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A history of ancient Babylon Babylonia, A history of ancient Babylon (Babylonia) including its cities, laws, kings and legacy to civilization. Babylonia (Babylonian B├-bili,"gate of God"; Old Persian Babirush),Was the ancient country of Mesopotamia, known originally as Sumer and later as Sumer and Akkad, lying between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, south of modern Baghd├-d, Iraq. The International History Project

A Political Collapse in the Old Babylonian Period Political Change and Cultural Continuity in Eshnunna from the Ur III to the Old Babylonian Period A dissertation proposal presented to The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations

Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions 1997-98 Annual Report

Ancient Economies II

Ancient Economies II Ancient Economies II deals with more speculative matters such as the economic content in ancient mythology. Morris Silver Economics Department City College of New York

Ancient Mesopotamia Teacher's Resource Guide information on Mesopotamia, Sumer, and Hammurabi [Oriental Institute] [People in History] [Searches and Tools]

Ancient Near East (Babylonia) Glossary and Texts This page lists most of the important Ancient Near Eastern characters, a short glossary and links to online Sumerian or Akkadian Texts.

Athens Deals with the Persian War. Ancient Athens Athenian Rule Important Army [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

Babylon Lingua Language: Akkadian. Links and fonts.

Babylonian and Egyptian Mathematics

Banquet of Ashurnasirpal The following account comes from the Royal Archives of Assyria and dates from the seventh century BCE. The speaker is the Emperor Ashurnasirpal (883-859 BCE) displaying his royal power. The feast was held to commemorate the inauguration of his new palace in the capital city of Calah.

Cuneiform Tablet

Encarta on Hammurabi's Code Info on Mesopotamia, Sumer, and Hammurabi [People in History] [Searches and Tools]

Encarta Online information on Hammurabi's Code Collection of the laws and edicts of the Babylonian king Hammurabi, and the earliest legal code known in its entirety. A copy of the code was unearthed by a team of French archaeologists during the winter of 1901 to 1902 at Susa, in a part of Iran that was once ancient Elam. [People in History] [Searches and Tools]

Hammurabi's Code of Laws

Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Mesopotamia Ancient Near East
Sumeria (c. 3100-c. 2000 BC)
Akkadia (c.2350-2200 BC)
Babylonia (c.2000-1600 BC)
Kassites and Hittites (c.1600-717 BC)
Assyria (c.1350- 612 BC)
Chaldea/Neo-Babylonia (612-539 BC)
Syrian Cities: Ebla, Ugarit, Emar
Phoenicia 950 BC
Carthage: The Punic Empire
ANE Arts and Architecture
ANE Mathematics and Astronomy
Gender and Sexuality
Modern Perspectives on Mesopotamia
Common Issues: Mesopotamian/Egyptian/Hebrew/Greek History

Iran - Demography World Jewish Congress, Jerusalem. The Jewish community of Persia, modern-day Iran, is one of the oldest in the Diaspora, and its historical roots reach back to the 6th century b.c., the time of the First Temple. The Council of the Jewish Community, which was established after World War II, is the representative body of the community, which also has in parliament a representative who is obligated by law to support Iranian foreign policy and its anti-Zionist position. [Ach├"mids - Medes]

IRANSAGA Persian History and Culture From the dawn of history, Persia has been a distinct and important cultural entity. Its position as a vast natural fortress, with mountain ranges, enabled the Persians to preserve their individuality inspite of the conquests by the Arabs (7th century), the Turks (10th century), and the Mongols (13th to 15th centuries). Today, Iran remains a country rich in traditions, with a culture which has had great influence on other countries, both in Central Asia, and throughout the world.

