Bible Animals: Goat
Goat in the ancient World.
Goats in the Bible. Important in the hilly countries of the East. Goats were used for sacrifice ; the milk and flesh were staple articles of food ; the hair was woven into fabrics ; and the skin was made into garments and water bottles. Wild Goat Capra ibex. Still found, especially in the region of the Dead Sea. - Animal Life in the Scriptures
Ancient Goat. ONE kind of Goat wandering in the pastures of Syria and Canaan differs little from the species with which we are familiar ; but there is another, remarkable for the length of its ears. These goats yield a-considerable quantity of milk ; and chiefly for this they have been, and are still, kept by the people. A kid of the goats is considered a great delicacy. The hair of the goat is of two kinds. One is long and coarse ; the other, growing under the former, is almost equal to silk in fineness. The coarsest hair was probably employed by Jacob in the fraud by which he won the blessing of his father. It was easy for Isaac, whose sight was almost gone, to be deceived thus by his touch. - Animals, Birds, Insects, And Reptiles Of The Bible
Goat in Easton's Bible Dictionary
(1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen. 15:9; 30:35; 31:38). This
Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Ex. 12:5;
Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, 20).
Hence it may
be regarded as the generic name of the animal as
It literally means "strength," and points to the
strength of the goat as compared with the sheep.
(2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams"
31:10,12); he-goats (Num. 7:17-88; Isa. 1:11); goats
32:14; Ps. 50:13). They were used in sacrifice (Ps.
word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in
and in Zech. 10:3 as leaders. (Comp. Jer. 50:8.)
(3.) Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a
the Hebrews (Gen. 27:9, 14, 17; Judg. 6:19).
(4.) Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat,
(2 Chr. 29:23); "a goat" (Lev. 4:24); "satyr" (Isa.
"devils" (Lev. 17:7). It is the goat of the sin-
9:3, 15; 10:16).
(5.) Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats (2 Chr.
Dan. 8:5, 8 it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian
(6.) Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered
(Gen. 30:35; 32:14).
(7.) Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" (Lev.
(8.) There are two Hebrew words used to denote the
undomesticated goat:, _Yael_, only in plural
mountain goats (1
Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps.104:18). It is derived from
meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded
mountainous parts of Moab. And _'akko_, only in
Deut. 14:5, the
Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matt.
Heb. 9:12,13, 19; 10:4. They represent oppressors
and wicked men
(Ezek. 34:17; 39:18; Matt. 25:33).
Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the
They had an important place in their rural economy
on account of
the milk they afforded and the excellency of the
flesh of the
kid. They formed an important part of pastoral
31:10, 12;32:14; 1 Sam. 25:2).
Goat in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
1. Wild goat, yeliym, the ibex of ancient Moab.
2. The goat deer, or else gazelle, aqow.
3. The atuwd, "he goat", the leader of the flock;
hence the chief ones of the earth, leaders in mighty
wickedness; the ram represents headstrong wantonness and
offensive lust (Isaiah 14:9; Zechariah 10:3; compare Matthew
25:32-33; Ezekiel 34:17). As the word "shepherds" describes
what they ought to have been, so "he goats" what they were;
heading the flock, they were foremost in sin, so they shall
be foremost in punishment. In Song of Solomon 4:1 the hair
of the bride is said to be "as a flock of goats that appear
from mount Gilead," alluding to the fine silky hair of some
breeds of goat, the angora and others. Amos (Amos 3:12)
speaks of a shepherd "taking out of the mouth of the lion a
piece of an ear," alluding to the long pendulous ears of the
Syrian breed. In Proverbs 30:31 a he goat is mentioned as
one of the "four things comely in going," in allusion to the
stately march of the leader of the flock.
4. Sair, the goat of the sin-offering (Leviticus
9:3), "the rough hairy goat" (Daniel 8:21). Sa'ir is used of
devils (Leviticus 17:7), "the evil spirits of the desert"
(Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:14).
5. Azazeel, "the scape-goat" (Leviticus 16:8;
Leviticus 16:10; Leviticus 16:26 margin) frontATONEMENT, DAY
OF.) The "he goat" represented Graeco-Macedonia; Caranus,
the first king of Macedon, was in legend led by goats to
Edessa, his capital, which he named "the goat city." The
one-horned goat is on coins of Archclaus king of Macedon,
and a pilaster of Persepolis. So Daniel 8:5.
Goat in Naves Topical Bible
-Designated as one of the ceremonially clean animals to be
De 14:4; with Le 11:1-8
-Used for food
Ge 27:9; 1Sa 16:20
-For the paschal feast
Ex 12:5; 2Ch 35:7
-As a sacrifice by Abraham
-Milk of, used for food
-Hair of, used for clothing
-Curtains of the tabernacle
Ex 26:7; 35:23; 36:14
-Used for tents
-Regulations of Mosaic law required that a baby goat should
be killed for food before it was eight days old
-Nor seethed in its mother's milk
De 32:14; So 4:1; 6:5; 1Sa 25:2; 2Ch 17:11
-Wild, in Palestine
1Sa 24:2; Ps 104:18
Goat in Smiths Bible Dictionary
There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat,
Hircus agagrus, at present bred in Israel and Syria, but
whether they are identical with those which were reared by the
ancient Hebrews it is not possible to say. The most marked
varieties are the Syrian goat(Capra mammorica, Linn.) and the
Angora goat (Capra angorensis, Linn.), with fine long hair. As
to the "wild goats," 1Sa 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18 it is not
at all improbable that some species of ibex is denoted.
