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    Gospel of John in Easton's Bible Dictionary The genuineness of this Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all reasonable doubt. In recent times, from about 1820, many attempts have been made to impugn its genuineness, but without success. The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself (John 20:31). It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the purpose of supplying the omissions of the synoptical, i.e., of the first three, Gospels, but there is no evidence for this. "There is here no history of Jesus and his teaching after the manner of the other evangelists. But there is in historical form a representation of the Christian faith in relation to the person of Christ as its central point; and in this representation there is a picture on the one hand of the antagonism of the world to the truth revealed in him, and on the other of the spiritual blessedness of the few who yield themselves to him as the Light of life" (Reuss). After the prologue (1:1-5), the historical part of the book begins with verse 6, and consists of two parts. The first part (1:6-ch. 12) contains the history of our Lord's public ministry from the time of his introduction to it by John the Baptist to its close. The second part (ch. 13-21) presents our Lord in the retirement of private life and in his intercourse with his immediate followers (13-17), and gives an account of his sufferings and of his appearances to the disciples after his resurrection (18-21). The peculiarities of this Gospel are the place it gives (1) to the mystical relation of the Son to the Father, and (2) of the Redeemer to believers; (3) the announcement of the Holy Ghost as the Comforter; (4) the prominence given to love as an element in the Christian character. It was obviously addressed primarily to Christians. It was probably written at Ephesus, which, after the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), became the centre of Christian life and activity in the East, about A.D. 90.

    Gospel of John in Smiths Bible Dictionary This Gospel was probably written at Ephesus about A.D. 78. (Canon Cook places it toward the close of John's life, A.D. 90-100. --ED.) The Gospel was obviously addressed primarily to Christians, not to heathen. There can be little doubt that the main object of St. John, who wrote after the other evangelists, is to supplement their narratives, which were almost confined to our Lord's life in Galilee. (It was the Gospel for the Church, to cultivate and cherish the spiritual life of Christians, and bring them into the closest relations to the divine Saviour. It gives the inner life and teachings of Christ as revealed to his disciples. Nearly two-thirds of the whole book belong to the last six months of our Lord's life, and one-third is the record of the last week. --ED.) The following is an abridgment of its contents: A. The Prologue. ch. Joh 1:1-18 B. The History, ch. Joh 1:19 ... Joh 20:29 (a) Various events relating to our Lord's ministry, narrated in connection with seven journeys, ch. Joh 1:19 ... Joh 12:50 1. First journey, into Judea, and beginning of his ministry, ch. Joh 1:19 ... Joh 2:12 2. Second journey, at the passover in the first year of his ministry, ch. Joh 2:13 ... Joh 4:1 3. Third journey, in the second year of his ministry, about the passover, ch. (5:1). 4. Fourth journey, about the passover, in the third year of his ministry, beyond Jordan, ch. Joh 6:1 5. Fifth journey, six months before his death, begun at the feast of tabernacles, chs. Joh 7:1 ... Joh 10:21 6. Sixth journey, about the feast of dedication, ch. Joh 10:22-42 7. Seventh journey, in Judea towards Bethany, ch. Joh 11:1-54 8. Eighth journey, before his last passover, chs. Joh 11:55 ... Joh 12:1 (b) History of the death of Christ, chs. Joh 12:1 ... Joh 20:29 1. Preparation for his passion, chs. John 13:1 ... John 17:1 2. The circumstances of his passion and death, chs. Joh 18:1; 19:1 3. His resurrection, and the proofs of it, ch. Joh 20:1-29 C. The Conclusion, ch. Joh 20:30 ... 21:1 1. Scope of the foregoing history, ch. Joh 20:30,31 2. Confirmation of the authority of the evangelist by additional historical facts, and by the testimony of the elders of the Church, ch. Joh 21:1-24 3. Reason of the termination of the history, ch. Joh 21:25

    Gospel of John in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE LITERATURE I. Introductory. 1. Scope of Gospel: The Fourth Gospel has a form peculiar to itself, as well as a characteristic style and attitude, which mark it as a unique document among the books of the New Testament. (1) There is a prologue, consisting of Jn 1:1-18, of which something will be said later on. (2) There is a series of scenes and discourses from the life of Jesus, descriptive of Himself and His work, and marking the gradual development of faith and unbelief in His hearers and in the nation (1:19 through 12:50). (3) There is a more detailed account of the closing events of the Passion Week--of His farewell intercourse with His disciples (Jn 13 through 17), of His arrest, trials, crucifixion, death, and burial (Jn 18 through 19). (4) There are the resurrection, and the manifestations of the risen Lord to His disciples on the resurrection day, and on another occasion eight days after (20:1-29). This is followed by a paragraph which describes the purpose of the Gospel, and the reason why it was written (Jn 20:30,31). (5) Finally, there is a supplementary chapter (21), which has all the characteristic marks of the Gospel as a whole, and which probably, therefore, proceeds from the same pen (thus Lightfoot, Meyer, Alford, etc.; some, as Zahn, prefer to take the chapter as the work of a disciple of John). The concluding verses (21:24,25) read: "This is the disciple that beareth witness of these things, and wrote these things: and we know that his witness is true. And there are also many other things which Jesus did," etc. "We know that his witness is true" seems to be a testimony on the part of those who knew as to the identity of the disciple, and the trustworthiness of his witness. Nor has this earliest testimony been discredited by the attacks made on it, and the natural meaning has been vindicated by many competent writers. The present tense, "beareth witness," indicates that the " disciple" who wrote the Gospel was still alive when the testimony was given...

