Ark of the Covenant - Bible History Online
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December 5    Scripture

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Ancient Near East : Monuments

Babylon's Original Walls Original Walls of Babylon, 604 to 562 B.C. In 604 to 562 B.C., thick masonry walls were built around Babylon.

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III was discovered by the late Henry Layard in 1845. The 7 foot black limestone monument was found in the ruins of the palace of Shalmaneser III at ancient Calah, near Nineveh. It contains many panels displaying the Assyrian kings exploits. The Black Obelisk is one of the most important discoveries in Biblical Archaeology because one of the panels depicts the Hebrew king Jehu, or possibly one of his servants, bringing gifts to Shalmaneser and kneeling at his feet. The inscription above it reads: "The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri, silver, gold, bowls of gold, chalices of gold, cups of gold, vases of gold, lead, a sceptre for the king, and spear-shafts, I have received." (Bible History Online)

Hanging Garden's of Babylon The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. The Greek historian Herodotus described Babylon in great detail. King Nebuchadnezzar built them in 580 BC apparently for his wife Amytis, daughter of the Median King Astyages, who was homesick for the mountains and vegetation of her native land. The site was located by an archaeologist named Koldeway at the northeast corner of Nebuchadnezzar's palace near the Ishtar Gate. The gardens were probably developed on a structure like a ziggurat and built in the form of elevated terraces. Koldeway discovered huge vaults and arches at the site. He also uncovered an ancient hydraulic system like a pump drawing water from the river. The building was about 75 feet high and the gardens were at different levels which grew around and on top of a building. (Bible History Online)

Hattusa Contains images of monuments on Hattusa. Hattuþa is a fantastic site. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The earliest traces of settlement on the site is from the 6th millennium BCE. Before 2000 BCE the site was settled by the Hatti, the pre-Hittites. Around 1700 BCE, this city was destroyed, apparently by King Anitta from Kushar. A generation later, a Hittite speaking king built Hattuþa. It became the capital of the Hittite Empire. At its peak, the city covered 1.8 km². The city was destroyed around 1200 BCE with the collapse of the Hittite Empire. The city has several large temple complexes, and many fortifications, including a large city wall. Nearby is Yazýlýkaya, a sanctuary of Hattuþa. It has some marvelous reliefs carved in the rock walls. The Hittites ruled a vast Empire in the Middle East.

Hittite Palace in Turkey Hittite palace area. This photograph shows the ruins of a Hittite palace in Turkey. Rectangular shaped stones show the outline of where rooms had been and grass grows up between them. Three large terra cotta jars can be seen in one of the "rooms". Visitors to the site are kept back from the ruins by barbed wire fences.

Nebuchadnezzar's Palace King Nebuchadnezzar's Palace in Ancient Babylon

Palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad Reconstruction image of the palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad, Iraq

Reconstructed Images of the City of Babylon in Iraq Ancient city that was located on the east side of the Euphrates river, and capital of Babylonia in 2nd and 1st millennia BCE. Its ruins are found 90 km south of modern Baghdad in Iraq.The main foundation for Babylon's economy was trade routes between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea, as well as agriculture fed by the rich Euphrates River. Babylon is today famous mainly for its size and architecture from the period of Nebuchadnezzar 2 in the 6th century BCE, when it covered about 10 km² and was by far the largest city in the world. But this city only survived for few decades before it was sacked by the Persians. Saddam Hussein ordered the reconstruction atop the ancient ruins that destroyed a lot of ancient artefacts on the site.

The Hammurabi Stele

The Ishtar Gate Ancient Babylonia "" The Ishtar Gate (Bible History Online). The Ishtar Gate, one of the eight gates of the inner city of Babylon, was built during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (604- 562 BC). Only the foundations of the gate were found, going down some 45 feet, with molded, unglazed figures. The gateway has been reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin, from the glazed bricks found, so its original height is different in size. Reconstructed height is 47 feet.

The Ziggurats Ancient Babylonia "" The Ziggurats (Bible History Online) One of the most important aspects of Babylonian religion and tradition, and probably the best known, is the ziggurat. Ziggurats were huge "stepped" structures with, on their summit, far above the ground, a temple. This Temple would have been to the city god. The city ziggurat would easily be the most conspicuous building in the city, towering above any visitors coming to their city. Therefore the ziggurat was not just a religious center but also a center of civic pride. Any visitor could not but see the ziggurat. The ziggurats were built on an immense scale: in the time of Hammurapi they would sometimes reach the height of 150 feet. Around the base there might be more temples or in some case accommodation for priests.

Walls of Babylon Ancient Walls of Babylon, 604 to 562 B.C. In its glory, Babylon was surrounded by thick masonry walls ornamented with images of the ancient God of Marduk.

Winged Lion of Babylon Human-headed winged lion (lamassu), 883 859 B.C.;Neo-Assyrian period, reign of Ashurnasirpal II