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November 18    Scripture



People - Ancient Greece: Aesop
(620–564 BC) Ancient Greek author known for his fables.

Aesop in Wikipedia Aesop or Esop (pronounced /ˈiːsəp/ EE-səp or /ˈiːˌsɒp/ EE-SOP;[1] Greek: Αἴσωπος, Aisōpos; c. 620–564 BC), known for the genre of fables ascribed to him (see Aesop's Fables), was by tradition born a slave (δοῦλος) and was a contemporary of Croesus and Solon in the mid-sixth century BC in ancient Greece. Aesop the Fabulist. Though Aesop became famous across the ancient world as the preeminent teller of fables, he did not create the genre; the earliest known story with talking animals in ancient Greek is the fable of the hawk and the nightingale[15] from Hesiod, who lived at least three centuries before Aesop. Aesop may or may not have written his fables—The Aesop Romance claims that he wrote them down and deposited them in the library of Croesus; Herodotus calls Aesop a "writer of fables" and Aristophanes speaks of "reading" Aesop[16]—but no writings by Aesop have survived. Socrates while in prison turned some of the fables into verse. In Plato's dialogue Phaedo, which takes place on the day of Socrates' execution, Socrates speaks of a recurring dream which exhorted him to "make music" and which he took to refer to philosophy, but after his trial he decided to try to write poetry: "As I have no invention, I took some fables of Aesop, which I had ready at hand and knew, and turned them into verse."[17] Diogenes Laertius in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers records a small fragment.[18] The early Roman playwright and poet Ennius also rendered at least one of Aesop's fables in Latin verse, of which the last two lines still exist.[19] The body of work identified as Aesop's Fables was transmitted by a series of later authors writing in both Greek and Latin. Demetrius of Phalerum (ca. 350-ca. 280 BC) made a collection in ten books, probably in prose (Lopson Aisopeion sunagogai) for the use of orators, which has been lost. Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse, cited by the Suda, but the author's name is unknown. Phaedrus, a freedman of Augustus, rendered the fables into Latin. Babrius turned the fables into Greek choliambics in the earlier part of the 3rd century A.D. Another 3rd century author, Titianus, rendered the fables in prose, now lost.[20] Avianus (of uncertain date, perhaps the 4th century) translated 42 of the fables into Latin elegiacs. The 4th century grammarian Dositheus Magister also made a collection of Aesop's Fables, now lost. Aesop's Fables continued to be revised and translated through the ensuing centuries, with the addition of material from other cultures, so that the fables known today in some cases bear little relation to the original fables of Aesop. With a surge in scholarly interest in Aesop and Aesopic fable beginning toward the end of the 20th century, some attempt has been made to determine the nature and content of the very earliest fables which may be most closely linked to the historic Aesop.[21] Recent research has shown an intimate relation between the fables associated with the name of Æsop and the jatakas, or birth-stories of the Buddha. Sakyamuni is represented in the jatakas as recording the varied experiences of his previous existences, when he was in the form of birds, of beasts, and even of trees. Such legends as these may very well be the natural sources of tales like those of Æsop, which represent beasts as acting with the sentiments and thoughts of human beings. The jatakas are now extant in Pali versions, derived from Ceylon. It is surmised that a number of them were introduced into the Greek-speaking world by a Cingalese embassy that visited Rome about the year 50, as the fables that can be traced in classical literature later than that date resemble the Indian fables much more closely than the earlier fables of Æsop, as represented by Phædrus. It is probable that these later Indian fables were connected by the Greeks with the name of a Libyan, called Kybises: Babrius, a writer of fables in the third century, couples him with Æsop. Thus, in the first century, there were two sets of fables—one associated with the name of Æsop, and the other with that of Kybises—while in the second century these two sets were included in one compilation, running to three hundred fables, by a rhetor named Nicostratus. In the third century these fables were turned into Greek verse by Babrius...

