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November 15    Scripture



People - Ancient Egypt: Ahmose (Nebpehtyre)
NEW KINGDOM 18th Dynasty (1539-1514) Extreme prosperity and renaissance in art and building projects mark the beginning of this period. Towards the end of the 19th Dynasty the increasing power of the priesthood corrupts the central government. During the 20th Dynasty tomb robbing is done by officials. The priesthood becomes hereditary and begins to assume secular power. The government breaks down.

Ahmose (Nebpehtyre) in Tour Egypt AHMOSE I, FOUNDER OF THE 18TH DYNASTY AND THE NEW KINGDOM OF ANCIENT EGYPT by Richard Warner. Egypt's 18th Dynasty that established the New Kingdom is, to most people interested in Egypt, a dynasty of stars. It is the dynasty of Tutankhamun who was a fairly minor king, but perhaps the best known of any of the pharaohs. It was also the dynasty of the well known Akhenaten, and of Queen Hatshepsut. The founder of this Dynasty is less well known to the general public, but unquestionably of major importance to Egyptian history. He was Ahmose I, during who's reign Egypt was finally and completely liberated from the Hyksos. Various scholars attribute different dates to his reign, but he probably became ruler of Egypt around 1550 BC at the age of 10, and ruled for a period of around 25 years before his death (examination of his well preserved mummy suggest he was about 35 when he died).Ahmose I (Amosis to the Greeks) was given the birth name Ah- mose (The Moon is Born). His thrown name was Neb-pehty-re (The Lord of Strength is Re). He was probably a boy when he assumed the thrown, having lost his father Seqenenre Taa II and his brother Kahmose within three years of each other. His mother was Queen Ashotep, a powerful woman who was perhaps his co-regent during his early years.Egyptologists believe that during his very early reign, little was probably accomplished and perhaps the Hyksos may have even gained some ground, recapturing Heliopolis. However, by the end of his first decade in power, we know from an Autobiography of Ahmose, son of Ibana, a naval officer from El-Kab, that he laid siege on Avaris (The tomb of Ahmose Pennekheb, another soldier also records the campaigns). This was a long battle interrupted by the need to put down insurrections in already liberated territories, but appears to have been successful sometime between his 12th and 15th year as ruler. Afterwards, he attacked the southwest Palestinian fortress of Sharuhen in a six year siege that would finally put an end to Hyksos control of Egypt. A Stele of Ahmose INext, he turned his attention to Nubia (Kush) and, while Kamose (his predecessor) may have gained some ground prior to his death, Ahmose I pushed the boundaries south to the Second Cataract. Here, he established a new civil administration at Buhen probably initially headed by a Viceroy named Djehuty. Ahmose I's Battle AxApparently, while Ahmose I was in Nubia, former Hyksos allies again attempted a few uprising in the north lead by an arch enemy of Kamose named Teti-en. In this instance, Ahmose I's mother, Ahhotpe, was probably responsible for putting down the rebellion and for this she was awarded the gold flies, an award for valor that was found on her mummy in her intact tomb at Thebes.After Ahmose I's campaigns in Nubia, he once again returned to Palestine during his 22nd year in power and may have fought his way as for as the Euphrates, according to information on a stela of Tuthmosis I. Ahmose I married his sister, Ahmose-Nefertiri, who became Egypt's first great God's Wife of Amun, and had a number of children including: Merytamun - eldest daughter of Ahmose-Nefertari (died young) Tair - daughter of Kasmut Satamun - 2nd daughter of Ahmose-Nefertari (died infant) Sapair - eldest son of Ahmose-Nefertari (died young) Saamen - 2nd son of Ahmose-Nefertari (died infant) Aahotep - 3rd daughter of Ahmose-Nefertari (Queen) Amenhotep I - 3rd son of Ahmose-Nefertari (King) Satkames - 4th daughter of Ahmose-Nefertari (died aged ~30) Henttameh- daughter of Thenthapi Ahmose - daughter We also know from Ahmose, son of Ibana that he supported his reign and rewarded local princes who had supported the Theban cause during the Second Intermediate Period by gifts of land (as recorded in Ahmose, son of Ibana's tomb at el-Kab). We also know that he initiated some temple building projects, notably at Abydos. However, though we know he reopened the Tura limestone quarries, little survives of his construction apart form a few additions to the temples of Amun and Montu at Karnak. However, a recent Dutch-Egyptian team of archaeologists believe they may have unearthed the remains of Ahmose's palace in the Al-Dabaa area in the Sharqiya Governorate of Egypt, a location that was probably the ancient Hyksos capital. Pyramid of Ahmose IHe was buried in the Dra Abu el-Naga area, but his tomb has yet to be found. His actual mummy was found in the Deir el- Bahari cache. He did have a cenotaph at South Abydos, consisting of a cliff temple and a pyramid and temple on the edge of the Nile valley. The pyramid which measures about 70 meters square is the last known royal example built in Egypt. Some battle scene decorations within the pyramid may have depicted his wars with the Hyksos. In these scenes are some of the earliest representation of horses in Egypt.