Ishtar Gate Inscription Dedicatory Inscription on the Ishtar Gate, Babylon; TRANSLATION (Adapted from Marzahn 1995:29-30)Language: Akkadian Medium: glazed brick Size: c. 15 meters high c. 10 meters wide Length: 60 lines of writing Genre: Dedication Inscription Dedicator: Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylonia (reigned 605""562 BCE) Approximate Date: 600 BCE Place of Discovery: Babylon (near modern Baghdad, Iraq) Date of Excavation: 1899""1914 Current Location: Pergamon Museen (Berlin, Germany)

Lost City of Arabia

Manumission and Bridewealth Document Manumission and Bridewealth Document (14th cent. BC?)TRANSLATION by K. C. Hanson (Adapted from Finkelstein 1969:546). Language: Akkadian; Medium: Clay tablet; Size: 43 centimeters long 5 centimeters wide; Length: 25 lines of writing Genre: Manumission & Marriage Contract Approximate Date: 14th cent. BC? Place of Discovery: Ugarit acropolis, Ras Shamra, Syria Date of Discovery: 1936 Current Location: Mus├ęe National d'Alep Aleppo, Syria.

Medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia Most of the information available to modern scholars comes from cuneiform tablets. There are no useful pictorial representations that have survived in ancient Mesopotamian art, nor has a significant amount of skeletal material yet been analyzed. Unfortunately, while an abundance of cuneiform tablets have survived from ancient Mesopotamia, relatively few are concerned with medical issues. Many of the tablets that do mention medical practices have survived from the library of Asshurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria.

Mesopotamia 9000 B.C. -500 B.C. The name Mesopotamia (meaning "the land between the rivers") refers to the geographic region which lies near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and not to any particular civilization. In fact, over the course of several millennia, many civilizations developed, collapsed, and were replaced in this fertile region. The land of Mesopotamia is made fertile by the irregular and often violent flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. While these floods aided agricultural endeavors by adding rich silt to the soil every year, it took a tremendous amount of human labor to successfully irrigate the land and to protect the young plants from the surging flood waters. Given the combination of fertile soil and the need for organized human labor, perhaps it is not surprising that the first civilization developed in Mesopotamia. The origins of civilization can be traced to a group of people living in southern Mesopotamia called the Sumerians. By c.3500 BCE, the Sumerians had developed many of the features that characterized subsequent civilizations.

Mesopotamia: Root Entry Mesopotamia stands at the very dawn of human recorded history; we are often fooled into thinking of Mesopotamia as some distant relative, but it is, in fact, a culture stunningly different from our own. We are going to tour the mysteries of this foundational civilization: it's life, it's words, it's gods, and it's writing; you're invited to browse through the dust and heat of one of first cultures to inscribe for the future the story of its existence. History and Peoples, Mesopotamian History and Peoples, The Sumerians, The Akkadians, The Amorites, The Hittites, The Kassites, The Assyrians, The Chaldeans, Mesopotamian Culture , Cuneiform , Resources , A Gallery of Mesopotamia , Mesopotamian Timeline , An Anthology of Mesopotamian Readings , A Glossary of Mesopotamia , Internet Resources on Mesopotamia

Mesopotamian Bronze Age [Sargon of Akkad] [Naram-Sin] [Sack of Akkad] [Neo Sumerian Renaiessance] [Gudea of Lagash] [Third Dynasty of Ur] [Urnammu] [Shulgi] [End of the URIII Period] [Old Babylonian Period] [Amorites] [Isin-Larsa Period] [Hammurabi of Babylon] [Old Assyrian Period] [K├╝ltepe texts] [The Commercial Process] [Merchandise]

Mesopotamian Protohistory [Writing] [The Sumerians] [The Sumerian King Lists] [Early Cities] [The Flood Story] [Jemdet Nasr Period] [Old Sumerian Age] [The Golden Age] [The Heroic Age] [Early Dynastic-III]

Mesopotamian Year Names Neo-Sumerian and Old Babylonian Date Formulae. The list of more than 2,000 year names which is made accessible here has been compiled as a tool for the dating of cuneiform tablets as well as for supporting historical studies on early bookkeeping techniques. This tool essentially consists of a collection of date formulae in administrative documents as they were used by the scribes in ancient Mesopotamia, and of computer generated indices for a quick identification of incomplete date formulae on damaged cuneiform tablets and of issues and events mentioned in these formulae.

NASA Observatorium Education- Ubar: The Lost City The legend goes like this: Ubar, a rich and fabulous trading center of ancient Arabia rose out of the desert and then mysteriously vanished back into the sands. References to Ubar in the Koran, the Arabian Nights, and countless Bedouin tales told around desert campfires have captivated the imaginations of explorers and archaeologists. But all searches were fruitless and the city remained lost. Now, centuries after Ubar's disappearance, a combination of hard work, dedicated research, and remote sensing technology has perhaps unraveled this ancient mystery.