Aesop in wikipedia Aesop or Esop (pronounced /ˈiːsəp/ EE-səp or /ˈiːˌsɒp/ EE-SOP;[1] Greek: Αἴσωπος, Aisōpos; c. 620–564 BC), known for the genre of fables ascribed to him (see Aesop's Fables), was by tradition born a slave (δοῦλος) and was a contemporary of Croesus and Solon in the mid-sixth century BC in ancient Greece. Early sources Sources of Aesop's life date from long after his death, and most biographical material about him is almost certainly mythical. His name was associated with a huge number of fables, most of which probably were composed not by the historical figure of Aesop but by later authors. A woodcut from the 1489 Spanish edition of Fabulas de Esopo depicts Aesop surrounded by events from the Planudes version of The Aesop Romance. The earliest Greek sources (including Aristotle) indicate that Aesop was born in Thrace at a site on the Black Sea coast which would later become the city Mesambria; a number of later writers from the Roman imperial period (including Phaedrus, who adapted the fables into Latin), say that he was born in Phrygia.[2] The 3rd-century B.C. poet Callimachus called him "Aesop of Sardis,"[3] and the later writer Maximus of Tyre called him "the sage of Lydia".[4] Aristotle is also the earliest source (following Herodotus) for the information that Aesop was a slave in Samos and that his masters were first a man named Xanthus and then a man named Iadmon; that he must eventually have been freed, because he argued as an advocate for a wealthy Samian; and that he met his end in the city of Delphi.[5][6] Plutarch tells us that Aesop had come to Delphi on a diplomatic mission from King Croesus of Lydia, that he insulted the Delphians, was sentenced to death on a trumped-up charge of temple theft, and was thrown from a cliff; the Delphians subsequently suffered pestilence and famine. Before this fatal episode, Aesop also met with Periander of Corinth, where Plutarch has him dining with the Seven Sages of Greece, sitting beside his friend Solon, whom he had met in Sardis.[7] Problems of chronological reconciliation dating the death of Aesop and the reign of Croesus led the great Aesop scholar Ben Edwin Perry in 1965 to conclude that "everything in the ancient testimony about Aesop that pertains to his associations with either Croesus or with any of the so-called Seven Wise Men of Greece must be reckoned as literary fiction," and Perry likewise dismissed Aesop's death in Delphi as legendary[8]; but subsequent research has established that a possible diplomatic mission for Croesus and a visit to Periander "are consistent with the year of Aesop's death."[9] Still problematic is the story by Phaedrus which has Aesop in Athens, telling the fable of the frogs who asked for a king, during the reign of Peisistratos, which occurred decades after the presumed date of Aesop's death.[10] The Aesop Romance Along with the scattered references in the ancient sources regarding the life and death of Aesop, there is a highly fictional biography now commonly called The Aesop Romance (also known as the Vita or The Life of Aesop or The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and Aesop His Slave), "an anonymous work of Greek popular literature composed around the second century of our era....Like The Alexander Romance, The Aesop Romance became a folkbook, a work that belonged to no one, and the occasional writer felt free to modify as it might suit him."[11] Multiple, sometimes contradictory, versions of this work exist. The earliest known version "was probably composed in the first century C.E.," but the story "probably circulated in different versions for centuries before it was committed to writing"[12]; "certain elements can be shown to originate in the 4th century B.C."[13] Scholars long dismissed any historical or biographical validity in The Aesop Romance; widespread study of the work began only toward the end of the 20th century. A full assessment of its value has yet to be presented. In The Aesop Romance, Aesop is a slave of Phrygian origin on the island of Samos, and extremely ugly. At first he lacks the power of speech, but after showing kindness to a priestess of Isis, is granted by the goddess not only speech but a gift for clever storytelling, which he uses alternately to assist and confound his master, Xanthus, embarrassing the philosopher in front of his students and even sleeping with his wife. After interpreting a portent for the people of Samos, Aesop is given his freedom and acts as an emissary between the Samians and King Croesus. Later he travels to the courts of (the imaginary) Lycurgus of Babylon and Nectanabo of Egypt in a section that appears to borrow heavily from the romance of Ahiqar.