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    2 Corinthians in Easton's Bible Dictionary Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but was disappointed (1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 1:8; 2:12, 13). He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (2 Cor. 7:6, 7), who brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written. It was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year A.D. 58, and was sent to Corinth by Titus. This letter he addresses not only to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia, i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece. The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged: (1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor. 1-7). (2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (8; 9). (3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (10-13), and justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents. This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self- vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal."-- Lias, Second Corinthians. Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information. We know that Paul visited Corinth after he had written it (Acts 20:2, 3), and that on that occasion he tarried there for three months. In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the Romans.

    2 Corinthians in Fausset's Bible Dictionary SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS. Reasons for writing. To explain why he deferred his promised visit to Corinth on his way to Macedonia (1 Corinthians 4:19; 1 Corinthians 16:5; 2 Corinthians 1:15-16), and so to explain his apostolic walk, and vindicate his apostleship against gainsayers (2 Corinthians 1:12; 2 Corinthians 1:24; 2 Corinthians 6:3-18; 2 Corinthians 7:2; 2 Corinthians 7:10; 2 Corinthians 7:11; 2 Corinthians 7:12). Also to praise them for obeying his first epistle, and to charge them to pardon the transgressor, as already punished sufficiently (2 Corinthians 2:1-11; 2 Corinthians 7:6-16). Also to urge them to contributions for the poor brethren at Jerusalem (2 Corinthians 8). Its genuineness is attested by Irenaeus (Haer., 3:7, section 1), Athenagoras (De Res. Mort.), Clement of Alexandria (Strom., 3:94, 4:101), and Tertullian (Pudic., 13). Time of writing. After Pentecost A.D. 57, when Paul left Ephesus for Troas. Having stayed for a time at Troas preaching with success (2 Corinthians 2:12-13), he went on to Macedonia to meet Titus there, since he was disappointed in not finding him at Troas as he had expected. In Macedonia he heard from him the comforting intelligence of the good effect of the first epistle upon the Corinthians, and having experienced the liberality of the Macedonian churches (2 Corinthians 8) he wrote this second epistle and then went on to Greece, where he stayed three months; then he reached Philippi by land about Passover or Easter, A.D. 58 (Acts 20:1-6). So that the autumn of A.D. 57 will be the date of 2 Corinthians. Place of writing. Macedonia, as 2 Corinthians 9:2 proves. In "ASIA" (see) he had been in great peril (2 Corinthians 1:8-9), whether from the tumult at Ephesus (Acts 19:23-41) or a dangerous illness (Alford). Thence he passed by way of Troas to Philippi, the first city that would meet him in entering Macedonia (Acts 20:1), and the seat of the important Philippian church. On comparing 2 Corinthians 11:9 with Philemon 4:15-16 it appears that by "Macedonia" there Paul means Philippi. The plural "churches," however, (2 Corinthians 8:1) proves that Paul visited other Macedonian churches also, e.g. Thessalonica and Berea. But Philippi, as the chief one, would be the center to which all the collections would be sent, and probably the place of writing 2 Corinthians Titus, who was to follow up at Corinth the collection, begun at the place of his first visit (2 Corinthians 8:6). The style passes rapidly from the gentle, joyous, and consolatory, to stern reproof and vindication of his apostleship against his opponents. His ardent temperament was tried by a chronic malady (2 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 5:1-4; 2 Corinthians 12:7-9). Then too "the care of all the churches" pressed on him; the weight of which was added to by Judaizing emissaries at Corinth, who wished to restrict the church's freedom and catholicity by bonds of letter and form (2 Corinthians 3:8-18). Hence, he speaks of (2 Corinthians 7:5- 6) "rightings without" and "fears within" until Titus brought him good news of the Corinthian church. Even then, while the majority at Corinth repented and excommunicated, at Paul's command, the incestuous person, and contributed to the Jerusalem poor fund, a minority still accused him of personal objects in the collection, though he had guarded against possibility of suspicion by having others beside himself to take charge of the money (2 Corinthians 8:18-28). Moreover, their insinuation was inconsistent with their other charge, that his not claiming maintenance proved him to be no apostle...

    2 Corinthians in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE I. TEXT, AUTHENTICITY AND DATE 1. Internal Evidence 2. External Evidence 3. Date II. RESUME OF EVENTS III. THE NEW SITUATION 1. The Offender 2. The False Teachers 3. The Painful Visit 4. The Severe Letter IV. HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION V. INTEGRITY OF THE EPISTLE 1. 2 Corintians 6:14 through 7:1 2. 2 Corintians 10:1 through 13:10 VI. CONTENTS OF THE EPISTLE 1. 2 Corintians 1 through 7 2. 2 Corintians 8 through 9 3. 2 Corintians 10 through 13 VII. VALUE OF THE EPISTLE LITERATURE I. Text, Authenticity and Date. 1. Internal Evidence: Compare what has already been said in the preceding article. In the two important 5th-century uncials, Codex Alexandrinus (A) and Codex Ephraemi (C), portions of the text are lacking. As to the genuineness internal evidence very vividly attests it. The distinctive elements of Pauline theology and eschatology, expressed in familiar Pauline terms, are manifest throughout. Yet the epistle is not doctrinal or didactic, but an intensely personal document. Its absorbing interest is in events which were profoundly agitating Paul and the Corinthians at the time, straining their relations to the point of rupture, and demanding strong action on Paul's part. Our imperfect knowledge of the circumstances necessarily hinders a complete comprehension, but the references to these events and to others in the personal history of the apostle are so natural, and so manifestly made in good faith, that no doubt rises in the reader's mind but that he is in the sphere of reality, and that the voice he hears is the voice of the man whose heart and nerves were being torn by the experiences through which he was passing. However scholars may differ as to the continuity and integrity of the text, there is no serious divergence among them in the opinion that all parts of the epistle are genuine writings of the apostle. 2. External Evidence: Externally, the testimony of the sub-apostolic age, though not so frequent or precise as in the case of 1 Corinthians, is still sufficiently clear to establish the existence and use of the epistle in the 2nd century Clement of Rome is silent when he might rather have been expected to use the epistle (compare Kennedy, Second and Third Corinthians, 142 ff); but it is quoted by Polycarp (Ad Phil., ii.4 and vi.1), and in the Epistle to Diognetus 5 12, while it is amply attested to by Irenaeus, Athenagoras, Theophilus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria...

    2 Corinthians in Wikipedia The Second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, usually referred to simply as Second Corinthians and often written 2 Corinthians, is the 8th book of the New Testament. The book, originally written in Greek, is a letter from Paul of Tarsus to the Christians of Corinth, Greece...

    Second Epistle to the Corinthians in Smiths Bible Dictionary was written a few months subsequent to the first, in the same year --about the autumn of A.D. 57 or 58 --at Macedonia. The epistle was occasioned by the information which the apostle had received form Titus, and also, as it would certainly seem probable, from Timothy, of the reception of the first epistle. This information, as it would seem from our present epistle, was mainly favorable; the better part of the church were returning to their spiritual allegiance to the founder, 2Co 1:13,14; 7:9,15,16 but there was still a faction who strenuously denied Paul's claim to apostleship. The contents of this epistle comprise, (1) the apostle's account of the character of his spiritual labors, chs. 1-7; (2) directions about the collections, chs. 8,9; (3) defence of his own apostolical character, chs. 10-13:10. The words in 1Co 5:9 seem to point to further epistles to the church by Paul, but we have no positive evidence of any.