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    Djer (Itit) in Tour Egypt Horus Djer or Itit (his nomen) was either the second or third ruler of the 1st dynasty. His reign came after that of Narmer and Aha, though which of these two kings actually founded the first dynasty is unsure. A majority of modern scholars seems to believe that Aha was the first king of that dynasty and so was the ruler who united Upper and Lower Egypt. That would make Horus Djer, his apparent heir, the second ruler. He and the following kings are largely responsible for the consolidation of the unified state of Egypt. Scholars believe that Djer was probably Manetho's Athothis, and that he ruled for 57 years. Most of the information we have on this ruler comes from ivory and wood labels found at Abydos and Saqqara. Regrettably, the hieroglyphs on the labels represent an early state of writing, so are difficult for Egyptologists to make out. An inscription on ivory found at Abydos with Djer's name in a serekh seems to tell us that he visited Buto, an early capital of Egypt, and Sais, both in the Delta of lower or northern Egypt. At Saqqara we find a wooden label also bearing his name that seems to refer to a ceremony connected with human sacrifice, a practice that was quickly abandoned in Egyptian culture. However, about his large tomb at Abydos (Tomb O) are 300 burials of retainers who seem to have perished at the same time as the principle internment of Djer. Manetho, the legendary Egyptian historian, regarded him as a scholar, and credited him with an anatomy text book that apparently still existed in Greek times. We believe that he made a military campaign deep into Nubia, for we find at Wadi Halfa his inscription. One of the kings regnal years was named, "The Year of Smiting the land of the Setjet". Setjet was a word identified with Syria-Palestine, and we also believe that he sent forces into the Sinai. There is also evidence that he made excursions into Libya to the west. These are the first recorded military campaigns outside of the "Two Lands" of Egypt. Tomb O is at Umm el- Gaab (Abydos) and just west of the tomb of Horus Aha. The tomb is subterranean, made of brick and was much more elaborate then his predecessor's tombs. In fact, it is one of the largest tombs of the First Dynasty and the complex covers an area of 70 X40 meters, including the subsidiary burials that are in rows. From the Middle Kingdom onward, Egyptians thought that his tomb held the body of Osiris, god of the dead. King Khendjer even provided a statue of the deity, lying on a bed, and the tomb became a center of pilgrimage for later Egyptians. From his tomb we find an arm which wore the earliest surviving royal jewelry, four gold and turquoise bracelets. His apparent wife, Herneith, is buried at Saqqara in tomb number 3507, near the burials of many of the king's senior officials. Traditionally, provides that Djer's successor was Djet (Uadji), but there is evidence provided by large tombs at Saqqara (3503) and Abydos (Tomb Y) that there might have been a consort of Djer who may have ruled prior to Djet. Her name was Merneith, and a seal from Abydos that was recently found seems to confirm this, giving the order of early kings beginning with Narmer and referencing her has King's Mother.

    Djer in Wikipedia Djer was the second or third pharaoh of the first dynasty of Egypt, which dates from approximately 3100 B.C. Some scholars, however, debate whether the first pharaoh, Menes or Narmer, and Hor-Aha might have been different rulers. If they were separate rulers, this would make Djer the third pharaoh in the dynasty. A mummified wrist of Djer or his wife was discovered, but has been lost. Etymology Djer's Horus name means "Horus who succours".[3] The Abydos King List lists the second pharaoh as Teti, the Turin Canon lists Iteti, while Manetho lists Athothis. Length of reign While the Egyptian priest Manetho, writing in the third century B.C., stated that Djer ruled for 57 years, modern research by Toby Wilkinson in Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt stresses that the near-contemporary and therefore, more accurate Palermo Stone ascribes Djer a reign of "41 complete and partial years."[4] Wilkinson notes that Years 1-10 of Djer's reign are preserved in register II of the Palermo Stone, while the middle years of this pharaoh's reign are recorded in register II of Cairo Fragment One.[5] Reign The evidence for Djer's life and reign is[6]: Tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos Seal prints from graves 2185 and 3471 in Saqqara Inscriptions in graves 3503, 3506 and 3035 in Saqqara Seal impression and inscriptions from Helwan (Saad 1947: 165; Saad 1969: 82, pl. 94) Jar from Turah with the name of Djer (Kaiser 1964: 103, fig.3) UC 16182 ivory tablet from Abydos , subsidiary tomb 612 of the enclosure of Djer (Petrie 1925: pl. II.8; XII.1) UC 16172 copper adze with the name of Djer (tomb 461 in Abydos, Petrie 1925: pl. III.1, IV.8) Inscription of his name (of questioned authenticity, however) at Wadi Halfa, Sudan The inscriptions, on ivory and wood, are in a very early form of hieroglyphs, hindering complete translation, but a label at Saqqarah may depict the early Old Kingdom practice of human sacrifice.[7] An ivory tablet from Abydos mentions that Djer visited Buto and Sais in the Nile Delta. One of his regnal years on the Cairo Stone was named "Year of smiting the land of Setjet", which often is speculated to be Sinai or beyond. [edit]Family Djer was a son of a pharaoh Hor-Aha and his wife Khenthap. His grandfather was probably Narmer, and his grandmother was Neithhotep. Women carrying titles later associated with queens such as great one of the hetes-sceptre and She who sees/carries Horus were buried in subsidiary tombs near the tomb of Djer in Abydos or attested in Saqqara. These women are thought to be the wives of Djer and include: Nakhtneith (or Nekhetneith), buried in Abydos and known from a stela.[8][1] Herneith, possibly a wife of Djer. Buried in Saqqara.[8] Seshemetka, buried in Abydos next to the king.[9] She was said to be a wife of Den in Dodson and Hilton.[8] Penebui, her name and title were found on an ivory label from Saqqara.[1] bsu, known from a label in Saqqara and several stone vessels (reading of name uncertain; name consists of three fish hieroglyphs).[1] [edit]Biography Similarly to his father Hor-Aha, Djer was buried in Abydos. Djer's tomb is tomb O of Petrie. His tomb contains the remains of 300 retainers who were buried with him. Several objects were found in and around the tomb of Djer[10]: A stela of Djer, now in the Cairo Museum probably comes from Abydos. Sealings of a king named Khent. Labels mentioning the name of a palace and the name of Meritneith. Fragments of two vases inscribed with the name of Queen Neithhotep. Bracelets of a Queen were found in the wall of the tomb. In the subsidiary tombs excavators found[11]: Stela of several individuals Ivory objects with the name of Neithhotep. Ivory tablets. From the 18th Dynasty on, the tomb of Hor-Aha was revered as the tomb of Osiris, and the First Dynasty burial complex, which includes both this and the tomb of Djer, was very important in the Egyptian religious tradition. Manetho indicates that the First Dynasty ruled from Memphis – and indeed Herneith, one of Djer’s wives, was buried nearby at Saqqara. Manetho also claimed that Athothes, who is sometimes identified as Djer, had written a treatise on anatomy that still existed in his own day, over two millennia later.