People - Ancient Rome: Paulus Born Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC), he was a two-time consul of the Roman Republic.
Paulus in Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
Lucius, afterwards surnamed Macedonĭcus, son of the last, was born about 230 or 229, since at the time of his second consulship (B.C.
168) he was upwards of sixty years of age. He was one of the best specimens of the high Roman nobles. He would not condescend to
flatter the people for the offices of the State, maintained with strictness severe discipline in the army, was deeply skilled in the
law of the augurs, to whose college he belonged, and maintained throughout life a pure and unspotted character. He was elected curule
aedile in B.C. 192; was praetor in 191, and obtained Further Spain as his province, where he carried on war with the Lusitani; and
was consul in 181, when he conquered the Ingauni, a Ligurian people. For the next thirteen years he lived quietly at Rome, devoting
most of his time to the education of his children. He was consul a second time in 168, and brought the war against Perseus to a
conclusion by the defeat of the Macedonian monarch, near Pydna, on the 22d of June. Perseus shortly afterwards surrendered himself to
Paulus. (See Perseus.) Paulus remained in Macedonia during the greater part of the following year as proconsul, and arranged the
affairs of Macedonia in conjunction with ten Roman commissioners, whom the Senate had despatched for the purpose. Before leaving
Greece he marched into Epirus, where, in accordance with a cruel command of the Senate, he gave to his soldiers seventy towns to be
pillaged because they had been in alliance with Perseus. The triumph of Paulus, which was celebrated at the end of November, 167, was
the most splendid that Rome had yet seen. It lasted three days. Before the triumphal car of Aemilius walked the captive monarch of
Macedonia and his children, and behind it were his two illustrious sons, Q. Fabius Maximus and P. Scipio Africanus the younger, both
of whom had been adopted into other families. But the glory of the conqueror was clouded by family misfortune. At this very time he
lost his two younger sons; one, twelve years of age, died only five days before his triumph, and the other, fourteen years of age,
only three days after his triumph. The loss was all the severer, since he had no son left to carry his name down to posterity. In 164
Paulus was censor with Q. Marcius Philippus, and died in 160, after a long and tedious illness. The fortune he left behind him was so
small as scarcely to be sufficient to pay his wife's dowry. The Adelphi of Terence was brought out at the funeral games exhibited in
his honour. Aemilius Paulus was married twice. By his first wife, Papiria, the daughter of C. Papirius Maso, consul 231, he had four
children—two sons, one of whom was adopted by Fabius Maximus and the other by P. Scipio, and two daughters, one of whom was married
to Q. Aelius Tubero, and the other to M. Cato, son of Cato the censor. He afterwards divorced Papiria; and by his second wife, whose
name is not mentioned, he had two sons, whose death has been recorded above, and a daughter, who was a child at the time that her
father was elected to his second consulship.
Paulus in Roman Biography
Paulus, (Lucius ^milius,) a son of the preceding,
was born about 230 B.C., and was the most celebrated
member of his family. He was a fine specimen of the
old Roman aristocracy, and was a brother-in-law of
Scipio Africanus, the conqueror of Hannibal. Elected
praetor for the year 191 B.C., he obtained as his province
Farther Spain, where he defeated the Lusitani in a great
battle. In the year 189 he returned to Rome, and in 182
was elected consul, after having been defeated at several
elections. With a view to finish the Macedonian war,
the people elected him consul in 168 B.C. He gained in
the same year a decisive victory over Perseus at Pydna,
and afterwards took that king prisoner. He returned to
Rome in 167, and obtained the honour of a triumph, with
the surname of Mackdonicus. He died in 160 B.C.,
leaving a high reputation for honour and integrity.
Plutarch has written his life and drawn a comparison
between him and Timoleon. One of his sons was adopted
by the son of the great Scipio above named, and became
afterwards celebrated as Scipio Africanus the younger.
See Livv, "History of " Rome," books xxxiv.-xl. ; Plutarch,
Paulus jEmilius ;" Aurelius Victor,
" De Viris illustribus.
Paulus in Wikipedia
Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a two-time consul of the Roman Republic and a noted general.
His father was Lucius Aemilius Paullus, the consul defeated and killed in the battle of Cannae. Lucius Aemilius was, in his time, the
head of his branch of the Aemilii Paulli, an old and aristocratic patrician family. Their influence was immense, particularly due to
their fortune and alliance with the Cornelii Scipiones. He was father to Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
After the fulfilment of his military service, and being elected military tribune, Paullus was elected curule aedile in 193 BC. The next
step of his cursus honorum was the election as praetor in 191 BC. At the term of this office he went to the Hispania provinces, where he
campaigned against the Lusitanians between 191 and 189 BC. However, he failed to be elected consul for several years. Paullus was elected
consul for the first time in 182 BC, with Gnaeus Baebius Tamphilus as junior partner. His next military command, with proconsular
imperium, was in the next year, against the Ingauni of Liguria.
Paullus and Macedonia =
The Third Macedonian War broke out in 171 BC, when king Perseus of Macedon defeated a Roman army led by the consul Publius Licinius
Crassus in the battle of Callicinus. After two years of indecisive results for both sides, Paullus was elected consul again in 168 BC
(with Gaius Licinius Crassus as colleague). As consul, he was appointed by the senate to deal with the Macedonian war. Shortly
afterwards, on June 22, he won the decisive battle of Pydna. Perseus of Macedonia was made prisoner and the Third Macedonian War ended.
