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    October 26    Scripture

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    Bible Books : Author of the Book of Proverbs The book of Proverbs not only names Solomon as the author in the very first verse, but there are other verses that indicate that Solomon was the person responsible for the Proverbs (Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 25:1). The book of Kings indicates that Solomon was blessed with wisdom from God (1 Kings 4:29), he was a man of humility (1 Kings 3:7), and a great diplomat (1 Kings 3:16-28; 1 Kings 5:12) to such an extent that people came from all over the world to hear his wisdom (1 Kings 4:30; 1 Kings 10:1-13). The book of Kings also indicates that Solomon wrote over 3000 proverbs (1 Kings 4:32), and this is many more than the book of Proverbs contains.

    Book of Proverbs in Easton's Bible Dictionary a collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range of subjects presented in a poetic form. This book sets forth the "philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the Bible does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses upon us in the most forcible manner the value of intelligence and prudence and of a good education. The whole strength of the Hebrew language and of the sacred authority of the book is thrown upon these homely truths. It deals, too, in that refined, discriminating, careful view of the finer shades of human character so often overlooked by theologians, but so necessary to any true estimate of human life" (Stanley's Jewish Church). As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that Solomon gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the tide of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the material of his own experience. Towards the close of the book, indeed, are preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to have fallen from his lips in later life and been gathered by other hands' (Arnot's Laws from Heaven, etc.) This book is usually divided into three parts: (1.) Consisting of ch. 1-9, which contain an exhibition of wisdom as the highest good. (2.) Consisting of ch. 10-24. (3.) Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of Hezekiah, the king of Judah, collected" (ch. 25-29). These are followed by two supplements, (1) "The words of Agur" (ch. 30); and (2) "The words of king Lemuel" (ch. 31). Solomon is said to have written three thousand proverbs, and those contained in this book may be a selection from these (1 Kings 4:32). In the New Testament there are thirty- five direct quotations from this book or allusions to it.

    Book of Proverbs in Fausset's Bible Dictionary mishlee, plural of maashaal, "comparison" or "likeness." The Christian fathers (Clement, Ep. Cor. 1:57; Hegesippus, Irenaeus in Eusebius H. E. 4:22) entitle it "Wisdom, the sum of all virtues" (Panareros sophia). Pithy sayings (compare David's quotation, 1 Samuel 24:13), like similes or with a figure. The comparison is either expressed or left for the hearer to supply. So Balaam's "parable" is prophecy in figurative language (Numbers 23:7-10; 1 Samuel 10:12; Ezekiel 12:22-23; Ezekiel 17:2-3; Ezekiel 18:2; Ezekiel 20:49; Ezekiel 24:3; Luke 4:23). In Job 27:1 "parable" (Job 29:1) means a figurative, sententious, weighty embodiment of wisdom, not in this case short, but containing Job's whole argument (Psalm 49:4, maashaal). In Proverbs 1:6 "dark sayings" (chidah) are another form of proverbs, the enigmatical obscurity being designed to stimulate reflection (Habakkuk 2:6; Judges 14; 1 Kings 10:1; 2 Chronicles 9:1; Ezekiel 17:2; Psalm 78:2); the melitsah (Proverbs 1:6), "interpretation" (so Chald. and Vulgate versions), for which Gesenius translated "a saying that needs an interpreter," i.e. enigmatical (Habakkuk 2:6). For instance (Proverbs 12:27), "the slothful man roasteth not that which he took in hunting" requires discernment to see the point of comparison and the application; the slothful man is too lazy to hunt, and therefore has nothing to roast (compare 2 Thessalonians 3:10). "Proverb" is with Jesus' disciples equivalent to an obscure saying (John 16:29). Canonicity. The Book of Proverbs is found in all Jewish lists among the ketubim, "writings" (hagiographa), the third division of Scripture. The Talmud (Baba Bathra, 14 b.) gives the order, Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra (including Nehemiah), Chronicles. The New Testament quotes and so canonizes (Proverbs 1:16; Romans 3:10; Romans 3:15. Proverbs 3:7; Romans 12:16. Proverbs 3:11-12; Hebrews 12:5-6; Revelation 3:19. Proverbs 3:34; James 4:6. Proverbs 10:12; 1 Peter 4:8. Proverbs 11:31; 1 Peter 4:17-18. Proverbs 17:13; Romans 12:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9. Proverbs 17:27; James 1:19. Proverbs 20:9; 1 John 1:8. Proverbs 20:20; Matthew 15:4. Proverbs 22:8; 2 Corinthians 9:6; Galatians 6:7; Galatians 6:9. Proverbs 25:21-22; Romans 12:20. Proverbs 26:11; 2 Peter 2:22. Proverbs 27:1; James 4:13)...

