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Images & Art : Pompeii
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ALA House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 60 The ala is a small room normally next to a large room. This ala has transitional decoration between the third and fourth styles.

ALEXANDER MOSAIC From the House of the Faun Pompeii c. 80 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples One of the most famous pictures from the ancient world, probably a copy of a late classical painting, this mosaic of Alexander conquering Darius was laid into the floor of an open exedra between two peristyles in the House of the Faun. The floor mosaic was called tessallatum and is composed of tiny stones. This mosaic measures about nine by seventeen feet.

ALEXANDER MOSAIC From the House of the Faun Pompeii c. 80 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples Alexander is portrayed realistically and all the details of his costume are carefully in place.

ALEXANDER MOSAIC The House of the Faun Pompeii c. 80 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples Darius on his chariot.

ALTAR Temple of Vespasian Forum of Pompeii 69-79 A marble altar with a relief of a sacrifice.

AMPHITHEATRE Pompeii 89-75 The oldest known amphitheatre, this arena was built in 89-75 B.C. and held 20,000 spectators, almost the entire population of the city. Tall supporting arches surround the amphitheatre and a large two-sided staircase leads to the third level. It had no underground facilities.

ARTIST'S IMPRESSION OF THE FAUN ATRIUM from Professor Barbette Spaeth, Tulane University This artist's impression gives us an indication of the Atrium with the Impluvium and statue of Faun as it might have looked. The Peristyle is visible through in the rear.

ATRIUM AND TRICLINIUM House of the Ara Maxima Pompeii 47 On the left are the atrium and triclinium. Beautiful remnants of the fourth style painting still enrich and transform the architectural space.

BAKERY Strada Stabiana Pompeii These are some mill-wheels which ground the flour in the bakery or pistrinum. The top part rotates around the bottom stationary stone.

BASILICA Forum of Pompeii c. 120 B.C. These more massive columns are from the basilica, the most important public building in Pompeii. Constructed prior to the Roman period, the basilica had three aisles and five entrance doors onto the forum. In the rear we see a two-tiered colonnade which has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

BROTHEL FRESCO Pompeii Fresco of a man and woman in bed.

BUILDING OF EUMACHIA Forum of Pompeii Under reconstruction in 79 Headquarters of the guild of fabric washers and dyers, known as fullones. Fabrics also were sold and stored here. To be located on the forum the guild had clearly achieved a prominence in city life. Here we see the brick columns faced with stucco. The doorway in the rear is decorated with spiral acanthus leaves. The building was badly damaged in 62 and was still not rebuilt in 79.

CALDARIUM Villa Oplontis Pompeii c. 1 A.D. This is the caldarium or hot room in the villa's private bath. It is painted in the flat early third style.

CALDARIUM House of Menander Pompeii After 62 An elegant small private bath. The painting is fourth style. The mosaic floors are from earlier Republican times.

CALIDARIUM IN THE MEN'S BATH Forum of Pompeii 63-79 The public baths in the forum were a central part of Pompeian life. This is the calidarium or hot room with a hot bath in the men's section. The room was heated by hot air which passed through an opening between double walls and floors. The marble basin held cold water for sponging. The windows were for light. Notice the decorative fluting on the stucco vault.

COLONNADE Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. The two-tiered colonnade has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

CORNER ENTRANCE Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. A corner entrance to the forum. The marble-covered arch was dedicated to Tiberius and the niches held statues of Nero and Drusus. The columns faced the macellum, the meat and fish market.

COVERED THEATRE Pompeii c. 80-20 B.C. The covered theatre or odeon is an excellent example of a Hellenistic theatre.

CUBICULUM 11 Villa Oplontis Pompeii Mid-lst century B.C. A cubiculum or bedroom next to the atrium. This is decorated in a fully developed second style. The wall and ceiling are divided by cornices of stucco.

CUBICULUM 16 Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 60 B.C. A more elaborate example of the second style with molding and arches in perspective. The architectural perspectives of the second style create illusions of space. By extending the wall surface beyond a single plane, the style radically changes the nature and feeling of the room.

