Nectanebo II in Tour Egypt
NECTANEBO II, THE LAST ANCIENT EGYPTIAN NATIVE KING
by Jimmy Dunn --
The 30th Dynasty was not one of Egypt's greatest moments, despite the fact that Nectanebo I, the founder of the dynasty, may
have provided us with a last a vision of the empire's past. By the end of the 30th Dynasty and the reign of Nectanebo II,
Egypt would no longer be ruled by true Egyptians, and in many ways, they would not be ruled again purely by Egyptians until
the 1952 revolt that brought President Nasser into power. His birth name, Nakhthorheb and epithet, mery-hathor, means
"strong is His Lord, Beloved of Hathor". His throne name was Snedjem-ib-re Setep-en-inhur, meaning "Pleasing to the Heart of
Re, Chosen of Onuris (Osiris)".
Nectanebo II upsurped the Egyptian throne in 360 AD away from the son of Nectanebo I (Teos, Tachos). In the fifth century
BC, Egypt had been part of the Achaemenid Empire (Persian), but in 404 BC, Egypt regained its independence. Nectanebo I had
to repel an offensive by the Persians. When his son went on the offensive against the Persians, taking to the field at the
head of an army containing a large contingent of Greek mercenaries under the aging king Agesilaos (Agesilaus) of Sparta, he
left his brother, Tjahapimu, in charge of Egypt. Tjahapimu was very possibly Teos' older half brother who was passed over
for accession in favor of a child born to Queen Ptolemais (however, some scholars believe Tjahapimu was the son of Teos,
making Nectanebo II his grandson).
In order to finance the war, Teos had levied heavy taxes at home, and now in his brother's absence, Tjahapimu used this as a
pretext for raising the country in revolt.
By now, Tjahapimu's son, Nectanabis (Nakhthorheb, the future Nechtanebo II) was serving with the royal army, by now in
Syria, and as Plutarch version of the events describes, he managed to gain the support of both his own men and those under
Greek command for the rebel cause:
"Then, having jointed Tachos, who was making preparations for his campaign [against Persia], he [Agesilaus] was not
appointed commander o the entire force, as he was hoping, but only given command of the mercenaries, whilst Chabrias the
Athenian was put in charge of the fleet. Tachos himself was commander-in-chief. This was the first thing which vexed
Agesilaus; then, whilst he found the prince's arrogance and empty pretensions hard to bear, he was compelled to put up with
them. He even sailed with him against the Phoenicians, and, setting aside his sense of dignity and his natural instincts, he
showed deference and subservience, until he found his opportunity. For Tachos' cousin Nectanabis [i.e. the future Nectanebo
II], who commanded part of the forces, rebelled, and, having been proclaimed king by the Egyptians and having sent to
Agesilaus begging him for help, he made the same appeal to Chabrias, offering both men great rewards. Tachos presently
learned of this and begged them to stand by him, whereupon Chabrias tried by persuasion and exhortation to keep Agesilaus on
good terms with Tachos...The Spartans sent a secret dispatch to Agesilaus ordering him to see to it that he did what was in
Sparta's best interests, so Agesilaus took his mercenaries and transferred his allegiance to Nectanabis... Tachos, deserted
by his mercenaries, took flight, but meanwhile another pretender rose up against Nectanabis in the province of Mendes and
was declared king"
The individual from Mendes may have been a scion of the former 29th Dynasty which hailed from that city. In fact, a brief
civil war did break out and for a time Nectanebo II was besieged in Tanis, though Agesilaos came to his rescue. Afterwards,
Agesilaos was sent home with a bonus of 250 talents of gold. Nectanebo II had won out and Egypt was his, at lest for a
while. The next threat came from Teos, acting as a Persian proxy, but he soon died and with the help of Nektanebo II's Greek
forces, he was able to maintain Egypt's independence for the time being. However, it must be noted that the Mendes contender
did in fact thwart the last attempt by an Egyptian pharaoh to conquer the Near East, for Nectanebo II had been obliged to
return to Egypt in order to but down this rebellion against his authority.
Nectanebo II ruled Egypt for some eighteen years. During a period of quit while Persia suffered from its own dynastic
squabbles, Nectanebo II definitely returned to the old values and stability brought by the gods. Temples were built or
refurbished and there are actually more than a hundred Egyptian sites that show evidence of his attentions. The king was
also presented as highly pious and under the gods' protection. This is exemplified by a grand stone statue now in the
Metropolitan Museum of New York. It depicts Horus the falcon, wearing the Double Crown. Between its legs is a small figure
of Nectanebo II wearing the nemes headdress and carrying a curved harpesh and a small shrine.
We have records that Nectanebo II personally participated in the burial of an Apis Bull at Saqqara, and also of his role in
raising the status of the Buchis bull of Armant to that of the Apis bull of Memphis. There is also inscriptional evidence of
acts of piety on his part to Isis of Behbeit el-Hagar (Samannud, ancient Sebennytos, the birthplace of the 30th Dynasty
kings), for whom he at least began the construction of an enormous temple (now in ruins), and he also built at Bubastis and
was active at Karnak. He also dedicated temples to Isis at Philae and to Amun at Siwa. Sometime during this period, we also
know that he buried his probable mother Udjashu, in a fine sarcophagus, the remains of which are now in the Cairo
However, the threat of Persia never vanished. By 350 BC, the new Persian ruler Artaxerxes III had sufficiently established
authority over most of his empire to contemplate an attack on Egypt. Little is known about this campaign, except for the
fact that two mercenary leaders, Lamias of Sparta and Diophantes of Athens, dealt with the Persian generals on behalf of the
Egyptians. The Persian defeat must have been devastating, because king Artaxerxes III Ochus now personally started to build
a larger army at Babylon, and a navy was gathered at Sidon, one of the towns of Phoenicia.