[14] The story ends with Aesop's journey to Delphi and his death there. Aesop the fabulist Though Aesop became famous across the ancient world as the preeminent teller of fables, he did not create the genre; the earliest known story with talking animals in ancient Greek is the fable of the hawk and the nightingale[15] from Hesiod, who lived at least three centuries before Aesop. Aesop as depicted by Francis Barlow in the 1687 edition of Aesop's Fables with His Life. Aesop may or may not have written his fables—The Aesop Romance claims that he wrote them down and deposited them in the library of Croesus; Herodotus calls Aesop a "writer of fables" and Aristophanes speaks of "reading" Aesop[16]—but no writings by Aesop have survived. Socrates while in prison turned some of the fables into verse. In Plato's dialogue Phaedo, which takes place on the day of Socrates' execution, Socrates speaks of a recurring dream which exhorted him to "make music" and which he took to refer to philosophy, but after his trial he decided to try to write poetry: "As I have no invention, I took some fables of Aesop, which I had ready at hand and knew, and turned them into verse."[17] Diogenes Laertius in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers records a small fragment.[18] The early Roman playwright and poet Ennius also rendered at least one of Aesop's fables in Latin verse, of which the last two lines still exist.[19] The body of work identified as Aesop's Fables was transmitted by a series of later authors writing in both Greek and Latin. Demetrius of Phalerum (ca. 350-ca. 280 BC) made a collection in ten books, probably in prose (Lopson Aisopeion sunagogai) for the use of orators, which has been lost. Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse, cited by the Suda, but the author's name is unknown. Phaedrus, a freedman of Augustus, rendered the fables into Latin. Babrius turned the fables into Greek choliambics in the earlier part of the 3rd century A.D. Another 3rd century author, Titianus, rendered the fables in prose, now lost.[20] Avianus (of uncertain date, perhaps the 4th century) translated 42 of the fables into Latin elegiacs. The 4th century grammarian Dositheus Magister also made a collection of Aesop's Fables, now lost. Aesop's Fables continued to be revised and translated through the ensuing centuries, with the addition of material from other cultures, so that the fables known today in some cases bear little relation to the original fables of Aesop. With a surge in scholarly interest in Aesop and Aesopic fable beginning toward the end of the 20th century, some attempt has been made to determine the nature and content of the very earliest fables which may be most closely linked to the historic Aesop.[21] Physical appearance Perhaps the earliest ancient author to refer to Aesop's appearance is Himerius, who says that Aesop "was laughed at and made fun of not because of some of his tales, but on account of his looks and the sound of his voice."[22] The Aesop Romance begins with a vivid description of Aesop's appearance, saying he was "of loathsome aspect...potbellied, misshapen of head, snub-nosed, swarthy, dwarfish, bandy-legged, short-armed, squint-eyed, liver-lipped—a portentous monstrosity."[23] The evidence from both of these sources is dubious, since Himerius lived some 800 years after Aesop and his image of Aesop may have come from The Aesop Romance, which is essentially fiction; but whether based on fact or not, at some point the idea of an ugly, even deformed Aesop took hold in popular imagination. Scholars have begun to examine why and how this "physiognomic tradition" developed.[24] Another, more recent tradition depicts Aesop as a black African from Ethiopia.[25] This idea appears to have originated with Planudes, a Byzantine scholar of the 13th century A.D. who wrote a biography of Aesop based on The Aesop Romance and conjectured that Aesop might have been Ethiopian, given his name.[26] (Ethiopian in Greek means "scorched-face," a "vestige of an archaic view of the world that located the Ethiopians to the east, near the rising sun, which was responsible for their blackened skins."