CUBICULUM 38 Villa Oplontis Pompeii 62-79 A beautifully painted ceiling typical of early Imperial times. The space is divided geometrically and delicately decorated.

DECORATIVE BRICKWORK Pompeii This decorative brickwork is from a house in Pompeii. The phallus was a common symbol which was believed to give protection against evil.

Detail, BALCONY COLUMNS Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. Notice the decorative brickwork in these columns.

Detail, LARGE GARDEN ROOM House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 62 A small portion of the black band elegantly ornamented.

ENTRANCE TO THE FORUM Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. One of the two arches originally covered with marble which flank the Temple of Jupiter and are the main entrances to the forum. The temple was built under the Samnites in the second century B.C.

Famulus FOURTH STYLE ROOM Golden House of Nero Rome c. 66 Famulus is credited with creating the fourth style in his decoration of the Golden House of Nero in Rome. The house was built after 64. In this elegantly painted early example of the style, large panels in the middle area contain landscapes and waterscapes; adjacent painted windows open onto simple but in-depth architectural views; and the top area introduces architectural fantasy.

FICO DEL SUPRANARE Pompeii A small winding street. The house on the left with its jutting upper floor balcony was a brothel.

FLOOR PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN Pompeii 2nd Century Courtesy of Professor Barbette Spaeth, Tulane University (Excerpted from Professor Spaeth's accompanying text) This house was among the largest and most elegant of the houses of Pompeii. It took up an entire city block (c. 80 m. long by 35 m. wide or 315 by 115 ft.) and was filled with beautiful works of art, including the famous mosaic depicting Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus, and wall paintings of the First, Second and Fourth Styles. The decoration of the house is heavily influenced by Hellenistic models. The House of the Faun was originally built in the early second century. In this period, the house was focused around two atria, one a large Tuscan atrium (3), and the other a smaller tetrastyle atrium (10), while the back of the house had a large kitchen garden. The two-atria plan represented an attempt to separate the formal functions of the atrium, i.e., the reception of clients and conduct of business by the patron of the house, from its private functions, i.e., the course of everyday family life. This type of plan is an intermediate step between the simple atrium house, with a single atrium complex, and the atrium and peristyle house. Apparently, the two-atria plan did not prove ultimately satisfactory for the owners of the House of the Faun. In the late second century B.C. they added a peristyle (8) to the north of the original two-atria nucleus, along with a service quarter to the eastern side (12-16), and reception rooms to the north. The rear of the house contained the kitchen garden. To this later period of the house belong its wall decorations in First Style and its famous mosaics. Finally, another peristyle was added around the time of the Early Roman Colony (20), that is, in the early first century B.C. This peristyle included more reception rooms along the south side (17 & 18), and smaller rooms, perhaps for servants, to the north (22) . The center of the new peristyle was occupied by the kitchen garden (19). With these renovations, the house acquired a new focus around the peristyles. The peristyles represented a private retreat for the family, a place where they could relax and entertain special guests. The front part of the house was kept for more formal occasions. The addition of service quarters reflects a further differentiation of function in the house, again separating the daily life of the family from the more public reception areas. The House of the Faun, with its elaborate decoration and extensive plan, represents one of the most important examples of Roman domus architecture of the second to first century B.C.

FOOD AND WINE SHOP Via dell'Abbondanza Pompeii The thermopolium was a shop selling wine and warm food. At this busy corner on the Via dell'Abbondanza, the food was kept in terra-cotta pots sunk in the serving counter. It could be eaten at the shop or taken out.

FOOD STOREHOUSE Pompeii Food supplies were often stored in large terra-cotta jars buried in the ground. This system provided a way of keeping the stored foodstuffs at a relatively constant temperature.