To set an example, Paullus ordered the killing of 500 Macedonians known for opposition against Rome. He also exiled many more to Italy
and confiscated their belongings in the name of Rome but according to Plutarch, keeping too much to himself. On the return to Rome in 167
BC, his legions were displeased with their share of the plunder. To keep them happy, Paullus decided for a stop in Epirus, a kingdom
suspected of sympathizing with the Macedonian cause. The region had been already pacified, but Paullus ordered the sacking of 70 of its
towns. 150,000 people were enslaved and the region was left to bankruptcy.
Paullus' return to Rome was glorious. With the immense plunder collected in Macedonia and Epirus, he celebrated a spectacular triumph,
featuring no less than the captured king of Macedonia himself. As a gesture of acknowledgment, the senate awarded him the surname
(cognomen) Macedonicus. This was the peak of his career. In 164 BC he was elected censor. He fell ill, appeared to be recovering, but
relapsed within three days and died during his term in 160 BC.
Family life and descendants -
His father Lucius Aemilius Paullus died in battle in 216 BC in the Battle of Cannae, when Aemilius Paullus was still a boy. The Aemilii
Paulli were connected by marriage and political interests to the Scipios, but their role in his subsequent upbringing is not clear.
He had been married first to Papiria Masonis (or Papiria Masonia), daughter of the consul Gaius Papirius Maso (consul in 231 BC), whom he
divorced, according to Plutarch, for no particular reason. From this marriage, four children were born: two sons and two daughters, the
elder Aemilia Paulla Prima apparently married to the son of Marcus Porcius Cato, and the younger Aemilia Paulla Secunda to Aelius
Tubero, a rich man of a plebeian family. He divorced his wife while his younger son was still a baby, according to Roman historians; thus
the divorce probably took place around 183 BC-182 BC. Nevertheless, he was elected consul in 182 BC.
Paullus Macedonicus then married a second time (this wife's name is unknown) and had two more sons, the elder born around 181 BC and the
younger born around 176 BC. He also apparently had another daughter (Aemilia Tertia), who was a small girl when her father was chosen
consul for the second time.
Since four boys were too many for a father to support across the cursus honorum, Paullus decided to give the oldest two boys up for
adoption, probably between 175 BC and 170 BC. The elder was taken by a Quintus Fabius Maximus and became Quintus Fabius Maximus
Aemilianus, thus joining his fortunes to the house of a national hero. The younger, possibly named Lucius, was adopted by his own
cousin Publius Cornelius Scipio, elder son and heir of Scipio Africanus, and became Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, thus falling
heir to the legacy of Rome's most influential political dynasty.
With the eldest sons safely adopted by two of the most powerful patrician houses, Paullus Macedonicus counted on the two younger ones to
continue his own name. This was not due to happen. Both of them died young, one shortly after the other, at the same time that Paullus
celebrated his triumph. The elder of the two remaining sons was 14 and the younger 9, according to Polybius. Their names are unknown to
us. The successes of his political and military career were thus not accompanied by a happy family life.
At his death, his sons Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus received his property by his
will, even though they were legally no longer Aemilii Paulli; Scipio gave his share to his older brother who was less wealthy. Paullus's
second wife (whose name is unknown to us) received her dowry back from the sale of some of her late husband's property. (Livy and
Polybius both claim that Paullus died relatively poor, and that he had kept little for himself from the successful Macedonian campaign).
His married daughters had presumably received dowries from their father; Aemilia Paulla Prima is known to have married in or around 164
With the death of Macedonicus, the Aemilii Paulli became extinct, even though he had two living sons. His elder surviving son Fabius
Aemilianus eventually became consul and fathered at least one son, who in turn became consul as Fabius Allobrigicus in 121 BC. This man,
in turn, may have been the ancestor of later Fabii who tied their fortunes to Julius Caesar and Augustus. The younger surviving son
was more famous as Scipio Aemilianus but died leaving no known issue. Of the daughters, the elder was ancestor of at least two consuls of
no particular distinction. The younger was mother of a consul Quintus Aelius Tubero.
His first and former wife Papiria Masonia survived her ex-husband and lived to enjoy her former sister-in-law's property presented to her
by her younger son (per Polybius). At her death, her property was divided between her sons, but Scipio gave it to his sisters.
Paullus's immediate surviving descendants -
Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, apparently father of
Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, consul 121 BC
Quintus Fabius Maximus, who was allegedly deprived of his inheritance by a Roman magistrate
Fabia, Chief Vestal (fl. 50 BC), who married (div) Publius Cornelius Dolabella (ca.70 BC or earlier-43 BC), consul in 44 BC, as his
first wife, and had a son (see below). Dolabella then was adopted (illegally, without the consent of the Pontifex Maximus, i.e. Caesar)
into the plebeian ranks, and then married 50 BC Tullia, only daughter of Cicero).. According to some sources, Fabia was the
elder half-sister of Tullia's mother Terentia.
Publius Cornelius Dolabella, consul in 10 AD with C. Junius Silanus.
Publius Cornelius Dolabella was proconsul of Africa in the reign of Tiberius, AD 23-AD 24. Smith reports: "In the course of the
administration of his province he gained a complete victory over the Numidian Tacfarinas ; but although he had formerly been a very great
flatterer of Tiberius, yet he did not obtain the ornaments of a triumph, in order that his predecessor in the province of Africa, Junius
Blaesius, an uncle of Sejanus, might not be thrown into the shade. In A.D. 27 he joined Domitius Afer in the accusation against his own
relative, Quintilius Varus, (Tac. Ann. iii. 47, 68, iv. 23, &c. 66.)"
another son, mentioned occasionally in sources, possibly the same as Allobrogicus, who was quaestor to his better-known blood uncle
(below) in Spain.
Scipio Aemilianus (died 129 BC)
Aemilia Paulla Prima, mother of
Gaius Porcius Cato
Aemilia Paulla Secunda, mother of
Quintus Aelius Tubero, consul 117 BC