    Book of Proverbs in Smiths Bible Dictionary The title of this book in Hebrew is taken from its first word, mashal, which originally meant "a comparison." It is sometimes translated parable, sometimes proverb as here. The superscriptions which are affixed to several portions of the book, in chs. Pr 1:1; 10:1; 25:1 attribute the authorship of those portions to Solomon the son of David, king of Israel. With the exception of the last two chapters, which are distinctly assigned to other author it is probable that the statement of the superscriptions is in the main correct, and that the majority of the proverbs contained in the book were uttered or collected by Solomon. Speaking roughly, the book consists of three main divisions, with two appendices:-- 1. Chs. 1-9 form a connected didactic Wisdom is praised and the youth exhorted to devote himself to her. This portion is preceded by an introduction and title describing the character and general aim of the book. 2. Chs. 10-24 with the title "The Proverbs of Solomon," consist of three parts: Pr 10:1-22; Pr 10:16 a collection of single proverbs and detached sentences out of the region of moral teaching and worldly prudence; Pr 22:17- 24; Pr 22:21 a more connected didactic poem, with an introduction, Pr 22:17-22 which contains precepts of righteousness and prudence; Pr 24:23-34 with the inscription "These also belong to the wise," a collection of unconnected maxims, which serve as an appendix to the preceding. Then follows the third division chs. 25-29, which, according to the superscription, professes to be collection of Solomon's proverbs, consisting of single sentences, which the men of the court of Hezekiah copied out. The first appendix, ch. 30, "The words of Agur the son of Jakeh," is a collection of partly proverbial and partly enigmatical sayings; the second, ch. 31, is divided into two parts, "The words of King Lemuel," vs. 1-6, and an alphabetical acrostic in praise of a virtuous woman, which occupies the rest of the chapter. Who was Agur and who was Jakeh, are questions which have been often asked and never satisfactorily answered. All that can be said of the first is that he was an unknown Hebrew sage, the son of an equally unknown Jakeh, and that he lived after the time of Hezekiah. Lemuel, like Agur, is unknown. It is even uncertain whether he is to be regarded as a real personage, or whether the name is merely symbolical. The Proverbs are frequently quoted or alluded to in the New Testament and the canonicity of the book thereby confirmed. The following is a list of the principal passages:-- Pr 1:16 compare Roma 3:10,15 Pr 3:7 compare Roma 12:16 Pr 3:11,12 compare Hebr 12:5,6, see also Reve 3:19 Pr 3:34 compare Jame 4:6 Pr 10:12 compare 1Pet 4:8 Pr 11:31 compare 1Pet 4:18 Pr 17:13 compare Roma 12:17; 1The 5:15; 1Pet 3:9 Pr 17:27 compare Jame 1:19 Pr 20:9 compare 1Joh 1:8 Pr 20:20 compare Matt 15:4; Mark 7:10 Pr 22:8 (LXX.), compare 2Cor 9:7 Pr 25:21,22 compare, Roma 12:20 Pr 26:11 compare, 2Pet 2:22 Pr 27:1 compare, Jame 4:13,14...

    Book of Proverbs in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE I. The Book's Account of Itself. 1. Title and Headings: At the beginning, intended apparently to cover the whole work, stands the title: "The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel." It seemed good to the compilers, however, to repeat, or perhaps retain an older heading, "The proverbs of Solomon" at Prov 10, as if in some special sense the collection there beginning deserved it; and at Prov 25 still another heading occurs: "These also are proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied out." All these ascribe the proverbs to Solomon; but the heading (30:1), "The words of Agur the son of Jakeh; the oracle," and the heading (31:1), "The words of king Lemuel; the oracle which his mother taught him," indicate that authorship other than that of Solomon is represented; while the mention of "the words of the wise" (1:6; 22:17), as also the definite heading, "These also are sayings of the wise" (24:23), ascribe parts of the book to the sages in general. The book is confessedly a series of compilations made at different times; confessedly, also, to a considerable extent at least, the work of a number, perhaps a whole guild, of writers. 2. Authorship or Literary Species?: It is hazardous to argue either for or against a specific authorship; nor is it my intention to do so. The question naturally arises, however, in what sense this book, with its composite structure so outspoken, can lay claim to being the work of Solomon. Does the title refer to actual personal authorship, or does it name a species and type of literature of which Solomon was the originator and inspirer--as if it meant to say "the Solomonic proverbs"? We may work toward the answer of this question by noting some literary facts...