FORUM OF POMPEII After 80 B.C. The Forum of Pompeii has a central rectangular space, 466 feet long by 124 feet wide, surrounded by the most important public buildings in the city. Like other forums, it is set up on an axial plan. A colonnade lines three sides. In the center of the fourth side, visible in the distance, is the Temple of Jupiter, known as the Capitolium. The forum was paved with travertine stone and only pedestrians were permitted in its precinct. Situated on an old site, it was largely rebuilt after 80 B.C. when Pompeii became a Roman colony. The forum was again in the process of rebuilding after the earthquake of 62 AD. It was buried under the eruption of Vesuvius seen in the distance in 79.

FOUNTAIN House of the Great Fountain Pompeii After 62 Based on Oriental designs, the fountain niche is covered with a vivid and elaborate mosaic. Water came out of the center slit and flowed down the six steps.

FOUNTAIN House of the Small Fountain Pompeii Another fountain with mosaic decorations, including abstract and geometric designs, fish, shells, and other sea life.

FOURTH STYLE DECORATION From a house in Herculaneum c. 70 Museo Nazionale, Naples The eye travels in and around, over and under, and further and further into the indefinable distance.

FOURTH STYLE HALL House of Fabius Rufus Pompeii c. 70 The large hall has a black ground and the architectural forms break through the middle area into the top area. The large panel of Apollo, Bacchus, and Venus floats out from the wall, while small figures shimmer in space behind them. Space recedes even further through the rectangular boxlike shapes. The overall effect is an opening into the infinite.

FOURTH STYLE WALL House with Large Portal Herculaneum The grisaille creates another beautiful example of dimensional space in the fourth style.

FRIEZE OF THE DIONYSIAC MYSTERIES Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. The great Dionysiac frieze in a living room or parlor. This monumental work, the largest to survive from antiquity, is in a simplified second style. The figures are framed on top and bottom of the frieze, with vertical framing panels which are broken in two. The flat red background limits the sense of depth.

FRIEZE OF THE DIONYSIAC MYSTERIES Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. Near the end of the frieze the initiate kneels for the ritual flagellation. The beautiful nude figure of Bacchante dances willy.

FULLONICA STEPHANI Pompeii The largest laundry in Pompeii. The pressorium in the center was used for ironing. Living quarters were on the upper floor.

GARDEN MURALS House of Venus Pompeii After 62 Painted garden scenes with a statue of Mars.

GARDEN NYMPHAEUM House of Lorelus Tiburinus Pompeii After 62 A great outdoor nymphaeum with water channels, pools, fountains, overhanging vines, and decorative murals.

GARDEN PORTICO House of Julia Flex Pompeii The portico along this garden consists of unusual rectangular and fluted marble pillars.

HALL OR WAITING ROOM House of Menander Pompeii A portion of the rectangular exedra in the House of Menander. The hall or waiting room was furnished with seats.

IMPLUVIUM House of the Silver Wedding Pompeii End of 2nd century B.C. The impluvium or shallow pool which caught the rain falling through the compluvium. The walls were altered and redecorated in a later period.

IMPLUVIUM House of the Faun Pompeii 2nd century B.C. The famous House of the Faun was named after this little dancing figure in the square impluvium. Nothing else of the atrium remains. A second atrium was adjacent to this one and beyond the two atriums were the columns of the peristyle.

Interior, AMPHITHEATRE Pompeii 89-75 B.C. The shape of the amphitheatre is oval. Large stone sockets above the highest gallery were used to support the awning or velum (also velarium).

Interior, BROTHEL Pompeii Doorways to the cubicles in the brothel. Above are remnants of frescoes.

INTERSECTION Pompeii After 80 B.C. This is a typical intersection. Wheeled traffic passed over and around the pedestrian stepping stones.

IXION ROOM House of the Vettii Pompeii After 70 This complicated fourth style dining room, possibly a reception room, has large mythological paintings set within the middle panels as well as small mythological figures dancing within white panels with delicate ornamentation. Alternating window scenes create another dimenion. The base is made to appear like marble. The upper portion contains architectural fantasies and figures of the gods.

