Gospel According to Mark in Easton's Bible Dictionary
It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that
Mark derived his information mainly from the
Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant
opportunities of obtaining information from the
and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and
of Peter" specially.
As to the time when it was written, the Gospel
with no definite information. Mark makes no mention
destruction of Jerusalem, hence it must have been
that event, and probably about A.D. 63.
The place where it was written was probably Rome.
supposed Antioch (comp. Mark 15:21 with Acts 11:20).
It was intended primarily for Romans. This appears
when it is considered that it makes no reference to
law, and that the writer takes care to interpret
words which a
Gentile would be likely to misunderstand, such as,
(3:17); "Talitha cumi" (5:41); "Corban" (7:11);
(10:46); "Abba" (14:36); "Eloi," etc. (15:34).
Jewish usages are
also explained (7:3; 14:3; 14:12; 15:42). Mark also
Latin words not found in any of the other Gospels,
"speculator" (6:27, rendered, A.V., "executioner;"
"soldier of his guard"), "xestes" (a corruption of
rendered "pots," 7:4, 8), "quadrans" (12:42,
farthing"), "centurion" (15:39, 44, 45). He only
from the Old Testament (1:2; 15:28).
The characteristics of this Gospel are, (1) the
absence of the
genealogy of our Lord, (2) whom he represents as
power, the "lion of the tribe of Judah." (3.) Mark
with wonderful minuteness the very words (3:17;
5:41; 7:11, 34;
14:36) as well as the position (9:35) and gestures
5:32; 9:36; 10:16) of our Lord. (4.) He is also
record particulars of person (1:29, 36; 3:6, 22,
(5:13; 6:7, etc.), place (2:13; 4:1; 7:31, etc.),
(1:35; 2:1; 4:35, etc.), which the other evangelists
The phrase "and straightway" occurs nearly forty
times in this
Gospel; while in Luke's Gospel, which is much
longer, it is used
only seven times, and in John only four times.
"The Gospel of Mark," says Westcott, "is essentially
transcript from life. The course and issue of facts
in it with the clearest outline." "In Mark we have
no attempt to
draw up a continuous narrative. His Gospel is a
of vivid pictures loosely strung together without
to bind them into a whole or give the events in
sequence. This pictorial power is that which
characterizes this evangelist, so that 'if any one
know an evangelical fact, not only in its main
grand results, but also in its most minute and so to
graphic delineation, he must betake himself to
leading principle running through this Gospel may be
in the motto: "Jesus came...preaching the gospel of
"Out of a total of 662 verses, Mark has 406 in
Matthew and Luke, 145 with Matthew, 60 with Luke,
and at most 51
peculiar to itself." (See MATTHEW -T0002442.)
Gospel According to Mark in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
frontACTS, THE BOOK OF; BARNABAS; GOSPELS.) "John (his
Hebrew name) whose surname was Mark" (his Roman name): Mark
12:12; Mark 12:25; Mark 13:5; Mark 13:13; Mark 15:39;
Colossians 4:10; 2 Timothy 4:11; Philemon 1:24. The Roman
supplanted the Jewish name, as Paul did Saul. The change
marks his entrance on a new and worldwide ministry. The
fathers unanimously testify that Mark was "interpreter"
(hermeneutees, Papias in Eusebius, H. E. iii. 39; Irenaeus,
Haer. iii. 1,10, sec. 6) to Peter; meaning one who expresses
and clothes in words the testimony of another. Papias, or
John Presbyter (in Eusebius, H. E. iii. 39), states that
Mark wrote "not in order," i.e. he wrote "some" leading
facts, not a complete history. He attests Mark's accuracy,
saying "he committed no error," but made it his aim "to omit
nought of what he heard and to state nothing untrue."
