Lysis in Wikipedia
Lysis (Greek λύσις, lysis from lyein = to separate) refers to the breaking down of a cell, often by viral, enzymic or osmotic mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a "lysate".
Many species of bacteria are subject to lysis by the enzyme lysozyme, found in animal saliva, egg white and other secretions. Phage lytic enzymes (lysins) produced during bacteriophage infection are responsible for the ability of these viruses to lyse bacterial cells. Penicillin and related β-lactam antibiotics cause the death of bacteria through enzyme-mediated lysis that occurs after the drug causes the bacterium to form a defective cell wall.
Cytolysis is the lysis of cells in a hypotonic environment (the surrounding fluid has a lower salt concentration than the cell interior). Cytolysis is caused by excessive osmosis, or movement of water, towards the inside of a cell (hyperhydration). The cell membrane cannot withstand the osmotic pressure of the water inside, and so it explodes. Osmosis occurs from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential passing through a semipermeable membrane, so these bursting cells are located in hypotonic environments.
Cytolysis can be prevented by several different mechanisms, including the contractile vacuole that exists in some paramecia which rapidly pump water out of the cell.
Cytolysis does not occur under normal conditions in plant cells because plant cells have a strong cell wall that contains the osmotic pressure, or turgor pressure, that would otherwise cause cytolysis to occur.
Plasmolysis is the contraction of cells within plants due to the loss of water through osmosis. In a hypertonic environment, the cell membrane peels off of the cell wall and the vacuole collapses. These cells will eventually wilt and die unless the flow of water caused by osmosis can stop the contraction of the cell membrane.