Near East Map Oriental Institute Map Series - Site Maps Combining the separate 300 dpi prints will produce a composite map of the ancient Near East approximately 14" to 19" square, depending upon the printing methods used. The Site Maps will be updated periodically, so check back for the latest versions. Each Site Map is presented as a 300 dpi grayscale image sized for convenient printing on an 8 1/2" x 11" laser printer.

Origins of the Armenian People The Armenians became part of the Achaemid Empire from 560 BC on. [Ach├"mids - Medes]

Persia Deals with the Persian Empire [People in History] [Tools and Searches]

Persians and Aryan Origin Since ancient times, Persians have used the term Aryan as a racial designation in an ethnic sense to describe their lineage and their language, and this tradition has continued into the present day amongst modern Iranians (Encyclopedia Iranica, p. 681, Arya). In fact, the name Iran is a cognate of Aryan and means "Land of the Aryans." Darius the Great, King of Persia (521""486 BC), in an inscription in Naqsh-e Rustam (near Shiraz in present-day Iran), proclaims: "I am Darius the great King"" A Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan, having Aryan lineage..." He also calls his language the "Aryan language," commonly known today as Old Persian. According to the Encyclopedia Iranica, "the same ethnic concept was held in the later centuries" and was associated with "nobility and lordship." The word has become a technical term in the theologies of Zoroastrianism, but has always been used by Iranians in the ethnic sense as well. In 1967, Iran's Pahlavi dynasty (overthrown in the 1979 Iranian revolution) added the title ├éry├-mehr "Light of the Aryans" to those of the monarch, known at the time as the Shahanshah (King of Kings). [Ach┬┐mids/Medes]

Photographs of Mesopotamia Sam Ruff's Photographs of Mesopotamia 1954-1956

Poppa's Ancient World 3500-400 BC. (Timeline) "From the start of recorded history, the Near East has played an integral part in shaping the world we know. From the first real civilisation, the Sumerians, through the struggle for power between the Egyptian and Hittite empires and the rise and fall of the Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian empires, this region provides a wealth of fascinating facts and stories. Here we will be taking a look at three main areas; Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Syria/Israel, which are all marked on the map below. Although the complete Egyptian history is not included in this section, Egypt did have a big influence and therefore have been included in the timelines." includes maps.

Sparta Deals with the Persian War [People in History] [Tools and Searches]


Sumerian Beer: Did beer come before bread? To answer the question scholars helped concoct a Mesopotamian brew from a 3,800-year-old recipe etched in clay. By Solomon H. Katz and Fritz Maytag.

The Code of Hammurabi (Full Text) Hammurabi`s Code of Laws Translated by L. W. King

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Some stories indicate the Hanging Gardens towered hundreds of feet into the air, but archaeological explorations indicate a more modest, but still impressive, height.

The History of Opium

The History of Plumbing - Babylon

The Nation of Iraq History, Geography, Business, Culture, Transportation and more. ArabNet

The Nation of Oman

Warfare in the Ancient Near East Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC Holy Warriors at the Dawn of History Author: William J. Hamblin...* recruitment and training of the infantry * the logistics and weaponry of warfare * the shift from stone to metal weapons * the role played by magic * narratives of combat and artistic representations of battle * the origins and development of the chariot as military transportation * fortifications and siegecraft *developments in naval warfare. [General Ancient War Links]

Women`s Lives in Ancient Mesopotamia Ancient Tablets, Ancient Graves: Accessing Women`s Lives in Mesopotamia. Women In World History Curriculum

Xerxes` march route Interactive game. Xerxes was born about 465 BC, to Darius Hystaspis and Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great. He was king of Persia from 486-465 BC. He tried to continue his father`s plans to conquer Greece from 483-480 BC, after which he returned to Persia. [Maps] [Ancient Near East]

Yale Law School with Babylonian background information on Mesopotamia, Sumer, and Hammurabi [People in History] [Searches and Tools]