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    October 31    Scripture

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    Bible Books : Author of the Book of Judges Author - Samuel (According to Tradition)

    Book of Judges in Easton's Bible Dictionary is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the "judges." The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book, but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon. The book contains, (1.) An introduction (1-3:6), connecting it with the previous narrative in Joshua, as a "link in the chain of books." (2.) The history of the thirteen judges (3:7-16:31) in the following order: FIRST PERIOD (3:7-ch. 5) Years I. Servitude under Chushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia 8 1. OTHNIEL delivers Israel, rest 40 II. Servitude under Eglon of Moab: Ammon, Amalek 18 2. EHUD'S deliverance, rest 80 3. SHAMGAR Unknown. III. Servitude under Jabin of Hazor in Canaan 20 4. DEBORAH and, 5. BARAK 40 (206) SECOND PERIOD (6-10:5) IV. Servitude under Midian, Amalek, and children of the east 7 6. GIDEON 40 ABIMELECH, Gideon's son, reigns as king over Israel 3 7. TOLA 23 8. JAIR 22 (95) THIRD PERIOD (10:6-ch. 12) V. Servitude under Ammonites with the Philistines 18 9. JEPHTHAH 6 10. IBZAN 7 11. ELON 10 12. ABDON 8 (49) FOURTH PERIOD (13-16) VI. Seritude under Philistines 40 13. SAMSON 20 (60) In all 410 Samson's exploits probably synchronize with the period immediately preceding the national repentance and reformation under Samuel (1 Sam. 7:2-6). After Samson came Eli, who was both high priest and judge. He directed the civil and religious affairs of the people for forty years, at the close of which the Philistines again invaded the land and oppressed it for twenty years. Samuel was raised up to deliver the people from this oppression, and he judged Israel for some twelve years, when the direction of affairs fell into the hands of Saul, who was anointed king. If Eli and Samuel are included, there were then fifteen judges. But the chronology of this whole period is uncertain. (3.) The historic section of the book is followed by an appendix (17-21), which has no formal connection with that which goes before. It records (a) the conquest (17, 18) of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan; and (b) the almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin by the other tribes, in consequence of their assisting the men of Gibeah (19-21). This section properly belongs to the period only a few years after the death of Joshua. It shows the religious and moral degeneracy of the people. The author of this book was most probably Samuel. The internal evidence both of the first sixteen chapters and of the appendix warrants this conclusion. It was probably composed during Saul's reign, or at the very beginning of David's. The words in 18:30,31, imply that it was written after the taking of the ark by the Philistines, and after it was set up at Nob (1 Sam. 21). In David's reign the ark was at Gibeon (1 Chr. 16:39)

    Book of Judges in Smiths Bible Dictionary of which the book or Ruth formed originally a part, contains a history from Joshua to Samson. The book may be divided into two parts:-- 1. Chs. 1-16. We may observe in general on this portion of the book that it is almost entirely a history of the wars of deliverance. 2. Chs. 17-21. This part has no formal connection with the preceding, and is often called an appendix. The period to which the narrative relates is simply marked by the expression, "when there was no king in Israel." ch. Jud 19:1; 18:1 It records -- (a) The conquest of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan, and the establishment there of the idolatrous worship of Jehovah already instituted by Micah in Mount Ephraim. (b) The almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin. Chs. 17-21 are inserted both as an illustration of the sin of Israel during the time of the judges and as presenting a contrast with the better order prevailing in the time of the kings. The time commonly assigned to the period contained in this book is 299 years. The dates given in the last article amount to 410 years, without the 40 years of Eli; but in 1Ki 6:1 the whole period from the exodus to the building of the temple is stated as 480 years. But probably some of the judges were contemporary, so that their total period is 299 years instead of 410. Mr. Smith in his Old Testament history gives the following approximate dates: Periods...Years -- Ending about B.C.: 1. From the exodus to the passage of Jordan...40 -- 1451. 2. To the death of Joshua and the surviving elders...[40] -- 1411. 3. Judgeship of Othniel...40 -- 1371. 4,5. Judgeship of Ehud (Shamgar included)...80 -- 1291. 6. Judgeship of Deborah and Barak...40 -- 1251. 7. Judgeship of Gideon...40 -- 1211. 8,9. Abimelech to Abdon, total...[80] -- 1131. 10. Oppression of the Philistines, contemporary with the judgeships of Eli, Samson (and Samuel?)...40 -- 1091. 11. Reign of Saul (including perhaps Samuel)...40 -- 1051. 12. Reign of David...40 -- 1011. Total...480. On the whole, it seems safer to give up the attempt to ascertain the chronology exactly.

