Bible Animals: Hart
Hart in the ancient world.
Harts in the Bible. The red deer or fallow deer. See also under Fallow Deer and Roebuck. - Animal Life in the Scriptures
Ancient Hart. THE Hart of Scripture was beyond a doubt some species of Cervidm (deer tribe), either the fallow deer, or the Barbary deer, the southern representative of the European stag, which occurs in Tunis and the coast of Barbary. The hart and the roebuck were among the clean animals mentioned in the Old Testament, and though not fit to be offered in sacrifice, were yet allowed as food to the Israelites. - Animals, Birds, Insects, And Reptiles Of The Bible
Hart in Easton's Bible Dictionary
(Heb. 'ayal), a stag or male deer. It is ranked among the
animals (Deut. 12:15; 14:5; 15:22), and was commonly
food (1 Kings 4:23). The hart is frequently alluded to
poetical and prophetical books (Isa. 35:6; Cant. 2:8,
1:6; Ps. 42:1).
Hart in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
ayal. The male of the stag, Cervus Duma. Resorting to the
mountains (Song of Solomon 8:14); sure-footed there (2
Samuel 22:34; Habakkuk 3:19). Monogamous and constant in
affection (Proverbs 5:19). In Psalm 42:1 the verb is
feminine; the hind therefore, not the hart, is meant; her
weakness intensifies her thirst. The emblem of activity
(Isaiah 35:6). So Naphtali is described by Jacob
prophetically (Genesis 49:21), "a hind let loose." His
active energy was shown against Jabin the Canaanite
oppressor (Judges 4:6-9; Judges 5:18). The Targums say he
first told Jacob that Joseph was yet alive; "he giveth
goodly words." The Hebrew sheluchim, "the apostles," answers
to shelucha "let loose." So the prophecy hints at what
Isaiah (Isaiah 52:7) more clearly unfolds, "how beautiful
upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good
Easily agitated (Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of
Solomon 3:5), so that the hunter must advance on them with
breathless caution if he would take them; an emblem of the
resting (Zephaniah 3:17) but easily grieved Holy Spirit
(Ezekiel 16:43; Matthew 18:7; Ephesians 4:30). The thunder
so terrifies them that they prematurely bring forth (Psalm
29:9). The case of their parturition, through the instinct
given them by God's care, stands in contrast to the
shepherd's anxiety in numbering the months of the flock's
pregnancy, and is an argument to convince Job (Job 39:1-3)
of God's consummate wisdom; why then should he harbour for a
moment the thought that God, who cares so providentially for
the humblest creature, could be capable of harshness and
injustice toward His noblest creature, man?
The masculine ayal, Septuagint elafos, is the fallow
deer (Dama commonis) or the Barbary deer (Cervus Barbarus)
according to Appendix, Smith's Bible Dictionary Timid and
fleet especially when seeking and not able to find pasture
(Lamentations 1:6); emblem of Zion's captive princes at
Babylon. Septuagint and Vulgate read eylim, "rams." Ajalon
abounded in the ayal, whence it took its name. Aijeleth,
"the hind," in the title Psalm 22 symbolizes one shot at by
the archers and persecuted to death, namely, Messiah; as the
persecutors are symbolized by "bulls," "lions," "dogs."
The addition "of the morning" (shahar) implies
prosperity dawning after suffering. The hind is emblematic
of the grace, innocence, and loveliness (Song of Solomon
2:9) of the Antitype to Joseph (Genesis 49:23-24). The
hind's sure footing in the rocks typifies the believer's
preservation in high places and difficulties. The Arabs call
a deer by a like name to the Hebrew, (iyal). The deer is
represented on the slabs at Nineveh, and seems to have
abounded anciently in Syria, though not there now.
Hart in Naves Topical Bible
Hart in Smiths Bible Dictionary
the male stag. The word denotes some member of the deer tribe
either the fallow deer or the Barbary deer. The hart is
reckoned among the clean animals, De 12:15; 14:5; 15:22 and
seems from the passages quoted, as well as from 1Ki 4:23 to
have been commonly killed for food.
Hart in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
Hart in Wikipedia
Hart and Hind. - Either the fallow-deer, still occasionally found in the Holy Land, or the red deer, now extinct, or the deer generally. It has afforded many illustrations to time Biblical writers and poets, especially by its fleetness (Song of Songs 2:9; Isaiah 35:6), its surefootedness [Ps. xvii (Hebr., xviii), 34; Hab., iii, 19], its affection (Proverbs 5:19), and its habit of hiding its young (Job 39:1).
Hart Scripture - Deuteronomy 12:15
Notwithstanding thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy
gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, according to the
blessing of the LORD thy God which he hath given thee: the
unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the roebuck, and
as of the hart.
Hart Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5
The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild
goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.
Hart Scripture - Psalms 42:1
As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul
after thee, O God.
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