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People - Ancient Greece: Artemidorus
Born Artemidorus Daldianus or Ephesius, he was an ancient Greek professional diviner and author.

Artemidōrus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities The Geographer, a native of Ephesus, who travelled about B.C. 100 through the countries bordering on the Mediterranean and part of the Atlantic coast, and wrote a long work on his researches, the Γεωγραφούμενα, in eleven books, as well as an abstract of the same. Of both works, which were much consulted by later geographers, we have only fragments. The Geographer, a native of Ephesus, who travelled about B.C. 100 through the countries bordering on the Mediterranean and part of the Atlantic coast, and wrote a long work on his researches, the Γεωγραφούμενα, in eleven books, as well as an abstract of the same. Of both works, which were much consulted by later geographers, we have only fragments. 2. The Dream-interpreter, born at Ephesus at the beginning of the second century A.D., surnamed "the Daldian," from his mother's birthplace, Daldis in Lydia, wrote a work on the interpretation of dreams, the Ὀνειροκριτικά, in four books. He had gathered his materials from the works of earlier authors and by oral inquiries during his travels in Asia, Italy, and Greece. The book is an acute exposition of the theory of interpreting dreams, and its practical application to examples systematically arranged according to the several stages of human life. An appendix, counted as a fifth book, gives a collection of dreams that have come true. For the light thrown on the mental condition of antiquity, especially in the second century A.D., and for many items of information on religious rites and myths relating to dreams, these writings are of value. See Reichardt, De Artemidoro Daldiano (1893).

Artemidorus in Wikipedia Artemidorus Daldianus or Ephesius was a professional diviner and author known for an extant five-volume Greek work Oneirocritica, (English: The Interpretation of Dreams). Artemidorus was surnamed Ephesius, from Ephesus, on the west coast of Asia Minor, but was also called Daldianus, from his mother's native city, Daldis in Lycia. He lived in the second century. According to Artemidorus, the material for his work was gathered during lengthy travels through Greece, Italy and Asia, from diviners of high and low station. Another major source were the writings of Artemidorus' predecessors, sixteen of whom he cites by name. It is clear he built on a rich written tradition, now otherwise lost. Artemidorus' method is, at root, analogical. He writes that dream interpretation is "nothing other than the juxtaposition of similarities" (2.25). But like other types of Greek divination, including astrology, celestial divination and pallomancy, Greek dream divination (Oneiromancy) became exceedingly complex, a given dream subject to a number of interpretations depending on secondary considerations, such as the age, sex and status of the dreamer. At other times, subtle distinctions within the dream itself are significant. In a particularly memorable passage, Artemidorus expounds upon the meaning of dreams involving sex with one's mother: "The case of one's mother is both complex and manifold and admits of many different interpretations-a thing not all dream interpreters have realized. The fact is that the mere act of intercourse by itself is not enough to show what is portended. Rather, the manner of the embraces and the various positions of the bodies indicate different outcomes." (Trans. Robert J. White) There follows a lengthy and minute recitation of the divinatory significance of enjoying one's mother in various sexual positions. The first three books of the Oneirocritica are dedicated to one Cassius Maximus and were intended to serve as a detailed introduction for both diviners and the general public. Books four and five were written for Artemidorus' son, also Artemidorus, to give him a leg-up on competitors, and Artemidorus cautions him about making copies. According to the Suda (Alpha 4025), Artemidorus also penned a Oiônoscopica (Interpretation of Birds) and a Chiroscopica (Palmistry), but neither has survived, and the authorship is discounted. In the Oneirocritica Artemidorus displays a hostile attitude to palmistry. Among the authors Artemidorus cites are Antiphon (possibly the same as Antiphon the Sophist), Aristander of Telmessus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Alexander of Myndus in Caria, and Artemon of Miletus. The fragments of these authors, from Artemidorus and other sources, were collected by Del Corno in his Graecorum de re onirocritica scriptorum reliquiae (1969). Editions and translations * The definitive edition of the Greek text is by Roger Pack, Artemidori Daldiani Onirocriticon Libri V (Teubner 1963) * A medieval Arabic version was made of the first three books (i.e., the "public" books) in 877 by Hunayn ibn Ishaq, and published by Toufic Fahd with a French translation in 1964 under the title Le livre des songes [par] Artémidore d'Éphèse * The most recent English translation is by R.J. White, The Interpretation of Dreams (2nd Edition, 1990, Torrance, CA: Original Books). * The most recent Italian translation is by Dario Del Corno, Libro dei sogni (1974) * The most recent French translation is by A. J. Festugière, Clef des Songes (1975) * The "fragments" of other Greco-Roman oneirocritic authors were compiled by Dario Del Corno in his Graecorum de re Onirocritica Scriptorum Reliquiae (1969), with commentary in Italian. As many of the fragments are preserved by Artemidorus, Del Corno's work is also a partial commentary to the Oneirocritica. * There is also a Dutch translation, by Simone Mooij-Valk, called Droomboek (2003)

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