Peter's name and presence are mentioned on occasions
where apparently there is no reason for it; Mark herein
wished to bring the apostle forward as his authority (see
Mark 1:36; Mark 5:37; Mark 11:20-26; Mark 13:3). There are
indications of the author having been a Galilean, which
Peter was. Thus, Herod the tetrarch is styled "king"; the
"lake' (as Luke 8:22 calls it, for he knew larger sects) is
called "the sea of Galilee" (Mark 5:1). Only in Mark 6:30
the term of dignity, "apostle," is found; in Luke, as
writing later, it frequently occurs. Things to their
discredit are ingenuously stated by Matthew and Mark
(Peter), as we might expect from apostles writing about
themselves; but are sparingly introduced by Luke (Matthew
16:9; Mark 7:18; Mark 10:41; Mark 14:31; Mark 6:52; Mark
9:10; Mark 10:32, the last three not in Matthew)...
Gospel According to Mark, 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
II. Contents and General Characteristics.
The Gospel begins with the ministry of John the Baptist and
ends with the announcement of the Resurrection, if the last
12 verses be not included. These add post-resurrection
appearances, the Commission, the Ascension, and a brief
summary of apostolic activity. Thus its limits correspond
closely with those indicated by Peter in Acts 10:37-43.
Nothing is said of the early Judean ministry. The Galilean
ministry and Passion Week with the transition from the one
to the other (in Acts 10) practically make up the Gospel.
2. Material Peculiar to Mark:
Matter peculiar to Mark is found in 4:26-29 (the seed
growing secretly); 3:21 (his kindred's fear); 7:32-37 (the
deaf and dumb man); 8:22-26 (the blind man); 13:33-37 (the
householder and the exhortation to watch); 14:51 (the young
man who escaped). But, in addition to this, there are many
vivid word-touches with which the common material is lighted
up, and in not a few of the common incidents Mark's account
is very much fuller; e.g. 6:14-29 (death of John the
Baptist); Mk 7:1-23 (on eating with unwashen hands); 9:14-29
(the demoniac boy); 12:28-34 (the questioning scribe). There
is enough of this material to show clearly that the author
could not have been wholly dependent on the other
evangelists. Hawkins reckons the whole amount of peculiar
material at about fifty verses (Hor. Syn., 11)...
Gospel According to Mark, 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
VI. Sources and Integrity.
We have seen that, according to the testimony of the
Fathers, Peter's preaching and teaching are at least the
main source, and that many features of the Gospel support
that view. We have seen, also, subtle but weighty reasons
for believing that Mark added a little himself. Need we seek
further sources, or does inquiry resolve itself into an
analysis of Peter's teaching?
B. Weiss believes that Mark used a document now lost
containing mainly sayings of Jesus, called Logia (L) in the
earlier discussions, but now commonly known as Q (Quelle).
In that opinion he has recently been joined by Sanday and
Streeter. Harnack, Sir John Hawkins and Wellhausen have
sought to reconstruct Q on the basis of the non-Markan
matter in Matthew and Luke. Allen extracts it from Matthew
alone, thinking that Mark also may have drawn a few sayings
from it. Some assign a distinct source for Mark 13. Streeter
considers it a document written shortly after the fall of
Jerusalem, incorporating a few utterances by Jesus and
itself incorporated bodily by Mark. Other sources, oral or
written, are postulated by Bacon for smaller portions and
grouped under X. He calls the final redactor R--not Mark but
a Paulinist of a radical type.
In forming a judgment much depends upon one's conception of
the teaching method of Jesus and the apostles. Teaching and
preaching are not synonymous terms. Matthew sums up the
early ministry in Galilee under "teaching, preaching and
healing," and gives us the substance of that teaching as it
impressed itself upon him. Mark reports less of it, but
speaks of it more frequently than either Matthew or Luke.
Jesus evidently gave teaching a very large place, and a
large proportion of the time thus spent was devoted to the
special instruction of the inner circle of disciples. The
range of that instruction was not wide. It was intensive
rather than extensive. He held Himself to the vital topic of
the kingdom of God. He must have gone over it again and
again. He would not hesitate to repeat instructions which
even chosen men found it so difficult to understand.
Teaching by repetition was common then as it is now in the
East. The word "catechize" (katecheo) implies that, and that
word is used by Paul of Jewish (Rom 2:18) and by...