LARARIUM House of the Vettii Pompeii The lararium is a shrine to the spirits of the house, also associated with ancestors, household gods, and the emperor. The serpent, frequently represented, approaches a small altar as three young men drink and dance above.

LARGE GARDEN ROOM House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 62 The large garden hall off the peristyle contains some of the most refined painting of the early fourth style. Black bands break up the large red areas and these bands are delicately decorated. For the first time figures are introduced to the band at the base of the wall. In the upper area above the middle zone, a more complicated architectural space is enriched with mythological figures.

LATE THIRD STYLE WALL From the tablinum House of Marcus Lucretius Fronto Pompeii Between 50 and 60 In this late third style wall the once restrained decorative elements are becoming excessive and architectural depth is reintroduced.

OECUS House of the Vettii Pompeii After 62 This early fourth style oecus or small dining room has a predominantly white ground. Its architectural space is not as deep or as complicated as the more developed fourth style. Attention is focused on the delicate ornamentation.

OUTDOOR BALCONY Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 50 B.C. The villa opens up to the countryside. In contrast to the enclosed city home or domus, this balcony is attached to one of the two central buildings. Notice the decorative brickwork in the exterior columns.

PAINTED WALL PANEL House of the Samnite Herculaneum 2nd century B.C. Typical of the first style is the wall panel painted in different colors to look like different kinds of marble.

PALESTRA AT THE STABIAN BATHS Pompeii 2nd century B.C. The palestra or gymnasium at the Stabian baths. A portico surrounded the area on three sides. Young athletes exercised in the center, swam and relaxed under the shady trees.

PENTHEUS ROOM House of the Vettii Pompeii c. 70 These side panels have airy architectural scenes set into elaborately painted borders. The dining room is named after a large painting of Pentheus as he is being torn apart by maenads. Other mythological scenes are in panels adjacent to architectural views.

PERISTYLE House of the Vettii Pompeii 1st century A.D. The peristyle or inner colonnaded garden court in the House of the Vettii. The peristyle is at the center of the house with the private quarters built around it. Typically the garden has bronze and marble statues, busts, and water fountains. The entire arrangement indicates the Roman love of nature.

PERISTYLE House of Venus Pompeii After 62 This peristyle was built after the earthquake in 62. Decoration is in the fourth style.

PERISTYLE House of the Golden Cupids Pompeii c. 64 The elegant peristyle of the House of the Golden Cupids, built during the reign of Nero.

PERISTYLE House of Pansa Pompeii 2nd century B.C. Large columns from an early peristyle or inner colonnaded garden court. The peristyle is a private area in the house.

PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF PANSA Pompeii 2nd Century B.C. Based on drawing of Sir Banister Fletcher Redrawn by Douglas A. Russell The floor plan of a typical upper-class home of the Roman Republic. Showing the rather sophisticated living arrangements of the period. Shops surround the house with separate entrances to the surrounding streets. The main entrance leads into the atrium, the most public area of the house, which has a number of small cubiculla. In the center is the impluvium which collected rain which entered through an opening in the roof above. At the inner-most end of the atrium was the tabliunum in which family busts and statuary were kept. This area could be closed off or left open to the more private peristyle, or colonnaded courtyard. Off of the peristyle were the families' private appartments, the triclinium (dinning room), a reception room (the Oecus), which lead to a portico and the ususal kitchen garden.

PORTICO AND GARDEN Villa Oplontis Pompeii Mid-lst century B.C. A handsome portico surrounds this large villa which was built in the mid-first century B.C. The garden entrance to the great salon is supported by two large columns.

PORTICO OF THE GREAT THEATRE Pompeii 2nd century B.C. The rear portico of the Great Theatre, later used as barracks for gladiators.

PRIAPUS House of the Vettii Pompeii In the entrance hall fresco the fertility god Priapus, protector of the household, weighs his enormous phallus, a symbol of good fortune.