[27]) An English translation of Planudes' biography from 1687 says that "his Complexion [was] black, from which dark Tincture he contracted his Name (Aesopus being the same with Aethiops)," and when asked his origin by a prospective new master, Aesop replies, "I am a Negro"; numerous illustrations by Francis Barlow accompany this text and depict Aesop accordingly.[28] But according to Gert-Jan van Dijk, "Planudes' derivation of 'Aesop' from 'Aethiopian' is...etymologically incorrect."[29] The idea that Aesop was Ethiopian may have been further encouraged by the presence of camels, elephants, and apes in the fables, but these African elements are more likely to have come from Egypt and Libya than from Ethiopia, and the fables featuring African animals may have entered the body of Aesopic fables long after Aesop actually lived.[30] Depictions of Aesop in art and popular culture Ancient sources mention two famous statues of Aesop, one by Aristodemus and another by Lysippus which was in a place of honor before the Seven Sages of Greece, and Philostratus describes a painting of Aesop surrounded by the animals of his fables;[31] none of these works is known to have survived, and we do not know how Aesop was depicted. In 1843, the archaeologist Otto Jahn suggested that Aesop was the person depicted on a Greek red-figure cup, ca. 450 B.C., in the Vatican Museums.[32] Paul Zanker describes the figure as a man with "emaciated body and oversized head...furrowed brow and open mouth," who "listens carefully to the teachings of the fox sitting before him. He has pulled his mantle tightly around his meagre body, as if he were shivering...he is ugly, with long hair, bald head, and unkempt, scraggly beard, and is clearly uncaring of his appearance."[33] The 4th century B.C. Athenian playwright Alexis put Aesop on the stage in his comedy "Aesop," of which a few lines survive (Athenaeus 10.432); conversing with Solon, Aesop praises the Athenian practice of adding water to wine. The 3rd century B.C. poet Poseidippus of Pella wrote a narrative poem entitled "Aesopia" (now lost), in which Aesop's fellow slave Rhodopis (under her original name Doricha) was frequently mentioned, according to Athenaeus 13.596. Pliny would later identify Rhodopis as Aesop's lover (see below). Some archaeologists have suggested that a Hellenistic statue of a bearded man with a deformed torso in the Villa Albani in Rome depicts Aesop (see photo elsewhere on this page); but as François Lissarrague points out, "It could be the realistic portrait of some individual unknown to us, or an expressive portrait like others known to exist in Hellenistic art. The sole argument advanced to identify the fabulist in this work is the facial expression: He looks intelligent. Admittedly, this evidence is a bit meager."[34] Aesop makes a cameo appearance in the novel A True Story by the 2nd-century A.D. satirist Lucian; when the narrator arrives at the Island of the Blessed, he finds that "Aesop the Phrygian was there, too; he acts as their jester."[35] Diego Velásquez painted a portrait of Aesop (dated 1639-40) which is now in the collection of the Museo del Prado. The presentation is anachronistic and Aesop, while arguably not handsome, displays no physical deformities. The 1687 edition of Aesop's Fables with His Life: in English, French and Latin included 28 engravings by Francis Barlow to illustrate the English translation of Planudes' Life of Aesop; Aesop is shown as a dwarfish hunchback, and his facial features appear to accord with his statement in the text (p. 7), "I am a Negro." Aesop as depicted by the 17th-century artist Wenceslaus Hollar. Sir John Vanbrugh's comedy "Aesop" premiered at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane, London, in 1697 and was frequently performed there for the next twenty years. A translation and adaptation of "Les fables d'Esope" and "Esope à la cour" by French playwright Edmé Boursault, Vanbrugh's play depicted a physically ugly Aesop acting as adviser to Learchus, governor of Cyzicus under King Croesus, and using his fables to solve romantic problems and quiet political unrest.[36] The success of Vanbrugh's comedy led, beginning in 1697, to a new form of "journalistic-poetical entertainment which consisted of small pamphlets chronicling Aesop's visits to various English spas" where he recounted his fables, often with a contemporary satirical or political bent; these pamphlets had titles like Aesop at Bathe, Aesop at Tunbridge, and Aesop at Islington.