de la Marine, Paris, 1852; Carte de l'Empire de Maroc, par E. Renou, 1844; Barth, Karte vom Nord Afrikanischen Gestadeland, Berlin, 1849.)

III. History and Political Geography.

The Romans first became acquainted with this country when the war with Hannibal was transferred to Africa; Mauretania was the unknown land to the W. of the Mulucha. In the Jugurthine War, Bocchus, who is called king of Mauretania, played the traitor's part so skilfully that he was enabled to hand over his kingdom to his two sons Bogudes and Bocchus, who were associated upon the throne. These princes, from their hostility to the Pompeian party, were confirmed as joint kings of Mauretania by J. Caesar in B.C. 49. During the civil war between M. Antonius and Octavius, Bocchus sided with the latter, while Bogudes was allied with Antonius. When Bogudes crossed into Spain, Bocchus seized upon his brother's dominions; a usurpation which was ratified by Octavius. In B.C. 25, Octavius gave to Juba II., who was married to the daughter of Cleopatra and Antonius, the two provinces of Mauretania (afterwards called Tingitana and Caesariensis) which had formed the kingdom of Bogudes and Bocchus, in exchange for Numidia, now made a Roman province. Juba was succeeded by his son Ptolemy, whom Selene, Cleopatra's daughter, bore to him. (Strab. xvii. pp. 828, 831, 840.) Tiberius loaded Ptolemy with favours on account of the assistance he gave the Romans in the war with Tacfarinas (Tac. Ann. 4.23-26); but in A.D. 41 he was put to death by Caligula. (D. C. 59.25; Suet. Cal. 26; Seneca, de Tranq. 11.) For coins of these native princes, see Eckhel, vol. iv. pp. 154--161.

In A.D. 42, Claudius divided the kingdom into two provinces, separated from each other by the river Mulucha, the ancient frontier between the territories of Bocchus and Jugurtha; that to the W. was called MAURETANIA TINGITANA, and that to the E. MAURETANIA CAESARIENSIS. (D. C. 60.9; Plin. Nat. 5.1.) Both were imperial provinces (Tac. Hist. 1.11, 2.58; Spart. Hadr. 6, “Mauretaniae praefectura” ), and were strengthened by numerous Roman “coloniae.” M. Tingitana contained in the time of Pliny (l.c.) five, three of which, ZILIS, BABBA, and BANASA as they were founded by Augustus when Mauretania was independent of Rome, were reckoned as belonging to Baetica. (Plin. l.c.; Pomp. Mela, 3.10.5.) TINGI and LIXUS were colonies of Claudius (Plin. l.c.); to which were added in later times RUSADIR and VOLUBILIS (Itin. Ant.). M. Caesariensis contained eight colonies founded by Augustus, CARTENNA, GUNUGI, IGILGILI, RUSCONIAE, RUSAZUS, SALDE, SUCCABAR, TUBUSUPTUS; two by Claudius, CAESAREIA formerly IOL the capital of Juba, who gave it this name in honour of his patron Augustus, and OPPIDUM NOVUM; one by Nerva, SITIFIS; and in later times, ARSENARIA, BIDA, SIGA, AQUAE CALIDAE, QUIZA, RUSUCURRIUM, AUZIA, GILVA, ICOSIUM, and TIPASA in all 21 well-known colonies, besides several “municipia” and “oppida Latina.” The Notitia enumerates no less than 170 episcopal towns in the two provinces. (Comp. Morcelli, Africa Christiana, vol. i. pp. 40--43.) About A.D. 400, Mauretania Tingitana was under a “Praeses,” in the diocese of Spain; while Mauretania Caesariensis, which still remained in the hands of the diocese of Africa, was divided into MAURETANIA I. or SITIFENSIS, and MAURETANIA II. or CAESARIENSIS. The emperor Otho had assigned the cities of Mauretania to Baetica (Tac. Hist. 1.78); but this probably applied only to single places, since we find the two Mauretaniae remained unchanged down to the time of Constantine. Marquardt, in Becker's Handbuch der Röm. Alt. pp. 230--232; Morcelli, Africana Christiana, vol. i. p. 25.)