PRIMARY ATRIUM Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 70 B.C. The atrium is reached through a central axis from the entrance. Two corner doors lead to the tablinum. Beyond the main opening is the peristyle corridor.

RIOT IN THE AMPHITHEATRE 59 Museo Nazionale, Naples This third style painting gives a bird's eye view of the amphitheatre on the day of a bloody riot.

SECOND STYLE MURAL Villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale c. 60 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples There are three visual planes here: the colonnade in front of the door; the wall and door; and the world beyond the door. The masks are guardians of the beyond. The style creates a mysterious world, where tangible and intangible elements live side by side and yet blend into each other.

SECOND STYLE PAINTING Villa of P. Fannius Synistor Boscoreale c. 60 B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York A painting of comic scenery for the stage uses the theme of the closed door but penetrates deep into an architecturally sound space.

SECOND STYLE ROOM Villa of the Mysteries Pompeii c. 60 B.C. A room painted in an early and simple version of the second style. In general the second style divides a wall into three horizontal areas: a base at the foot of the wall; a middle area of broad and narrow fields; and a narrow top area. Painted columns divide the wall vertically. Rooms are made to appear larger than their size.

SECOND STYLE WALL House of the Griffins Palatine, Rome c. 80 B.C. This is one of the first known paintings in the second style. The column bases are rendered in perspective, giving depth to the wall and added size to the room. In this early example the wall is divided horizontally into three areas, a characteristic element lasting throughout the style.

SECTION THRU A HOME WITH CELLAR Pompeii 2nd century This sectional view through a tradesman's home in Pompeii shows a cellar beneath the peristyle. The inwardly sloped roof and the roof opening (compluvium) can be clearly seen above the impluvium of the atrium.

SUMMER TRICLINIUM House of the Mosaic of Neptune and Amphitrite Herculaneum After 62 An open court for summer dining and cooling by a fountain. The sunken floor with marble facing is used as dining couches. This also serves as a pool for the small fountain. The partially visible mosaic on the right gives the house its name.

SUMMER TRICLINIUM House of Aulus Trebius Valens Pompeii c. 70 This summer triclinium with stone couches and a round table is beside a garden and fountain. Behind is a beautiful checkered mural.

TABLINUM WALL PANEL House of Sallust Pompeii Another wall panel in the first style. The tablinum, originally the main bedroom, is the central room at the far end of the atrium.

TEMPLE OF APOLLO Forum of Pompeii 120 B.C. The temple sits on a platform built on ground sacred since the sixth century B.C.

TEMPLE OF ISIS Triangular Forum Pompeii Rebuilt after 62 The Temple of Isis, influenced by Egyptian beliefs, sits on the triangular forum constructed during the Samnite period. The temple cella held images of the gods and sacred water from the Nile. It too was rebuilt after the earthquake of 62.

TEPIDARIUM IN THE MEN'S BATH Forum of Pompeii 63-79 The tepidarium or warm lounge in the bath. The elaborate stucco wall decoration was added in the last years before the catastrophe of 79.

TETRASTYLE ATRIUM House of the Silver Wedding Pompeii End of 2nd century B.C. This large atrium or central hall is from a house of the Samnite era. Four Corinthian columns support the open roof which is sloped inward to collect the rain below. The opening is called the compluvium. Behind the atrium is the peristyle.

THE BREAD SELLER Fresco from the House of the Baker c. 70 Museo Nazionale, Naples Freshly baked breads are sold from a counter on the baker's stand.

THE STREET MUSICIANS Dioskourides of Samos Villa of Cicero Pompeii c. 100 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples Mosaic has an important decorative role in the Roman household as well as in public buildings. This floor mosaic of street musicians, apparently based on a well-known third century B.C. painting, was made by a Greek artist, Dioskourides of Samos.

THIRD STYLE MURAL From a Cubiculum House of the Fruit Orchard Pompeii First quarter of 1st century The cool green-blue is another frequently used color of the third style. The delicacy of the bottom portion of the wall is more in keeping with the style than the garden trees between the slender columns of the large middle area.