Goat in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
The common generic word for "goat" is `ez (compare Arabic
`anz, "she-goat"; aix), used often for "she-goat" (Gen 15:9;
Nu 15:27), also with gedhi, "kid," as gedhi `izzim, "kid of
the goats" (Gen 38:17), also with sa`ir, "he-goat," as se`ir
`izzim, "kid of the goats" or "he-goat," or translated
simply "kids," as in 1 Ki 20:27, "The children of Israel
encamped before them like two little flocks of kids." Next,
frequently used is sa`ir, literally, "hairy" (compare Arabic
sha`r, "hair"; cher, "hedgehog"; Latin hircus, "goat";
hirtus, "hairy"; also German Haar; English "hair"), like `ez
and `attudh used of goats for offerings. The goat which is
sent into the wilderness bearing the sins of the people is
sa`ir (Lev 16:7-22). The same name is used of devils (Lev
17:7; 2 Ch 11:15, the Revised Version (British and American)
"he-goats") and of satyrs (Isa 13:21; 34:14, the Revised
Version, margin "he-goats," the American Standard Revised
Version "wild goats"). Compare also se`irath `izzim, "a
female from the flock" (Lev 4:28; 5:6). The male or leader
of the flock is `attudh; Arabic `atud, "yearling he-goat";
figuratively "chief ones" (Isa 14:9; compare Jer 50:8). A
later word for "he-goat," used also figuratively, is tsaphir
(2 Ch 29:21; Ezr 8:35; Dan 8:5,8,21). In Prov 30:31, one of
the four things "which are stately in going" is the he-goat,
tayish (Arabic tais, "he-goat"), also mentioned in Gen
30:35; 32:14 among the possessions of Laban and Jacob, and
in 2 Ch 17:11 among the animals given as tribute by the
Arabians to Jehoshaphat. In Heb 9:12,13,19; 10:4, we have
tragos, the ordinary Greek word for "goat"; in Mt 25:32,33,
eriphos, and its diminutive eriphion; in Heb 11:37 derma
aigeion, "goatskin," from aix (see supra). "Kid" is gedhi
(compare En-gedi (1 Sam 23:29), etc.), feminine gedhiyah
(Song 1:8), but also `ez, gedhi `izzim, se'-ir `izzim, se`ir
`izzim, se`irath `izzim, bene `izzim, and eriphos. There
remain ya`el (1 Sam 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18), English
Versions of the Bible "wild goat"; ya`alah (Prov 5:19), the
King James Version "roe," the Revised Version (British and
American) "doe"; 'aqqo (Dt 14:5), English Versions of the
Bible "wild goat"; and zemer (Dt 14:5), English Versions of
the Bible "chamois."...
Goat in Wikipedia
Goat. — Though the sacred writers spoke of the ewe more frequently than of the goat, yet with the latter they were very well acquainted. It was indeed, especially in the hilly regions east of the Jordan, an important item in the wealth of the Israelites. The goat of Israel, particularly the capra membrica, affords numerous illustrations and allusions, Its remarkably long ears are referred to by Amos, iii, 12; its glossy dark hair furnishes a graphic comparison to the author of Cant., iv, 1; vi, 4; this hair was woven into a strong cloth; the skin tanned with the hair on served to make bottles for milk, wine, oil, water, etc. The kid was an almost essential part of a feast. The goat is mentioned in Dan., viii, 5, as the symbol of the Macedonian empire. The grand Gospel scene of the separation of the just and the wicked on the last day is borrowed from the customs of the shepherds in the East.
Goat Scripture - Leviticus 16:15
Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that [is] for
the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with
that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and
sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat:
Goat Scripture - Numbers 18:17
But the firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a sheep, or
the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they [are]
holy: thou shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and
shalt burn their fat [for] an offering made by fire, for a
sweet savour unto the LORD.
Goat Scripture - Numbers 29:22
And one goat [for] a sin offering; beside the continual burnt
offering, and his meat offering, and his drink offering.
Wild Goat in Wikipedia
Goat, Wild, Job, xxxix, 1; I K., xxiv, 3, where it is an equivalent for yã' él, translated, Ps., ciii (Hebr., Civ), 18, by hart, Prov., v, 19, by fawn, is most probably the ibex syriacus, a denizen of the rocky summits [Ps. ciii (Hebr., civ), 18]. It was regarded as a model of grace (Proverbs 5:19), and its name, Jahel, Jahala, was frequently given to persons (Judges 5:6; Ezra 2:56, etc.).
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