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November 22    Scripture



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Bible Cities: Judah
Ancient Judah

Map of Ancient Judah


Judah in Easton's Bible Dictionary When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth. For the first sixty years the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between them. For the next eighty years there was no open war between them. For the most part they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against Damascus. For about another century and a half Judah had a somewhat checkered existence after the termination of the kingdom of Israel till its final overthrow in the destruction of the temple (B.C. 588) by Nebuzar-adan, who was captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard (2 Kings 25:8-21). The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of 3,435 square miles. (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF -T0001909.)

Judah in Hitchcock's Bible Names the praise of the Lord; confession

Judah in Naves Topical Bible 1. Son of Jacob Ge 35:23 Intercedes for Joseph's life when his brothers were about to kill him, and proposes that they sell him to the Ishmaelites Ge 37:26,27 Takes two wives Ge 38:1-6 Lives at Chezib Ge 38:5 His incest with his daughter-in-law Ge 38:12-26 Goes down into Egypt for corn (grain) Ge 43:1-10; 44:14-34; 46:28 Prophetic benediction of his father upon Ge 49:8-12 The ancestor of Jesus Mt 1:2,3; Re 5:5 -2. Tribe of Prophecies concerning Ge 49:10 Enrollment of the military forces of At Sinai Nu 1:26,27; 2:4 At Bezek 1Sa 11:8; 2Sa 24:9 On the plain of Moab Nu 26:22 Place of, in encampments and the march Nu 2:3,9; 10:14 By whom commanded Nu 2:3 Moses' benediction upon De 33:7 Commissioned by God to lead in the conquest of the promised land Jud 1:1-3; with 1:4-21 Make David king 2Sa 2:1-11; 5:4,5 Rebuked by David for lukewarmness toward him after Absalom's defeat 2Sa 19:11-15 Accused by the other tribes of stealing the heart of David 2Sa 19:41-43 Loyal to David at the time of the insurrection led by Sheba 2Sa 20:1,2 Is accorded the birthright forfeited by Reuben 1Ch 5:1,2; 28:4; Ps 60:7 Loyal to the house of David at the time of the revolt of the ten tribes 1Ki 12:20 Inheritance of Jos 15; 18:6; 19:1,9 -3. Name of two exiled priests Ezr 10:23; Ne 12:8 -4. A Benjamite Ne 11:9 -5. A prince or priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem Ne 12:34,36

Judah in Smiths Bible Dictionary Extent. --When the disruption of Solomon's kingdom took place at Shechem, B.C. 975, only the tribe of Judah followed David, but almost immediately afterward the larger part of Benjamin joined Judah. A part, if no all, of the territory of Simeon, 1Sa 27:6; 1Ki 19:3 comp. Josh 19:1 and of Dan, 2Ch 11:10 comp. Josh 19:41,42 was recognized as belonging to Judah; and in the reigns of Abijah and Asa the southern kingdom was enlarged by some additions taken out of the territory of Ephraim. 2Ch 13:19; 15:8; 17:2 It is estimated that the territory of Judah contained about 3450 square miles. Advantages. --The kingdom of Judah possessed many advantages which secured for it a longer continuance than that of Israel. A frontier less exposed to powerful enemies, a soil less fertile, a population hardier and more united, a fixed and venerated centre of administration and religion, a hereditary aristocracy in the sacerdotal caste, an army always subordinate, a succession of kings which no revolution interrupted; so that Judah survived her more populous and more powerful sister kingdom by 135 years, and lasted from B.C. 975 to B.C. 536. History --The first three kings of Judah seem to have cherished the hope of re-establishing their authority over the ten tribes; for sixty years there was war between them and the kings of Israel. The victory achieved by the daring Abijah brought to Judah a temporary accession of territory. Asa appears to have enlarged it still further. Hanani's remonstrance, 2Ch 16:7 prepares us for the reversal by Jehoshaphat of the policy which Asa pursued toward Israel and Damascus. A close alliance sprang up with strange rapidity between Judah and Israel. Jehoshaphat, active and prosperous, commanded the respect of his neighbors; but under Amaziah Jerusalem was entered and plundered by the Israelites. Under Uzziah and Jotham, Judah long enjoyed prosperity, till Ahaz became the tributary and vassal of Tiglath-pileser. Already in the fatal grasp of Assyria, Judah was yet spared for a checkered existence of almost another century and a half after the termination of the kingdom of Israel. The consummation of the ruin came upon its people in the destruction of the temple by the hand of Nebuzaradan, B.C. 536. There were 19 kings, all from the family of David. (Population. --We have a gage as to the number of the people at different periods in the number of soldiers. If we estimate the population at four times the fighting men, we will have the following table: King...Date ... Soldiers ... Population David...B.C. 1056-1015 ... 500,000 ... 2,000,000 Rehoboam...975-957 ... 180,000 ... 720,000 Abijah...957-955 ... 400,000 ... 1,600,000 Asa...955-914 ... 500,000 ... 2,000,000 Jehoshaphat...914-889 ... 1,160,000 ... 4,640,000 Amaziah...839-810 ... 300,000 ... 1,200,000