    Gospel of John in Wikipedia The Gospel According to John (Κατὰ Ἰωάννην εὐαγγέλιον, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, kata Iōannēn euangelion, to euangelion kata Iōannēn), commonly referred to as The Gospel of John, is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details the story of Jesus from his Baptism to his Resurrection. In the standard order of the canonical gospels, it appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels Matthew, Mark and Luke. The Gospel's authorship is anonymous. However, in chapter 21 it is stated that it derives from the testimony of the 'Disciple whom Jesus loved', identified by Early Church tradition with John the Apostle, one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. It is closely related in style and content to the three surviving Epistles of John such that most commentators routinely treat the four books together.[1]:p.63 Scholarly opinion is divided as to whether these epistles are the work of the evangelist himself or of his followers writing in his name. The epistles are addressed to a particular but unnamed church community. Most scholars presume that the Gospel, too, is addressed to the specific circumstances of that community. The evangelist urges his church to beware of internal factions and to reject false teaching. He seeks to strengthen the church community's resolution in the face of hostility and persecution from the Jewish leadership of the synagogue. It is now widely accepted that the discourses are concerned with the actual issues of the church and synagogue debate at the time when the Gospel was written."[1]:p.53 It is notable that, in the gospel, the community still appears to define itself primarily against Judaism, rather than as part of a wider Christian church. Lindars points out that Christianity started as a movement within Judaism, but he says that gradually Christians and Jews became bitterly opposed to one another...

    The Apostle John in Smiths Bible Dictionary was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee, and of Salome, and brother of James, also an apostle. Peter and James and John come within the innermost circle of their Lord's friends; but to John belongs the distinction of being the disciple whom Jesus loved. He hardly sustains the popular notion, fostered by the received types of Christian art, of a nature gentle, yielding, feminine. The name Boanerges, Mr 3:17 implies a vehemence, zeal, intensity, which gave to those who had it the might of sons of thunder. [JAMES] The three are with our Lord when none else are, in the chamber of death, Mr 5:37 in the glory of the transfiguration, Mt 17:1 when he forewarns them of the destruction of the holy city, Mr 13:3 in the agony of Gethsemane. When the betrayal is accomplished, Peter and John follow afar off. Joh 18:15 The personal acquaintance which exited between John and Caiaphas enables him to gain access to the council chamber, praetorium of the Roman procurator. Joh 18:16,19,28 Thence he follows to the place of crucifixion, and the Teacher leaves to him the duty of becoming a son to the mother who is left desolate. Joh 19:26,27 It is to Peter and John that Mary Magdalene first runs with the tidings of the emptied sepulchre, Joh 20:2 they are the first to go together to see what the strange words meant, John running on most eagerly to the rock-tomb; Peter, the least restrained by awe, the first to enter in and look. Joh 20:4-6 For at least eight days they continue in Jerusalem. Joh 20:26 Later, on the Sea of Galilee, John is the first to recognize in the dim form seen in the morning twilight the presence of his risen Lord; Peter the first to plunge into the water and swim toward the shore where he stood calling to them. Joh 21:7 The last words of John's Gospel reveal to us the deep affection which united the two friends. The history of the Acts shows the same union. They are together at the ascension on the day of Pentecost. Together they enter the temple as worshippers, Ac 3:1 and protest against the threats of the Sanhedrin. ch Ac 4:13 The persecution which was pushed on by Saul of Tarsus did not drive John from his post. ch. Ac 8:1 Fifteen years after St. Paul's first visit he was still at Jerusalem, and helped to take part in the settlement of the great controversy between the Jewish and the Gentile Christians. Ac 15:6 His subsequent history we know only by tradition. There can be no doubt that he removed from jerusalem and settled at Ephesus, though at what time is uncertain. Tradition goes on to relate that in the persecution under Domitian he is taken to Rome, and there, by his boldness, though not by death, gains the crown of martyrdom. The boiling oil into which he is thrown has no power to hurt him. He is then sent to labor in the mines, and Patmost is the place of his exile. The accession of Nerva frees him from danger, and he returns to Ephesus. Heresies continue to show themselves, but he meets them with the strongest possible protest. The very time of his death lies within the region of conjecture rather than of history, and the dates that have been assigned for it range from A.D. 89 to A.D. 120.

    The Apostle John in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE JOHN, THE APOSTLE Sources of the Life of John: The sources for the life of the apostle John are of various kinds, and of different degrees of trustworthiness. There are the references in the Synoptic Gospels, which may be used simply and easily without any preliminary critical inquiry into their worth as sources; for these Gospels contain the common tradition of the early church, and for the present purpose may be accepted as trustworthy. Further, there are the statements in Acts and in Galatians, which we may use without discussion as a source for the life of John. There is next the universal tradition of the 2nd century, which we may use, if we can show that the John of Ephesus, who bulks so largely in the Christian literature of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, is identical with the son of Zebedee. Further, on the supposition that the son of Zebedee is the author of the Johannine writings of the New Testament, there is another source of unequaled value for the estimate of the life and character of the son of Zebedee in these writings. Finally, there is the considerable volume of tradition which gathered around the name of John of Ephesus, of which, picturesque and interesting though the traditions be, only sparing use can be made. I. Witness of the New Testament. Addressing ourselves first to the Synoptic Gospels, to Acts and to Galatians, we ask, What, from these sources, can we know of the apostle John? A glance only need be taken at the Johannine writings, more fully discussed elsewhere in relation to their author...