Urartu was a mountainous region and is largely the territory of modern Armenia. Known in the Scriptures as "Ararat, Minni and Ashchenaz"' (Jer. 51:27). It's borders ran on the north by the Caucasus Mountains; on the east by Media and the the Caspian Sea; on the south by Media and Assyria, and on the west by the Euphrates River. It was the source for four mighty rivers: the Araxes, the Tigris, the Euphrates and the Acampsis. The ark of Noah rested on the top of one of the mountains of the Ararat mountain range. Within the borders some believe the Garden of Eden was situated.
Media played an important role in Old Testament times. They were a mountainous region with its boundaries at the Araxes River and Caspian Sea on the north; the Great Salt Desert of Iran on the east; Persia on the south, and the Zagros Mountains on the west.
in 633 BC the kingdom of Media was established, and soon overpowered Assyria, Armenia and Persia, and formed the Medo-Persian empire, which conquered Babylon in 536 BC. After this the history of Media was intermingled with that of Persia.
Phraortes King of Media 522 BC
Persia played an important role in Old Testament times. Originally a small province on the Persian Gulf, still known as Fars; but Persia proper included, besides the sandy plain on the Gulf, a mountainous plateau north of it, and was bounded by Media on the north; by Carmania on the east; by the Persian Gulf on the south, and by Elam on the west. The Persian empire rose to greatness at the
fall of Babylon in 536 BC; they conquered and ruled over all the lands from India to Ethiopia, and was by far the greatest of the Oriental monarchies. The capital was Susa,
called in the Bible Shushan, The Palace (Esther 1:2), was not in Persia proper, but in Elam. Persia was overpowered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC.
Darius 1 "The Great" Seated on his Throne
The modern name of ancient Assyria is Kurdistan. Its territory was lying on the western slope of the Zagros mountains, and extending across the Tigris to the Sinjar hills and border of the Mesopotamian desert. The Assyrian kingdom began about 1273 BC, around the same time as the Judges of Israel The earliest capital was Kileh Sherghat ; afterwards the seat of government was moved to Nimrud, and finally to Nineveh, the centre of the great Assyrian Empire, which at one time conquered almost all the lands of the east.
The country southeast of Assyria and west of Media and Persia, between the Zagros mountains and the Tigris river. Shushan, or Susa, the capital of the Persian Empire, was actually the chief city within this province.
Funerary Head of an Elamite
The word Mesopotamia means "between the rivers," and in the Bible the name was usually applied to the whole plain between the Tigris and the Euphrates, including even Chaldaea and a part of Assyria. Throughout time the name Mesopotamia became associated with the northwestern portion of the region between the rivers, above the area where they almost meet. Haran, the home of Abraham's family, and the native place of Rebekah, Rachel and Leah, was a part of Mesopotamia.
Seated Statue of Gudea, Prince of Lagash, Mesopotamia
Chaldaea was the land of Shinar and Babylonia. Its territory was mainly the city of Babylon and the southern portion below Babylon. Within its borders the Tower of Babel was erected, and a man named Nimrod founded the earliest empire in history. Within the province of Chaldaea was the city of Ur, the dwelling place of Abraham, the first Hebrew. The chief city of Chaldea was Babylon, which became the capital of the great Babylonian Empire, and the greatest city in the East.
The land of Egypt was also referred to in Scripture as "Mizraim," "Rahab," and "the Land of Ham." It is situated in the northeastern corner of Africa, and its boundaries are the Mediterranean Sea on the north; and on the east by Israel, the Arabian Desert and the Arabian Sea, also known as the Red Sea; on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the Great African Desert. Its luxurious river is the Nile which has its sources in Central Africa, and flows northward into the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt ruled as a kingdom for many centuries, it was the land in which Israel was made slaves and held in captivity. The history of Egypt is connected with many other events in Bible history.
Meaning - fire, light, valley. Ur was the country of Terah and birthplace of Abram ; called ** Ur of the Chaldees," Gen. 11:28; 15:7. The Jews identify it with Orfah in Mesopotamia.
BABEL or BABYLON (confusion). Capital city of Shinar or Chaldea. The tower of Babel (Gen 11:4, 5) is regarded as the primitive site of the city. Babylon lay on both sides the Euphrates. It was the grandest and most populous city of ancient history. The kingdom was begun by Nimrod, Gen. 10:6-10. It fell under Persian influence, BC 555, and in the manner described by Jer. 11:31; Isa. 21:10 ; Dan. 5:30. Babylon in Rev. 14:8 represents Rome, as an element antagonistic to the Jews. See Illustrated Bible History - bible-history.com/ibh
Babylonia (pronounced babilahnia) was an ancient empire that existed in the Near East in southern Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Throughout much of their history their main rival for supremacy were their neighbors, the Assyrians. It was the Babylonians, under King Nebuchadnezzar II, who destroyed Jerusalem, the capital of the Kingdom of Judah, and carried God's covenant people into captivity in 587 BC. The Bible reveals much about the Babylonians all the way back from the time of Hammurapi (2000 BC) to the fall of Babylon (about 500 BC). Throughout the Old Testament there are references to the Babylonians, their people, culture, religion, military power, etc.