Nectanebo knew what was afoot and knew how to intervene. The people of Sidon felt oppressed by the sheer size of Artaxerxes'
preparations, and the Egyptian king seems to have told their king Tennes (Phoenician Tabnit) that he would come to their
assistance if they rebelled. And so it happened: the Sidonians revolted and Nectanebo duly sent 4,000 Greek mercenaries to
Sidon. They were commanded by one of the best Greek generals, Mentor of Rhodes, who had been forced to flee to Egypt after
he had joined a failed revolt against the Persians.
However, in the Autumn of 343 BC, the Persian king returned and was successful in penetrating northern Egypt, after having
whittled down Egypt's potential allies. Greek mercenaries fought for both Egypt and Persia and it was with some 20,000
Greeks, forming about one-fifth of his army, that Nectanebo II stood at Pelusium in the eastern Delta. Regrettably, the
Greek generalship on the Persian side outflanked the Egyptians, and Pelusium fell, followed by other Delta strongholds.
This time there was no inundation that served Nectanebo I so well, and Nectanebo II was driven out of Memphis. He apparently
retreated to Upper (southern) Egypt where he was able to stage a short-lived revival after Artaxerxes returned home at the
end of the campaigning season. However, the Persians returned, and Nectanebo II was eventually forced to retreat further
southwards into Nubia, where he perhaps found refuge in the Kushite court.
His unused sarcophagus of black granite, finely carved all over with texts and scenes from the Book of What is in the
Underworld, was later used as a ritual bath in Alexandria from where it eventually made its way to the British Museum, a
mute monument to the last truly Egyptian king of ancient times.
A curious postscript to Nectanebo II is a medieval legend (recounted in the 'Alexander Romance'). This tells how Nectanebo
was said to have fled to the Macedonian court (i.e. to the anti-Persain faction). There he was recognized as a great
Egyptian magician, and attracted the attentions of the Macedonian king's (Philip II's) wife Olympias, becoming the unbeknown
father of Alexander the Great, thus continuing in due course the pharaoh-bred line legend for Alexander. Though doubtless a
fabrication, it may very well explain why Nectanebo II's sarcophagus was made a shrine.
Nectanebo II in Wikipedia
Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and
also the last native Egyptian ruler of the country in antiquity.
Nectanebo was placed on the Egyptian throne by the Spartan king Agesilaus II, who helped him overthrow Teos and fight off a rival
pretender. After a reign of 17 years, he was defeated by the Persian king Artaxerxes III, and fled first to Memphis then into Upper Egypt,
and finally into exile in Nubia, where he vanishes from history. With Nectanebo's flight, all organized resistance to the Persians
collapsed, and Egypt once again was reduced to a satrapy of the Persian Empire.
Nectanebo II's sarcophagus was found in modern times in a mosque at Alexandria; his intended burial "presumably lay at his native town
[of] Sebennytos." At some point in time, the king's sarcophagus was "used as a water container, bath, or a tank for ablutions, as shown
by the twelve draining holes drilled around the base." It today resides in the British Museum.
Nectanebo's gold stater
Nectanebo II has the distinction of being the pharaoh to have minted a gold coin with hieroglyphs. The reverse of the coin has a horse
reared on its back legs; the obverse has two hieroglyphs, in ligature, the necklace of gold, nb, upon the nfr symbol for beauty.
(Perfect gold, or in modern translation: 'Fine' gold.)
Nectanebo and the Alexander Romance
Main article: Alexander Romance
There is an apocryphal tale, appearing in the pseudo-historical Alexander Romance, which details another end for the last Egyptian Pharaoh
of Egypt. Soon after Alexander the Great's godhood was confirmed by the Oracle of Zeus Ammon, a rumor was begun that Nectanebo II did not
travel to Nubia but instead to the court of Philip II of Macedon in the guise of an Egyptian magician. There, while Philip was away on
campaign, Nectanebo convinced his wife Olympias that Amun was to come to her and that they would father a son. Nectanebo, disguising
himself as Amun, slept with Olympias and from his issue came Alexander. This myth would hold strong appeal for Egyptians who desired
continuity and harbored a strong dislike for foreign rule.
In the early Ptolemaic tale of Nectanebo and Petesis, only preserved in a Greek fragment from the Memphis Serapeum, the Pharaoh has a
prophetic dream of Isis, in which the god Onuris is angry with him because of his unfinished temple in Sebennytos. Nectanebo calls in the
best sculptor of the realm, Petesis, to finish the job, but he bungles his assignment when he gets drunk and chases a beautiful girl
instead. The narrative ends abruptly here, but this is probably the preface to the fall of Egypt to the Persians.