Gospel of Mark in Smiths Bible Dictionary
1. By whom written. --The author of this Gospel has been
universally believed to be Mark or Marcus, designated in Ac
12:12,25; 15:37 as John Mark, and in ch. 5,13 as John.
2. When is was written. --Upon this point nothing
absolutely certain can be affirmed, and the Gospel itself
affords us no information. The most direct testimony is that
of Irenaeus, who says it was after the death of the apostles
Peter and Paul. We may conclude, therefore, that this Gospel
was not written before A.D. 63. Again we may as certainly
conclude that it was not written after the destruction of
Jerusalem, for it is not likely that he would have omitted
to record so remarkable a fulfillment of our Lord's
predictions. Hence A.D. 63-70 becomes our limit, but nearer
than this we cannot go. --Farrar.
3. Where it was written. --As to the place, the
weight of testimony is uniformly in favor of the belief that
the Gospel was written and published at Rome. In this
Clement, Eusebius, Jerome, Epiphanius, all agree.
Chrysostom, indeed, asserts that it was published at
Alexandria; but his statement receives no confirmation, as
otherwise it could not fail to have done, from any
Alexandrine writer. --Farrar.
4. In what language. --As to the language in which
it was written, there never has been any reasonable doubt
that it was written in Greek.
5. Sources of information. --Mark was not one of the
twelve; and there is no reason to believe that he was an eye
and ear witness of the events which he has recorded but an
almost unanimous testimony of the early fathers indicates
Peter as the source of his information. The most important
of these testimonies is that of Papias, who says, "He, the
Presbyter (John), said, Mark, being the Interpreter of
Peter, wrote exactly whatever he remembered but he did not
write in order the things which were spoken or done by
Christ. For he was neither a hearer nor a follower of the
Lord, but, as I said, afterward followed Peter, who made his
discourses to suit what was required, without the view of
giving a connected digest of the discourses of our Lord.
Mark, therefore, made no mistakes when he wrote down
circumstances as he recollected them; for he was very
careful of one thing, to omit nothing of what he heard, and
to say nothing false in what he related." Thus Papias writes
of Mark. This testimony is confirmed by other witnesses. --
6. For whom it was written. --The traditional
statement is that it was intended primarily for Gentiles,
and especially for those at Rome. A review of the Gospel
itself confirms this view.
7. Characteristics. -- (1) Mark's Gospel is occupied
almost entirely with the ministry in Galilee and the events
of the passion week. It is the shortest of the four Gospels,
and contains almost no incident or teaching which is not
contained in one of the other two synoptists; but (2) it is
by far the most vivid and dramatic in its narratives, and
their pictorial character indicates not only that they were
derived from an eye and ear witness, but also from one who
possessed the observation and the graphic artistic power of
a natural orator such as Peter emphatically was. (3) One
peculiarity strikes us the moment we open it, --the absence
of any genealogy of our Lord. This is the key to much that
follows. It is not the design of the evangelist to present
our Lord to us, like St. Matthew as the Messiah, "the son of
David and Abraham," ch. 1:1, or, like St. Luke, as the
universal Redeemer, "the son of Adam, which was the son of
God." ch. 3:38. (4) His design is to present him to us as
the incarnate and wonder-working Son of God, living and
acting among men; to portray him in the fullness of his
living energy. --Cambridge Bible for Schools.
Gospel of Mark in Wikipedia
The Gospel According to Mark (Greek: κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον,
τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον, to euangelion kata Markon),
commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark, is the second book
of the New Testament. This Canonical account of the life of
Jesus is one of the Synoptic Gospels. It was thought to be an
epitome, and accordingly, its place as the second gospel in
most Bibles. However, most contemporary scholars now regard it
as the earliest of the canonical gospels (c 70).
The Gospel of Mark narrates the ministry of Jesus of Nazareth
from his baptism by John the Baptist to the resurrection and
it concentrates particularly on the last week of his life
(chapters 11–16, the trip to Jerusalem). Its swift narrative
portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a
healer and miracle worker. It calls him the Son of Man, the
Son of God, and the Messiah or Christ...