[37] In 1780, the anonymously authored novelette The History and Amours of Rhodope was published in London. Drawing on a mention in Herodotus 2.134-5 that Aesop had once been owned by the same master as Rhodopis, and the statement in Pliny 36.17 that she was Aesop's concubine as well, the story casts the two slaves as unlikely lovers, one ugly and the other beautiful; ultimately Rhodope is parted from Aesop and marries the Pharaoh of Egypt. Some editions of the volume were illustrated with an engraving by Francesco Bartolozzi of a work by painter Angelica Kauffmann depicting Aesop and Rhodope. In 1844, Walter Savage Landor, famed for his series of Imaginary Conversations, published a fictional dialogue between Aesop and Rhodope in the volume The Book of Beauty; Aesop describes himself as "undersized and distorted." Turhan Bey played Aesop in the movie Night in Paradise (1946); Aesop is depicted as an advisor to King Croesus who falls in love with the king's intended bride, a Persian princess played by Merle Oberon. In 1949, Richard Durham's "Destination Freedom" radio show broadcast the drama "The Death of Aesop," in which Aesop was portrayed as an Ethiopian. "A raposa e as uvas" ("The Fox and the Grapes"), a play in three acts about the life of Aesop by Brazilian dramatist Guilherme Figueiredo, was published in 1953 and has been performed in many countries, including a videotaped production in China in 2000 under the title Hu li yu pu tao or 狐狸与葡萄. In 1953, the teleplay "Aesop and Rhodope" by Helene Hanff was broadcast on Hallmark Hall of Fame. Aesop was played by Lamont Johnson. Beginning in 1959, animated shorts under the title "Aesop and Son" appeared as a recurring segment in the TV series Rocky and His Friends and its successor, The Bullwinkle Show. Aesop (voiced by Charles Ruggles) would recount a fable for the edification of his son, Aesop Jr., who would then deliver the moral in the form of an atrocious pun. In 1971, Bill Cosby played the voice of Aesop in an animated TV production, Aesop's Fables. In 1998, Robert Keeshan played the voice of Aesop in the episode "Hercules and the Kids" in the animated TV series Hercules. In 2010, the musical play "Aesop's Fables" was produced at the Fugard Theatre in Cape Town, South Africa; Aesop was played by Mhlekahi Mosiea. According to director Mark Dornford-May, "the play tells the story of Aesop, a Greek slave who yearns for freedom and through his journeys he learns that freedom is earned and kept through being responsible. On his journeys he meets animal characters from the seven parable-like fables."[38]

Aesopus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities Aesōpus (Αἴσωπος). A famous writer of fables, the first author who created an independent class of stories about animals, so that in a few generations his name and person had become typical of that entire class of literature. In course of time, thanks to his plain, popular manner, the story of his own life was enveloped in an almost inextricable tissue of tales and traditions, which represent him as an ugly hunchback and buffoon. In the Middle Ages these were woven into a kind of romance. A Phrygian by birth, and living in the time of the Seven Sages, about B.C. 600, he is said to have been at first a slave to several masters, till Iadmon of Samos set him free. That he next lived at the court of Croesus, and being sent by him on an embassy to Delphi, was murdered by the priests there, is pure fiction. Under his name were propagated in all parts of Greece, at first only by tradition in the mouth of the people, a multitude of prose tales teaching the lessons of life under the guise of fables about animals. We know how Socrates, during his last days in prison, was engaged in turning the fables of Aesop into verse. The first written collection appears to have been made by Demetrius of Phalerum, B.C. 300. The collections of Aesop's Fables that have come down to us are, in part, late prose renderings of the version in choliambics by Babrius (q.v.), which still retain here and there a scrap of verse; partly products of the rhetorical schools, and therefore of very different periods and degrees of merit. A good text of the version by Babrius is that of Schneidewin (1865), and of Hartung with German notes and a translation (1858).

