People - Ancient Egypt: Osochor THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 21st Dynasty (984-978) Northern King. The capital moves from Tanis to Libyan, to Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then
back to Nubia and Thebes.
Osorkon the Elder in Wikipedia
Akheperre Setepenre Osorkon the Elder was the fifth king of
the twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and was the first pharaoh
of Libyan extraction in Egypt. He is also sometimes known as
"Osochor," following Manetho's Aegyptiaca.
Osorkon the Elder was the son of Shoshenq, the Great Chief
of the Ma by the latter's wife 'Mehtenweskhet who is given
the prestigious title of 'King's Mother' in a document.
Osochor was the brother of Nimlot A, the Great Chief of the
Ma, and Tentshepeh A the daughter of the Great Chief of the
Ma and, thus, an uncle of Shoshenq I, founder of the Twenty-
second Dynasty. His existence was doubted by most scholars
until Eric Young established in 1963 that the induction of a
temple priest named Nespaneferhor in Year 2 I Shemu day 20
under a certain king named Akheperre Setepenre—in fragment
3B, line 1-3 of the Karnak Priest Annals —occurred one
generation prior to the induction of Hori, Nespaneferhor's
son in Year 17 of Siamun, which is also recorded in the same
annals. Young argued that this king Akheperre Setepenre
was the unknown Osochor. This hypothesis was not fully
accepted by all Egyptologists at that time, however.
But in a 1976-1977 paper, Jean Yoyotte noted that a Libyan
king named Osorkon was the son of Shoshenq A by the Lady
Mehtenweshkhet, with Mehtenweshkhet being explicitly titled
the "King's Mother" in a certain genealogical document.
Since none of the other kings named Osorkon had a mother
named Mehtenweshkhet, it was conclusively established that
Akheperre Setepenre was indeed Manetho's Osochor, whose
mother was Mehtenweshkhet. The Lady Mehtenweshet A was also
the mother of Nimlot A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh and,
thus, Shoshenq I's grandmother.
Osorkon's time-line -
Based on a calculation of the aforementioned Year 2 lunar
date of this king—which Rolf Krauss in an astronomical
calculation has shown to correspond to 990 BC—Osochor must
have become king 2 years before the induction of
Nespaneferhor in 992 BC.
Osorkon the Elder's reign is significant because it
foreshadows the coming the Libyan Twenty-second dynasty. He
is credited with a reign of six years in Manetho's
Aegyptiaca and was succeeded in power by Siamun, who was
either Osochor's son or an unrelated native Egyptian.