    Book of Judges in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE 3. Contents: The Book of Jdg consists of 3 main parts or divisions, which are readily distinguished. (1) Introductory, Judges 1 through 2:5. A brief summary and recapitulation of the events of the conquest of Western Israel, for the most part parallel to the narrative of Joshua, but with a few additional details and some divergences from the earlier account, in particular emphasizing (Jdg 1:27-36) the general failure of the Israelites to expel completely the original inhabitants of the land, which is described as a violation of their covenant with Yahweh (Jdg 2:1-3), entailing upon them suffering and permanent weakness. The introductory verse (Jdg 1:1), which refers to the death of Joshua as having already taken place, seems to be intended as a general indication of the historical period of the book as a whole; for some at least of the events narrated in Jdg 1 through 2:5 took place during Joshua's lifetime. (2) The Central and Main Portion, Judges 2:6 through 16. A series of narratives of 12 "judges," each of whom in turn, by his devotion and prowess, was enabled to deliver Israel from thralldom and oppression, and for a longer or shorter term ruled over the people whom he had thus saved from their enemies. Each successive repentance on the part of the people, however, and their deliverance are followed, on the death of the judge, by renewed apostasy, which entails upon them renewed misery and servitude, from which they are again rescued when in response to their prayer the Lord "raises up" for them another judge and deliverer. Thus the entire history is set as it were in a recurrent framework of moral and religious teaching and warning; and the lesson is enforced that it is the sin of the people, their abandonment of Yahweh and persistent idolatry, which entails upon them calamity, from which the Divine long-suffering and forbearance alone makes for them a way of escape...

    Book of Judges in Wikipedia The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. It appears in the Tanakh and in the Christian Old Testament. Its title refers to its contents; it contains the history of Biblical judges (not to be confused with modern judges), who helped rule and guide the ancient Israelites, and of their times. As Judges stands today, the last judge it mentions is Samson, and although there are two further stories, the traditional view is that Samson's exploits probably synchronise with the period immediately preceding Eli, who was both high priest and judge. Both academic views and traditional thought hence view the narrative of the judges as ending at Samson, picking up again at 1 Samuel 1:1 to consider Eli, and continuing through to 1 Samuel 7:2. As for the stories at the end of the Book, which are set in the same time period as the judges but discuss people other than the judges, there is much affinity between these and the Book of Ruth, and many people believe Ruth originally belonged amongst them. There were thirteen Biblical Judges...

    Date of the Book of Judges Date - From 1425 to 1120 BC Approximately

    Greek Name of the Book of Judges Greek Name - Krites (Greek form of the Hebrew)

    Hebrew Name and Meaning of the Book of Judges Hebrew Name - Shophtim "Judges or Deliverers"

    Judges in the Picture Study Bible Archaeology, pictures, notes and maps

    Outline of the Book of Judges Quick Overview of Judges. – –1-2 – –How the Israelites reacted after the death of Joshua. – – 3-16 – – The sin of the Israelites and the oppression by their enemies, thirteen Hebrew judges and the deliverance they brought. – –17-21 – –a description of how idolatry entered into Israel and how corruption followed during the early history of this time period.

    Outline of the Book of Judges Quick Overview of Judges. – –1-2 – –How the Israelites reacted after the death of Joshua. – – 3-16 – – The sin of the Israelites and the oppression by their enemies, thirteen Hebrew judges and the deliverance they brought. – –17-21 – –a description of how idolatry entered into Israel and how corruption followed during the early history of this time period.

    Summary of The Book of Judges In the book of Judges we can see the first 300 years of the history of Israel, from the time of the death of Joshua to the time of Samuel the last of the Judges. All of the events mentioned in the book of Judges are not meant to be given in a strict chronological order and it is impossible to determine exact dates. Everything that took place happened really on a local level in the land of Israel and not necessarily on a national level. The first two chapters deal with the death of Joshua and after his death and the generation surrounding him, "there arose another generation after them, who did not know the Lord or the work which he had done for Israel" (Judges 2:10). This generation of Israelites, and every generation after that during this time period fell into idolatry, they forgot the commands of God and there is a severe decline morally and spiritually. As each generation unfolded idolatry would prevail, a foreign invasion would take place and oppress the people of Israel in that local area, they would cry out to God for help, and God would send a deliverer. This cycle happened seven times in the book of Judges and speak clearly about the cycle of sin and its consequences, as well as God's love and willingness to send help when his people cry out to him.

    The Book of Judges in the Picture Study Bible Judges background, archaeology, maps, and images.

    Theme of the Book of Judges Main Theme - 7 cycles of idolatry, oppression, repentance, and deliverance during the first 300 years in the land of Canaan

    Type of Jesus in the Book of Judges Types and Shadows - In Judges Jesus is the great judge and deliverer of His people