In A.D. 429, the Vandal king Genseric, at the invitation of Count Boniface, crossed the straits of Gades, and Mauretania, with the other African provinces, fell into the hands of the barbarian conquerors. Belisarius, “the Africanus of New Rome,” destroyed the kingdom of the Vandals, and Mauretania again became a Roman province under an Eastern exarch. One of his ablest generals, John the Patrician, for a time repressed the inroads of the Moors upon Roman civilisation; and under his successor, the eunuch Solomon, the long-lost province of Mauretania Sitifensis was restored to the empire; while the Second Mauretania, with the exception of Caesareia itself, was in the hands of Mastigas and the Moors. (Comp. Gibbon, cc. xli. xliii.; Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. viii.) At length, in A.D. 698--709, when the Arabs made the final conquest of Africa,--desolated for 300 years since the first fury of the Vandals,--the Moors or Berbers adopted the religion, the name, and the origin of their conquerors, and sunk back into their more congenial state of Mahometan savages.

Pliny (l.c.) makes out the breadth of the two Mauretaniae as 467 M. P.; but this will be too much even for Tingitania, where Mount Atlas lies more to the S., and more than 300 M. P. beyond the utmost extent of any part of Caesariensis. The same author gives 170 M. P., which are too few for Tingitania, and 879 M. P., which are too many for Caesariensis. (Shaw, Trav. p. 9.)

The following tribes are enumerated by Ptolemy (4.2. § § 17--22) in I. MAURETANIA CAESARIENSIS:--TODUCAE (Τοδοῦκαι), on the left bank of the Ampsaga; to the N. of these, COEDAMUSII (Κοιδαμούσιοι), and still more to the N., towards the coast, and to the E. on the Ampsaga, MUCUNI (Μουκοῦνοι) and CHITUAE (Χιτοῦαι); to the W. of the latter, TULENSII (Τουλήνσιοι and BANIURI (Βανίουροι); S. of these, MACHURES (Μαχοῦρες), SALASSII (Σαλάσσιοι), and MALCHUBII (Μαλχούβιοι); NW. of the TULENSII, and to the E. of ZALACUS M., and on the coast, MACCHUREBI (Μακχουρῆβοι); W. of these, and N. of Zalacus, on the mouth of the Chinalaph, MACHUSII (Μαχούσιοι); below them on the other [2.299] side of Zalacus, MAZICES (Μάζικες); and S., up to the GARAPHI M., BANTURARII (Βαντουράριοι); still further to the S., between GARAPHI M. and CINNABA M., AQUENSII (Ἀκουήνσιοι), MYCENI (Μυκῆνοι), and MACCURAE (Μακκοῦραι); and below them, in the S., on the N. spurs of Cinnaba, ENABASI (Ἐνάβασοι); W. of these, between Garaphi M. and DURDUS M., NACMUSII (Νακμούσιοι), ELULII (Ἠλούλιοι), and TOLOTAE (Τολῶται); N. of these and Durdus M., DRYITAE (Δρϋῖται); then SORAE (Σῶραι); and on the W. of the Machusii, TALADUSII (Ταλαδούσιοι). The HERPEDITANI (Ἑρπεδιτανοί) extended into II. MAURETANIA TINGITANA (Ptol. 4.1. § § 10--12); to the S. of them, the MAURENSII (Μαυρήνσιοι); toward the SW., VACUATAE (Οὐακουᾶται), BANIUBAE (Βανιοῦβαι); then, advancing to the N., ZEGRENSII (Ζεγρήνσιοι), NECTIBERES (Νεκτίβηρες), JANGAUCANI (Ἰανγαυκανοί), VOLUBILIANI (Οὐαβιλιανοί), VERVES (Οὐερουεῖς), and SOCOSSII (Σωκοσσίοι), upon the coast; to the W., the METAGONITAE (Μεταγωνῖται); and to the S. of them, MASICES (Μάσικες), and VERBICAE or VERBICES (Οὐέρβικαι al. Οὐέρβικες); to the S. and to the W. of the VOLUBILIANI, SALINSAE (Σαλίνσαι) and CAUNI (Καῦνοι); still further to the S., to the Little Atlas, BACUATAE (Βακουᾶται) and MACANITAE (Μακανῖται). - Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.  


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Danube River



Dniester River

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Ebro River


Emerita Augusta




Euphrates River

Fair Havens


Forum Appius





Garonne River





Greater Syrtis

Guadalquivir River

Guadiana River


Halys River



Heraclea Pontus

Hippo Regius









Jordan River


Kure Mountains




Leptis Magna

Lesser Syritis


Loire River









Mauritania Caesariensis

Mauritania Tingitana


Mediterranean Sea






Mount Sinai


Nabataean Kingdom









Nile River


Oceanus Atlanticus



Orontes River


















Po River



Pontus Euxinus

Porta Veneris


Prut River








Sahara Desert







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Sea of Adria

Seine River





Sinus Arabicus






Tagus River




Taurus Mountains







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Tisza River