Ahmose I in Wikipedia Ahmose I (sometimes written Amosis I, "Amenes" and "Aahmes" and meaning Born of the Moon) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Tao II Seqenenre and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, King Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven his father was killed,[5] and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes, after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[6] and upon coronation became known as Neb-Pehty-Re (The Lord of Strength is Re). During his reign, he completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the delta region, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.[6] He then reorganized the administration of the country, reopened quarries, mines and trade routes and began massive construction projects of a type that had not been undertaken since the time of the Middle Kingdom. This building program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers. Ahmose's reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is usually dated to about 1550–1525 BC. Family For more details on this topic, see Family tree of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Ahmose descended from the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. His grandfather and grandmother, Tao I and Tetisheri, had at least twelve children, including Tao II and Ahhotep. The brother and sister, according to the tradition of Egyptian queens, married; their children were Kamose, Ahmose I and several daughters.[7] Ahmose I followed in the tradition of his father and married several of his sisters, making Ahmose- Nefertari his chief wife.[8] They had several children including daughters Meritamun B, Sitamun A and sons Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh,[9] Amenhotep I and Ramose A[10] (the "A" and "B" designations after the names are a convention used by Egyptologists to distinguish between royal children and wives that otherwise have the same name). They may also have been the parents of Mutnofret, who would become the wife of later successor Thutmose I. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmose's 17th and 22nd regnal year.[11] Ahmose was succeeded instead by his eldest surviving son, Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a short coregency. He captured the Second cataract fortresses. There was no distinct break in the line of the royal family between the 17th and 18th dynasties. The historian Manetho, writing much later during the Ptolemaic dynasty, considered the final expulsion of the Hyksos after nearly a century and the restoration of native Egyptian rule over the whole country a significant enough event to warrant the start of a new dynasty.[12] Dates and length of reign Ahmose's reign can be fairly accurately dated using the Heliacal rise of Sirius in his successor's reign, but because of disputes over from where the observation was made, he has been assigned a reign from 1570–1546, 1560–1537 and 1551–1527 by various sources.[13][14] Manetho gives Ahmose a reign of 25 years and 4 months;[13] this figure is supported by a ‘Year 22’ inscription from his reign at the stone quarries of Tura.[15] A medical examination of his mummy indicates that he died when he was about thirty-five, supporting a 25-year reign if he came to the throne at the age of 10.[13] The radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570-1544 B.C.E., the mean point of which is 1557 BC.[16] Alternative dates for his reign (1194 to 1170 BC) were suggested by David Rohl,[17] but these were rejected by the majority of Egyptologists even before the radiocarbon date was published in 2010. Campaigns The conflict between the local kings of Thebes and the Hyksos king Apepi Awoserre had started during the reign of Tao II Seqenenre and would be concluded, after almost 30 years of intermittent conflict and war, under the reign of Ahmose I. Tao II was possibly killed in a battle against the Hyksos, as his much-wounded mummy gruesomely suggests, and his successor Kamose (likely Ahmose's elder brother) is known to have attacked and raided the lands around the Hyksos capital, Avaris (modern Tell el-Dab'a).[5] Kamose evidently had a short reign, as his highest attested regnal year is year 3, and was succeeded by Ahmose I. Apepi may have died near the same time. There is disagreement as to whether two names for Apepi found in the historical record are of different monarchs or multiple names for the same king. If, indeed, they were of different kings, Apepi Awoserre is thought to have died at around the same time as Kamose and was succeeded by Apepi II Aqenienre.[6] Ahmose ascended the throne when he was still a child, so his mother, Ahhotep, reigned as regent until he was of age. Judging by some of the descriptions of her regal roles while in power, including the general honorific "carer for Egypt", she effectively consolidated the Theban power base in the years prior to Ahmose assuming full control. If in fact Apepi Aqenienre was a successor to Apepi Awoserre, then he is thought to have remained bottled up in the delta during Ahhotep's regency, because his name does not appear on any monuments or objects south of Bubastis.[7]...

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