Author of The Book of Hosea
Author - Hosea (According to Jewish Tradition)
Book of Hosea in Wikipedia
The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. It
stands first in order among what are known as the twelve Minor
Prophets. Hosea (הושֵעַ) prophesied during a dark and
melancholic era of Israel's history, the period of the
Northern Kingdom's decline and fall in the 8th century BC. The
apostasy of the people was rampant, having turned away from
God in order to serve the calves of Jeroboam II (see 1 K
12.26-30; Ho 8.4-6) and Baal, a Canaanite god of fertility.
The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Hebrew
Bible as representations of the relationship between God and
the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy of Israel and
its punishment, with its future repentance, forgiveness, and
Chart of the Prophets of Israel and Judah
God raised up certain "prophets" who were His mouthpieces.
They would speak out against their sin and idolatry and would
continually warn of God's judgment. Some of the prophets spoke
out in the North and some in the South, but God was faithfully
warning them of certain catastrophe if they would not turn to
Date of The Book of Hosea
Date - 785 BC Approximately
Greek Name of The Book of Hosea
Greek Name - Osee (Greek form of the Hebrew)
Hebrew Name and Meaning of The Book of Hosea
Hebrew Name - Hoshea "Salvation"
History of The Book of Hosea
The prophet Hosea was commanded by God to marry a wife of
harlotry because Israel hath committed great harlotry. He was
sent by God to prophesy about the northern King of Israel.
Hosea ministered to Israel for a great length of time (over 50
years), and they were his primary target although he does
mention four kings of Judah (Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and
Hezekiah). The northern kingdom of Israel was enjoying
tremendous prosperity during the reign of Jeroboam II, yet
when he died various kings came to the throne for a brief
period of time and then many were assassinated. The problem
with the northern kingdom was that they were idolaters, and
every one of their kings were evil whether they prospered or
not. The people were making sacrifices on heathen altars,
adultery was prevalent, and ritualistic prostitution abounded.
Hosea attributed their wretchedness to a lack of knowledge,
not a lack of intellectual knowledge, but lacking a
relationship with the living God. Yet God loves his people
with an everlasting love in spite of their corruption.
Hosea in Easton's Bible Dictionary
salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of
prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the
Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the
rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern
Israel; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with
localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6,
passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled 'the
7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as 'our'
The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty
indicated in the superscription (Hos. 1:1, 2). He is
prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.
Hosea in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Placed first of the minor prophets in the canon (one
collective whole "the book of the prophets," Acts 7:42),
probably because of the length, vivid earnestness, and
patriotism of his prophecies, as well as their resemblance
to those of the greater prophets, Chronologically Jonah was
before him, 862 B.C., Joel about 810 B.C., Amos 790 B.C.,
Hosea 784 to 722 B.C., more or less contemporary with Isaiah
and Amos. Began prophesying in the last years of Jeroboam
II, contemporary with Uzziah; ended at the beginning of
Hezekiah's reign. The prophecies of his extant are only
those portions of his public teachings which the Holy Spirit
preserved, as designed for the benefit of the uuiversal
church. His name means salvation. Son of Beeri, of Issachar;
born in Bethshemesh.
His pictures of Israelite life, the rival factions calling
in Egypt and Assyria, mostly apply to the interreign after
Jeroboam's death and to the succeeding reigns, rather than
to his able government. In Hosea 2:8 he makes no allusion to
Jehovah's restoration of Israel's coasts under Jeroboam
among Jehovah's mercies to Israel. He mentions in the
inscription, besides the reign of Jeroboam in Israel, the
reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of
Judah, though his prophecies are addressed primarily to
Israel and only incidentally to Judah; for all the prophets
whether in Judah or Israel regarded Israel's separation from
Judah, civil as well as religious, as an apostasy from God
who promised the kingship of the theocracy to the line of
David. Hence Elijah in Israel took twelve stones to
represent Judah as well as Israel (1 Kings 18:31). Eichhorn
sees a Samaritanism in the masculine suffix of the second
Hosea in Smiths Bible Dictionary
(salvation), son of Beeri, and first of the minor prophets.
Probably the life, or rather the prophetic career, of Hosea
extended from B.C. 784 to 723, a period of fifty-nine years.
The prophecies of Hosea were delivered in the kingdom of
Israel. Jeroboam II was on the throne, and Israel was at the
height of its earthly splendor. Nothing is known of the
prophet's life excepting what may be gained from his book.
Hosea in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
I. The Prophet.
The name (hoshea Septuagint Osee-; for other forms see note
in DB), probably meaning "help," seems to have been not
uncommon, being derived from the auspicious verb from which
we have the frequently recurring word "salvation." It may be
a contraction of a larger form of which the Divine name or
its abbreviation formed a part, so as to signify "God is
help," or "Help, God." according to Nu 13:8,16 that was the
original name of Joshua son of Nun, till Moses gave him the
longer name (compounded with the name of Yahweh) which he
continued to bear (yehoshua`), "Yahweh is salvation." The
last king of the Northern Kingdom was also named Hosea (2 Ki
15:30), and we find the same name borne by a chief of the
tribe of Ephraim under David (1 Ch 27:20) and by a chief
under Nehemiah (Neh 10:23).
