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October 20    Scripture



Bible Names N-Z: Tirhakah


Tirhakah in Easton's Bible Dictionary the last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty. He was the brother-in-law of So (q.v.). He probably ascended the throne about B.C. 692, having been previously king of Ethiopia (2 Kings 19:9; Isa. 37:9), which with Egypt now formed one nation. He was a great warrior, and but little is known of him. The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning twenty-six years.

Tirhakah in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Isaiah 37:9. (See HEZEKIAH; SO; ESARHADDON.) The Tehrak of the Egyptian monuments, who reigned over Egypt from 690 or 695 B.C. to 667 B.C.; probably king of Ethiopia before he took the title "king of Egypt." Third king of Manetho's 25th or Ethiopian dynasty. Naturally he helped Hezekiah of Judah against their common enemy Sennacherib, who threatened, Egypt. Herodotus (2:141) and Josephus (Ant. 10:1-3) represent Sennacherib to have advanced to Pelusium; here Tirhakah, the ally of Sethos, the king priest of Lower Egypt, and of Hezekiah, forced Sennacherib to retire, His acquisition of the throne of Egypt seems subsequent to his accession to the Ethiopian throne, and to the diversion which he made in favor of Hezekiah against Sennacherib. He extended his conquests to the pillars of Hercules (Strabo xv. 472), the temple at Medineet Haboo is inscribed with his deeds. But Memphite jealousy hid his share in Sennacherib's overthrow (at the time of his second invasion of Judah), and attributed Setho's deliverance to divinely sent mice, which gnawed the enemy's bowstrings. The Ethiopian influence and authority over Egypt appear in the large proportion of Ethiopians in Shishak's and Zerah's armies (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8); also in Pharaoh Necho's (Jeremiah 46:9). Isaiah (Isaiah 17:12-18;Isaiah 17:7) announces Sennacherib's overthrow, and desires the Ethiopian ambassadors, now in Jerusalem, having arrived from Meroe, the island between "the river of Ethiopia," the Nile, and the Astaboras, in "vessels of bulrushes"' or pitchcovered papyrus canoes, to bring word to their own nation (not "woe," but "ho!" calling the Ethiopians' attention to his prophetic announcement of the fall of Judah's and their common foe; Vulgate translated "the land of the clanging sound of wings," i.e. the land of armies with clashing arms; Vitringa supports KJV Ethiopia "shadowing," i.e. protecting the Hebrew "with wings"; Kenaphaim, related to the name of the idol Kneph, represented with wings: Psalm 91:4).

Tirhakah in Hitchcock's Bible Names inquirer; examiner; dull observer

Tirhakah in Naves Topical Bible -A king of Ethiopia 2Ki 19:9; Isa 37:9

Tirhakah in Smiths Bible Dictionary (exalted?) king of Ethiopia (Cush), the opponent of Sennacherib. 2Ki 19:9; Isa 37:9 He may be identified with Tarkos or Tarakos, who was the third and last king of the twenty-fifth dynasty, which was of Ethiopians. His accession was probably about B.C. 695. Possibly Tirhakah ruled over Ethiopia before becoming king of Egypt.

Tirhakah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE ter-ha'-ka, tir-ha'-ka (tirhaqah; Codex Vaticanus in 2 Kings Thara; elsewhere and in Codex Alexandrinus Tharaka; Josephus Tharsikes): 1. Name and Prenomen: The king of Cush or Ethiopia (basileus Aithiopon), who opposed Sennacherib in Israel (2 Ki 19:9; Isa 37:9). The name of this ruler of Egypt and his native realm appears in hieroglyphics as Taharqa, his prenomen being Nefer-atmu-Ra- chu, "Nefer-atmu-Ra protects." The Assyrian form of Tirhakah is Tarqu or Tarqu'u (inscriptions of Assur-bani-pal). 2. Origin and Length of Reign: Tirhakah was one of the sons, and apparently the favorite, of Piankhy II. He left his mother, and the city Napata, at the age of 20; and when she followed him northward, she found him crowned as king of Egypt. As he died, after a reign of at least 26 years, in 667 BC, he must have mounted the throne about 693 BC. 3. A Chronological Difficulty The engagement between Tirhakah's army and the Assyrians is regarded as having taken place in 701 BC. Petrie explains this date by supposing he acted at first for the reigning Pharaoh, his cousin Shabatoka, Tirhakah not having officially become Pharaoh until the former's death in 693 BC. There is a general opinion, however, that the Assyrian historians, like those of 2 King and Isaiah, have mingled two campaigns made by Sennacherib, one of them being after the accession of Tirhakah. 4. First Conflict with the Assyrians: According to the Old Testament account, Sennacherib was besieging Libnah when Tirhakah's army appeared in Israel. In Sennacherib's inscriptions, however, the battle with "the king(s) of Mucuru (Egypt) and the bowmen, chariots, and cavalry of Meruhha" (Meroe or Ethiopia), who had come to Hezekiah's help, took place in the neighborhood of Eltekeh. He claims to have captured the sons of the king (variant, "kings") of Egypt and the charioteers of the king of Meruhha, and then, having taken Eltekeh, Timna, and Ekron, he brought out Padi from Jerusalem, and resented him on the throne of Ekron. The name of Tirhakah does not occur in his account. 5. Struggles with Esar-haddon and Assur-bani-pal. His Death: It would seem to have been Egypt's interference in Palestinian affairs which caused the Assyrian kings to desire the conquest of that distant country. According to the Babylonian Chronicle, the Assyrian army fought in Egypt in the 7th year of Esar-haddon (675 BC), and the country was then apparently quiet until 672 BC, when Esar-haddon marched thither, and after fighting three battles, entered Memphis. "The king" (Tirhakah) fled, but his sons and nephews were made prisoners. In the latter campaign (670 BC) Esar-haddon fell ill and died on the way out, so that the operations were, apparently, completed by his son, Assur-bani-pal (Osnap-par); On hearing of the Assyrian success at Kar- Baniti, Tirhakah, who was at Memphis, fled to Thebes. The 20 petty kings installed in Egypt by Esar-haddon were restored by Assur-bani-pal, but they feared the vengeance of Tirhakah after the Assyrian army had retired, and therefore made an agreement with him. On this news reaching the Assyrian king, he sent his army back to Egypt, and the petty rulers having been abolished, Necho king of Memphis and Sais was set on the throne, with his son, Nabu-sizbanni, as ruler in Athribes. On hearing of the success of the Assyrian armies, Tirhakah fled, and died in Cush (Ethiopia). He was suceeded by TanTamane (Identified with Tanut-Amon), son of Sabaco, whom the Assyrians defeated in the last expedition which they ever made to Egypt (see W. F. Petrie, History of Egypt, III, 294 ff). T. G. Pinches

Tirhakah Scripture - 2 Kings 19:9 And when he heard say of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezekiah, saying,

Tirhakah Scripture - Isaiah 37:9 And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, He is come forth to make war with thee. And when he heard [it], he sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying,

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