THIRD STYLE MYTHOLOGICAL SCENE From the triclinium House of Sacerdos Amandus Pompeii The mythological scene of the chained Andromeda being freed by Perseus tends to emphasize the landscape and cool atmosphere instead of the people. This characteristic is also typical of the third style.

THIRD STYLE WALL House of the Ceii Pompeii The wall surface is closed in the third style. A balanced and refined geometric pattern like this one is a major characteristic of the style. Efforts to achieve depth are abandoned in favor of pure ornament and finally soft amorphous and airy architectural form.

THIRD STYLE WALL From the Red Cubiculum Villa of Boscotrecase c. 11 B.C. Museo Nazionale, Naples This red which encloses and gives weight to the wall is a favorite color of the third style. The other dominant color is black. Typically the landscape panel is incoporated into the wall as a separate composition. It is delicate and dreamy and not as prominant as the large flat areas. The thin columns are a common feature of the style.

TRICLINIUM Villa Oplontis Pompeii Mid-lst century B.C. An elegant second style wall painting in the triclinium or dining room. The architectural painting creates an entirely new space out of the wall.

VENUS House of Venus Pompeii After 62 In this garden fresco, the goddess Venus floats on a shell and two Cupids ride dolphins. Combined with other paintings of garden scenes, the garden is made to appear larger.

VESTIBULE House of the Samnite Herculaneum 2nd century B.C. Four styles are generally used to designate the major periods in Pompeian and Roman painting and decoration. The first style covers the period from about 175 B.C. to 80 B.C. The second style dates from about 80 B.C. until 1 A.D. The third style begins around 1 A.D. or somewhat earlier and lasts until the earthquake in 62. And the fourth style develops after 62 up to the end of the city in 79. This vestibule from the House of the Samnite is in the first style, also referred to as the incrustation style. Decoration attempts to be costly. These stucco-covered columns are an imitation of marble. Notice the beautiful stone wall which originally was covered and painted too.

VIA DELL'ABBONDANZA Pompeii The Via dell'Abbondanza was the most important street in Pompeii. It held the commercial shops and private homes of merchants. A long street, it began at the forum and stretched to the Porta Sarno at the edge of the city. The stepping stones are for pedestrians in bad weather.

VIA DI MERCURIO Pompeii The wide Via di Mercurio passed through the most well-to-do residential area and was open only to pedestrians.

VIEW OF POMPEII After 80 B.C. Pompeii lay undisturbed under volcanic ash until the middle of the 18th century. It was discovered by accident in 1748. We are looking at a panorama of the city after it was excavated. Like so many Roman cities, it has organized main streets stretching through the city. Note the archway in the distance.

VILLA OF THE MYSTERIES Pompeii c. 200 B.C. The Villa of the Mysteries was a suburban house on the edge of Pompeii. Originally a simple farm building, around 200 B.C. it began to develop into a fifty-five room elegant patrician villa. This is a restored section at the entrance. In the foreground is the top of the arched basis villae or platform on which the villa is built.

WALL MOSAIC OF POSEIDON AND AMPHITRITE House of Poseidon and Amphitrite Herculaneum c. 70 The wall mosiac, known as opus musivum, became popular in the first century A.D. and primarily decorates grottoes and fountains. The brilliant mosaic of Poseidon and Amphitrite is on the wall of the nymphaeum. A formal architectural setting surrounds the figures.

WALL PAINTING Portrait of a Young Woman From a House in Pompeii c. 50 Museo Nazionale, Naples A wall painting less than a foot in diameter, this delicate portrait (probably of the lady or daughter of the house) was worked into the wall decoration.

WINE SHOP Via dell'Abbondanza Pompeii The interior of the small food and wine shop with a wall painting of its guardian deities.

WOMEN'S DRESSING ROOM IN BATH Herculaneum The apodyterium or dressing room in the women's section of the baths in Herculaneum.