2. Native Place:
Although it is not directly stated in the book, there can be
little doubt that he exercised his ministry in the kingdom
of the Ten Tribes. Whereas his references to Judah are of a
general kind, Ephraim or Samaria being sometimes mentioned
in the same connection or more frequently alone, the
situation implied throughout and the whole tone of the
addresses agree with what we know of the Northern Kingdom at
the time, and his references to places and events in that
kingdom are so numerous and minute as to lead to the
conclusion that he not only prophesied there, but that he
was a native of that part of the country. Gilead, e.g. a
district little named in the prophets, is twice mentioned in
Hos (6:8; 12:11) and in such a manner as to suggest that he
knew it by personal observation; and Mizpah (mentioned in
5:1) is no doubt the Mizpah in Gilead (Jdg 10:17). Then we
find Tabor (Hos 5:1), Shechem (Hos 6:9 the Revised Version
(British and American)), Gilgal and Bethel (Hos 4:15; 9:15;
10:5,8,15; 12:11). Even Lebanon in the distant North is
spoken of with a minuteness of detail which could be
expected only from one very familiar with Northern Israel
(Hos 14:5-8). In a stricter sense, therefore, than amos who,
though a native of Tekoah, had a prophetic mission to the
North, Hosea may be called the prophet of Northern Israel,
and his book, as Ewald has said, is the prophetic voice
wrung from the bosom of the kingdom itself...
Hosea in the Picture Study Bible
Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many
important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological
notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts,
cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars,
information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient
temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people,
places, and events from the ancient world that are explained
in an easy to understand format.
Introduction to The Book of Hosea
Story of Hosea and his unfaithful wife, Gomer. Represents
God's love and faithfulness and Israel's spiritual adultery.
Israel will be judged and restored.
Main Divisions of The Book of Hosea
In Hosea 1-3, the faithless actions of Israel toward God are
illustrated by the relationship between Hosea and his
adultress wife, Gomer. The names of his children indicate the
attitude of God toward Israel. The first is named "Jezreel"
after the city which was the scene of Jehu's brutality and
which signified that God would punish his people. Lo-Ruhamah
(Not pitied) and Lo-Ammi (Not my people) are the names given
to the two other children, signifying the estrangement which
was the inevitable result of the actions of Israel. God's love
is illustrated in Hosea's willingness to buy his wife back
from the practice of harlotry - though she could not continue
in her harlotry while he was with her.
The second division of the prophecy, found in Hosea 4-14,
presents a detailed picture of the depths of depravity to
which Israel had gone, with alternating passages of reproof,
threats of punishment, and assurances of restoration.
Outline of The Book of Hosea
Quick Overview of Hosea. – – 1 – – Hosea's marriage to a
harlot illustrates Israel and their sin – – 2 – – Israel
suffers for their harlotry – – 3 – – Israel's future
restoration – – 4 – – Ephraim's idolatry – – 5-6 – – God's
chastisement and future mercy – – 7-13 – – the Lord's judgment
upon Israel – – 14 – – the restoration of Israel.
Prophecies of Hosea in Easton's Bible Dictionary
This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets."
probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the
national character of his oracles, their length,
tone, and vivid representations." This was the
longest of the
prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea
in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history,
of Israel's decline and fall. Their sins had brought
great national disasters. "Their homicides and
their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety,
censured and satirized with a faithful severity." He
contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into
the first containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically
the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from
matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage and
common in the Old Testament writings to represent
relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel.
Here we see
the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with
repentance, forgiveness, and restoration.
The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of
discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings,
exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy.
Quotations from Hosea are found in Matt. 2:15; 9:15;
Rom. 9:25, 26. There are, in addition, various
allusions to it
in other places (Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16, comp. Hos.
9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10, comp. Hos. 1:10, etc.).
As regards the style of this writer, it has been
"each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy
toll in a
funeral knell." "Inversions (7:8; 9:11, 13; 12: 8),
(9:6; 12:8, etc.), ellipses (9:4; 13:9, etc.),
plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea
10:5; 11:5; 12:11)."
Prophecies of Hosea in Smiths Bible Dictionary
This book consists of fourteen chapters. It is easy to
recognize two great divisions in the book: (1) ch. 1 to 3; (2)
ch. 4 to end. The subdivision of these several parts is a work
of greater difficulty--
1. The first division should probably be subdivided
into three separate poems, each originating in a distinct aim,
and each after its own fashion attempting to express the
idolatry of Israel by imagery borrowed from the matrimonial
2. Attempts have been made to subdivide the second
part of the book. These divisions are made either according to
reigns of contemporary kings or according to the subject-
matter of the poem. The prophecies were probably collected by
Hosea himself toward the end of his career. Of his style
Eichhorn says, "His discourse is like a garland woven of a
multiplicity of flowers; images are woven upon images,
metaphor strung upon metaphor. Like a bee he flies from one
flower-bed to another, that he may suck his honey from the
most varied pieces....Often he is prone to approach to
allegory; often he sinks down in obscurity."
Summary of The Book of Hosea
The prophet Hosea had a real-life situation that God used to
illustrate his problem with the nation of Israel. Hosea's
adulterous wife had broken his heart, and this is exactly what
the children of Israel had done to God when they played the
harlot with other gods. Later when her adulterous affairs had
led her to be sold on the slave block, Hosea was willing to
buy her back for he could not give her up. This dramatically
illustrated Israel's situation for soon they would be
conquered by the Assyrians and then sold into slavery because
they had forgotten their God. The prophet Hosea spoke about a
future blessing in which God will restore Israel.
Theme of The Book of Hosea
Main Theme - The apostasy of Israel. My people are bent on
backsliding from Me. Though they call to the Most High, none
at all exalt Him. "How can I give you up, Ephraim? How can I
hand you over, Israel? . . . My heart churns within Me; my
sympathy is stirred. . . "I will heal their backsliding, I
will love them freely, for My anger has turned away from him."
Hosea 11:7-8, 14:4
Type of Jesus The Book of Hosea
Types and Shadows - In Hosea Jesus is the faithful husband who
bought His wife back from the slave block.