    Book of Proverbs in Wikipedia The Book of Proverbs (in Hebrew: מִשְלֵי Mishlay) is a book of the Hebrew Bible. The original Hebrew title of the book of Proverbs is "Míshlê Shlomoh" ("Proverbs of Solomon"). When translated into Greek and Latin, the title took on different forms. In the Greek Septuagint (LXX) the title became "paroimai paroimiae" ("Proverbs"). In the Latin Vulgate the title was "proverbia", from which the English title of Proverbs is derived...

    Date of the Book of Proverbs Date - 1000 BC Approximately

    Main Divisions of the Book of Proverbs Proverbs 1-9, Solomon addresses the young. His words are arranged in a series of discourses in praise of wisdom. A personification of Wisdom speaks as an instructor, warning against all manner of folly. The proverbs in this section are arranged with more continuity than is seen in succeeding chapters. Proverbs 10-22:16 are the "proverbs of Solomon," and this section is usually thought to be the original nucleus around which the remainder of the book was constructed. Proverbs 22:17-24 :22 contains advice for those in responsible positions, calling it "the words of the wise." Proverbs 24:23-29 are designated as "the proverbs of Solomon which the wise men of Hezekiah copied out." These are in the form of detached statements, although there are occasional signs of continuity. There are also sayings on related subjects such as rulers, sluggards and fools. Proverbs 30, the sayings of Agur, and Proverbs 31, the great chapter on womanhood which purports to come from the mother of King Lemuel which was constructed in acrostic form, the verses beginning with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This last chapter completes this book of Hebrew wisdom.

    Outline of the Book of Proverbs Quick Overview of Proverbs. – –1:1-6 – – the introduction and purpose of the book – – 1:7-9:18 – – wisdom and folly are examined – – 10:1-22:16 – – wisdom does good – – 22:17-24:34 – – the words of the wise – – 25:1-29:27 – – the Proverbs of Solomon are collected by Hezekiah's servants – – 30:1-33 – – the messages of Agur – – 31:1-31 – – the sayings of King Lemuel.

    Solomon's Wisdom Solomon's Wisdom. David had chosen Solomon to sit upon the throne of Israel and serve the Lord. After Solomon had removed his enemies, he allied with the Pharaoh of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter to be his wife. Solomon had thought intensely about his task to build a house for the Lord, the Temple in Jerusalem. He went to offer sacrifices to the Lord at Gibeon and that night the Lord appeared to him in a dream saying "ask what you will and I will give it to you" and Solomon said "you have shown great mercy to your servant David, my father, even as he walked before you in truth and justice and with an upright heart. You have continued your great mercy toward him and given him a son to sit on his throne, as it is today. And now, O Lord God, you have made your servant King succeeding David, my father. I am but a child, and know not how to act. You have chosen me to be king over so many that they cannot be counted. Give me, therefore, an understanding heart, to judge your people and to discern between good and evil." The Lord was pleased with Solomon's request and said, "because you have not asked for long life or riches, nor for the death of your enemies, but have asked wisdom for yourself to discern what is right, I have done for you as you asked, and have given you a wise and understanding heart, so much so that you are unlike anyone before you, nor shall there be anyone like you after. Yes, and the things also which you did not ask, I have given you: that is, riches and glory, so that you are incomparable with all previous kings. And if you will walk in my ways, and keep my precepts and my commandments, as your father, I will lengthen your life." (see 1 Kings 3 and 2 Chronicles 1).

    Summary of the Book of Proverbs Proverbs 1:1 indicates that the whole collection was called "the Proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel." Technically a proverb is a profound maxim or epigrammatic saying that, if pondered on for a length of time there is deep meaning associated with it. Proverbs was not uncommon in the ancient world, but the concept of fearing a single God who is the only God and the giver of life, was completely foreign in a world filled with polytheism. Solomon was the son of David who was chosen to build the Temple. His name comes from the Hebrew word for peace (shalom), and he is recognized in the Bible as the ultimate peacemaker King in the history of the kingdom of Israel.

    The Book of Proverbs in the Picture Study Bible Study Bible with information, images, and notes on many important subjects from the ancient world. Archaeological notes, geographical notes, ancient documents and manuscripts, cultural notes, theological notes, articles from scholars, information about ancient history, ancient customs, ancient temples, ancient monuments, and a close look at people, places, and events from the ancient world that are explained in an easy to understand format.

    Theme of the Book of Proverbs Main Theme - It is wise to obey God

    Type of Jesus in the Book of Proverbs Types and Shadows - In Proverbs Jesus is true wisdom