Bible Names N-Z: Zebul
Zebul in Easton's Bible Dictionary
habitation, the governor of Shechem under Abimelech (Judg.
30, 36). He informed his master of the intention of
of Shechem to transfer their allegiance to the Hivite
Hamor. This led to Abimelech's destroying the city,
when he put
its entire population to the sword, and sowed the
salt (Judg. 9:28-45).
Zebul in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Chief man of Shechem; Abimelech's officer, acting for his
interests against the native Canaanites and (See GAAL . When
Abimelech defeated the latter, Zebul thrust out Gaal and his
brethren from Shechem (Judges 9:28; Judges 9:30; Judges 9:36;
Judges 9:38; Judges 9:41). A zealous servant to an
Zebul in Hitchcock's Bible Names
Zebul in Naves Topical Bible
-An officer of Abimelech
Zebul in Smiths Bible Dictionary
(habitation), chief man (Authorized Version "ruler") of the
city of Shechem at the time of the contest between Abimelech
and the native Canaanites. Jud 9:28,30,36,41 (B.C. 1209.)
Zebul in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
ze'-bul (zebhul, perhaps "exalted"; Zeboul): In Jdg 9:26 ff.
He is called in 9:30 sar ha-`ir, "the ruler of the city," a
phrase translated "the governor of the city" in 1 Ki 22:26 =
2 Ch 18:25; 2 Ki 23:8; 2 Ch 34:8; he was "commandant of the
town" of Shechem. In Jdg 9:28 he is referred to as the
paqidh, "officer," or, more correctly, "deputy" of
Abimelech. This verse is a little difficult, but if we read
"served" for "serve ye," it becomes fairly clear in meaning.
With Moore (Judges, 255 ff) we may translate it thus: "Who
is Abimelech? and who is Shechem, that we should serve him
(i.e. Abimelech)? Did not the son of Jerubbaal and Zebul his
deputy (formerly) serve the people of Qamor (the father of
Shechem)? Why then should we serve him (Abimelech)?" This is
also the way Budde (Kurzer Hand-Comm. z. Altes Testament,
75) takes the verse. And further in Jdg 9:29 for "and he
said" many read with the Septuagint "then would I say."
The position of Zebul is here that of a deputy to Abimelech,
who lived in Arumah (Jdg 9:41). When Gaal came to Shechem, a
newcomer with a band of men, he seized the opportunity at a
vintage feast to attack Abimelech and express a desire to
lead a revolt against him (Jdg 9:26-29). Zebul heard these
words and reported the matter to his master, vising him to
make s sudden rush upon the city (Jdg 9:30-33). This
Abimelech does, and Gaal, on noticing the troops, tells
Zebul, who turns upon him and bids him make good his
bragging words. Gaal is thus forced to go out and fight
Abimelech, and is defeated (Jdg 9:34-40).
If this be the correct interpretation of the narrative so
far, it is fairly simple and clear. Some, however, maintain
that the words of Gaal about Zebul in Jdg 9:28 are meant as
an insult to the governor of the city; this is the view of
Wellbausch (Compos., 353 f, note) and Nowack (Handkomm.;
compare also his Archdologie, I, 304, 308, for the meaning
of sar). Zebul is, according to them, head of the Shechemite
community, and Wellhausen and Kittel (History of Hebrew, II,
85) believe him to have had something to do with the revolt
of 9:23-25. For the latter view there is no proof; possibly
Zebul was the head of the community of Shechem, but as he
was a subject of Abimelech, who was the king or prince of
Shechem, there could not be much sting in calling him the"
deputy" of his master.
The questions that arise from Jdg 9:41 ff need only be
referred to here. Many critics have seen in 9:22-45 more
than one source. Moore groups the verses thus: (1) 9:22-
23,25,42 ff as due to the Elohist (E), with 9:24 from RJE;
(2) 9:26-41 due to J. It is doubtful if the division is as
clear as this. There seem however to be parallels: (1) The
plans of Abimelech in 9:34-40 are very similar to those in
9:42 ff. (2) Jdg 9:41b seems to give in short what we find
related in 9:34-40. (3) Septuagint in 9:31 has suggested to
many that we should read there, "and he sent messengers unto
Abimelech in Arumah," instead of reading "craftily." We
would thus have a parallel to 9:41a. It may be suggested
therefore that if the account be double (and it is strange
that Abimelech should again attack the city by almost the
same methods as before, when the revolters had been already
got rid of), the narratives would be in this order:
Introductory, Jdg 9:23-25; then 9:26-29,30 common to both,
and so possibly part of 9:31 and 32 f. Then we have two
accounts of the event: (a) 9:31 (part),34-40; (b) 9:41-45,
followed by 9:46 ff.
David Francis Roberts
Zebul in Wikipedia
Zebul (zeŽbel) ("habitation"), ruler of Shechem under
He informed his master of the intention of the people of
Shechem to transfer their allegiance to the Hivite tribe of
Hamor. This led to Abimelech's destroying the city, when he
put its entire population to the sword, and sowed the ruins
Zebul Scripture - Judges 9:28
And Gaal the son of Ebed said, Who [is] Abimelech, and who
[is] Shechem, that we should serve him? [is] not [he] the son
of Jerubbaal? and Zebul his officer? serve the men of Hamor
the father of Shechem: for why should we serve him?
Zebul Scripture - Judges 9:30
And when Zebul the ruler of the city heard the words of Gaal
the son of Ebed, his anger was kindled.
Zebul Scripture - Judges 9:38
Then said Zebul unto him, Where [is] now thy mouth, wherewith
thou saidst, Who [is] Abimelech, that we should serve him?
[is] not this the people that thou hast despised? go out, I
pray now, and fight with them.
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