Antiochus VII Sidetes in Wikipedia Antiochus VII Euergetes, nicknamed Sidetes (from Side), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC. He was the last Seleucid king of any stature. He was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter, the brother of Demetrius II Nicator and his mother may have been Laodice V. Antiochus was elevated after Demetrius' capture by the Parthians. He married Cleopatra Thea, who had been the wife of Demetrius. Their offspring was Antiochus IX, who thus became both half-brother and cousin to Seleucus V and Antiochus VIII. Sidetes defeated the usurper Tryphon at Dora[1] and laid siege to Jerusalem in 134. According to Josephus[2] the Hasmonean king John Hyrcanus opened King David's sepulchre and removed three thousand talents, which he then paid Antiochus to spare the city. Sidetes then attacked the Parthians, supported by a body of Jews under Hyrcanus, and briefly took back Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Media before being ambushed and killed by Phraates II. His brother Demetrius II had by then been released, but the Seleucid realm was now restricted to Syria.

Aristeas in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (Ἀριστέας). An epic poet of Proconnesus, of whose life we have only fabulous accounts. His date is quite uncertain. He is represented as a magician, whose soul could leave and re-enter its body according to its pleasure. He was connected with the worship of Apollo, which he was said to have introduced at Metapontum. He wrote an epic poem on the Arimaspi (q.v.), in three books, from which the pseudoLonginus quotes. See Herod. iv. 13.

Bias in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898) One of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. He was son of Teutamus, and was born at Priené, in Ionia, about B.C. 570. Bias was a practical philosopher, studied the laws of his country, and employed his knowledge in the service of his friends, defending them in the courts of justice, settling their disputes. He made a noble use of his wealth. His advice, that the Ionians should fly before the victorious Cyrus to Sardinia, was not followed, and the victory of the army of Cyrus confirmed the correctness of his opinion. The inhabitants of Priené, when besieged by Mazares, resolved to abandon the city with their property. On this occasion Bias replied to one of his fellow-citizens, who expressed astonishment that he made no preparations for his departure, “I carry everything with me.” He remained in his native country, where he died at a very advanced age. His countrymen buried him with splendour, and honoured his memory. Some of his apophthegms are still preserved.

Terence in Wikipedia Publius Terentius Afer (195/185–159 BC), better known in English as Terence, was a playwright of the Roman Republic. His comedies were performed for the first time around 170–160 BC, and he died young, probably in Greece or on his way back to Rome. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, brought Terence to Rome as a slave, educated him and later on, impressed by his abilities, freed him. All of the six plays Terence wrote have survived. One famous quotation by Terence reads: "Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto", or "I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me." This appeared in his play Heauton Timorumenos. Biography Terence's date of birth is disputed; Aelius Donatus, in his incomplete Commentum Terenti, considers the year 185 BC to be the year Terentius was born;[1] Fenestella, on the other hand, states that he was born ten years earlier, in 195 BC.[2] He may have been born in or near Carthage or in Greek Italy to a woman taken to Carthage as a slave. Terence's ethnonym Afer suggests he lived in the territory of the Libyan tribe called by the Romans Afri near Carthage prior to being brought to Rome as a slave.[3] This inference is based on the fact that the term was used in two different ways during the republican era: during Terence's lifetime, it was used to refer to anyone from the land of the Afri (Africa, meaning Northern Tunisia including Carthage); later, after the destruction of Carthage in 146, it was used to refer to non-Carthaginian Libyco-Berbers, with the term Punicus reserved for the Carthaginians.[4] It is therefore possible that Terence was of Libyan[5] descent, considered ancestors to the modern-day Berber peoples.[6] In any case, he was sold to P. Terentius Lucanus[7], a Roman senator, who educated him and later on, impressed by Terence's abilities, freed him. Terence then took the nomen "Terentius," which is the origin of the present form. When he was 25, Terence left Rome and he never returned, after having exhibited the six comedies which are still in existence. According to some ancient writers, he died at sea. Terence's plays Like Plautus, Terence adapted Greek plays from the late phases of Attic comedy. He was more than a translator, as modern discoveries of ancient Greek plays have confirmed. However, Terence's plays use a convincingly 'Greek' setting rather than Romanizing the characters and situations. Terence worked hard to write natural conversational Latin, and most students who persevere long enough to be able to read him in the vernacular find his style particularly pleasant and direct. Aelius Donatus, Jerome's teacher, is the earliest surviving commentator on Terence's work. Terence's popularity throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is attested to by the numerous manuscripts containing part or all of his plays; the scholar Claudia Villa has estimated that 650 manuscripts containing Terence's work date from after 800 AD. The mediaeval playwright Hroswitha of Gandersheim claims to have written her plays so that learned men had a Christian alternative to reading the pagan plays of Terence, while the reformer Martin Luther not only quoted Terence frequently to tap into his insights into all things human but also recommended his comedies for the instruction of children in school.[8] Terence's six plays are: * Adelphoe (The Brothers) (160 BC) * Andria (The Girl from Andros) (166 BC) * Eunuchus (161 BC) * Heauton Timorumenos (The Self-Tormentor) (163 BC) * Hecyra (The Mother-in-Law) (165 BC) * Phormio (161 BC) The first printed edition of Terence appeared in Strasbourg in 1470, while the first certain post-antiquity performance of one of Terence's plays, Andria, took place in Florence in 1476. There is evidence, however, that Terence was performed much earlier. The short dialogue Terentius et delusor was probably written to be performed as an introduction to a Terentian performance in the ninth century (possibly earlier). A phrase by his musical collaborator Flaccus for Terence's comedy Hecyra is all that remains of the entire body of ancient Roman music. This has recently been shown to be inauthentic.[citation needed]

Thaïs in Wikipedia Thaïs (Greek: Θαΐς) was a famous Greek hetaera who lived during the time of Alexander the Great and accompanied him on his campaigns. Thaïs first came to the attention of history when, in 330 BC, Alexander the Great burned down the palace of Persepolis after a drinking party. Thaïs was present at the party and gave a speech which convinced Alexander to burn the palace. Cleitarchus claims that the destruction was a whim; Plutarch and Diodorus recount that it was intended as retribution for Xerxes' burning of the temple of Athena on the Acropolis in Athens in 480 BC (the destroyed temple was replaced by the Parthenon of Athens) "When the king [Alexander] had caught fire at their words, all leaped up from their couches and passed the word along to form a victory procession in honour of Dionysus. Promptly many torches were gathered. Female musicians were present at the banquet, so the king led them all out for the comus to the sound of voices and flutes and pipes, Thaïs the courtesan leading the whole performance. She was the first, after the king, to hurl her blazing torch into the palace. As the others all did the same, immediately the entire palace area was consumed, so great was the conflagration. It was remarkable that the impious act of Xerxes, king of the Persians, against the acropolis at Athens should have been repaid in kind after many years by one woman, a citizen of the land which had suffered it, and in sport." -Diodorus of Sicily (XVII.72) People in the palace were given enough time to leave the building; there is no record of loss of life. Thaïs was the lover and possibly a wife of Ptolemy I Soter, King of Egypt. Her subsequent career is unknown. Appearances in literature Her larger-than-life persona has resulted in characters named Thaïs appearing in several literary works, the most famous of which are listed below. In Terence's Eunuchus, the female protagonist - a courtesan - is named after her. In The Divine Comedy, Thaïs is one of just a few women whom Dante Alighieri sees on his journey through Hell (Inferno, XVIII,133-136). She is located in the circle of the flatterers, plunged in a trench of excrement, having been consigned there, we are told by Virgil, for having uttered to her lover that she was "marvellously" fond of him. Dante's Thaïs is not the historical courtesan, but the protagonist of Terence's play. Thais and Alexander the Great are conjured by Faustus in Christopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus" for the amusement of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Thais is a supporting character in two novels by Mary Renault about Alexander the Great: "Fire from Heaven" and "The Persian Boy", as well as in Renault's biography of Alexander, "The Nature of Alexander." Thais is the heroine of a 1972 novel by the Russian author Ivan Efremov, Thais of Athens. It chronicles her life from meeting Alexander the Great through to her time as queen of Memphis in Egypt. Other literary figures named Thais are references to Thais of Alexandria, a historical figure of a later period.

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