Judah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE || I. CANAAN BEFORE THE MONARCHY 1. The Coming of the Semites 2. The Canaanites 3. The Israelite Confederacy 4. Migration into Canaan 5. The Bond of Union 6. Early Rulers 7. The Judges 8. Hereditary Kings II. THE FIRST THREE KINGS 1. The Benjamite King 2. Rachel and Leah Tribes 3. The Disruption III. THE DUAL MONARCHY 1. War between Two Kingdoms 2. First Reform of Religion 3. Two Kingdoms at Peace 4. Two Kingdoms Contrasted 5. Revolution in the Northern Kingdom 6. Effect on the Southern Kingdom 7. Davidic House at Lowest Ebb 8. Begins to Recover 9. Reviving Fortunes 10. Monarchy Still Elective 11. Government by Regents 12. Period of Great Prosperity 13. Rise of Priestly Caste 14. Advent of Assyria 15. Judah a Protectorate 16. Cosmopolitan Tendencies IV. PERIOD OF DECLINE 1. Judah Independent 2. Reform of Religion 3. Egypt and Judah 4. Traffic in Horses 5. Reaction under Manasseh 6. Triumph of Reform Party 7. Babylonia and Judah 8. End of Assyrian Empire 9. After Scythian Invasion 10. Judah Again Dependent 11. Prophets Lose Influence 12. The Deportations 13. Summary I. Canaan before the Monarchy. 1. The Coming of the Semites: Some 4,000 years BC the land on either side of the valley of the Jordan was peopled by a race who, to whatever stock they belonged, were not Semites. It was not until about the year 2500 BC that the tide of Sere immigration began to flow from North Arabia into the countries watered by the Jordan and the Euphrates. One of the first waves in this human tide consisted of the Phoenicians who settled in the Northwest, on the seashore; they were closely followed by other Canaan tribes who occupied the country which long bore their name. 2. The Canaanites: The Canaanites are known to us chiefly from the famous letters found at Tell Amarna in Egypt which describe the political state of the country during the years 1415-1360 BC--the years of the reigns of Amenophis III and IV. Canaan was at this time slipping out of the hands of Egypt. The native princes were in revolt: tribute was withheld; and but few Egyptian garrisons remained. Meantime a fresh tide of invasion was hurling its waves against the eastern frontiers of the land. The newcomers were, like their predecessors, Semitic Bedouin from the Syrian desert. Among them the Tell el-Amarna Lettersname the Chabiri, who are, no doubt, the people known to us as the Hebrews. 3. The Israelite Confederacy: The Hebrews are so named by those of other nationality after one of their remoter ancestors (Gen 10:24), or because they had come from beyond (`ebher) the Jordan or the Euphrates. Of themselves they spoke collectively as Israel. Israel was a name assumed by the eponymous hero of the nation whose real name was Jacob. Similarly the Arabian prophet belonged to the tribe called from its ancestor Koraish, whose name was Fihr. The people of Israel were a complex of some 12 or 13 tribes. These 12 tribes were divided into two main sections, one section tracing its descent...

Judah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (yehudhah): I. GEOGRAPHICAL DATA 1. The Natural Boundaries 2. The Natural Divisions of Judah (1) The Maritime Plain (2) The Shephelah (3) The Hill Country of Judah II. THE TRIBE OF JUDAH AND ITS TERRITORY III. THE BOUNDARIES OF THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH LITERATURE I. Geographical Data. Although the physical conformation of Western Israel divides this land into very definite areas running longitudinally North and South, yet all through history there has been a recognition of a further--and politically more important--division into 3 areas running transversely, known in New Testament times as Galilee, Samaria and Judea. These districts are differentiated to some extent by distinctive physical features which have in no small degree influenced the history of their inhabitants. 1. The Natural Boundaries: The southernmost of these regions possesses on 3 sides very definite natural boundaries: to the West the Mediterranean, to the East the Dead Sea, and the Jordan, and to the South 60 miles, North to South, of practically trackless desert, a frontier as secure as sea or mountain range. On the North no such marked "scientific frontier" exists, and on this the one really accessible side, history bears witness that the frontier has been pushed backward and forward. The most ideal natural northern frontier, which only became the actual one comparatively late in Hebrew times (see JUDAEA), is that which passes from the river `Aujeh in the West, up the Wady Deir Baldt, by the wide and deep Wady Ishar to `Akrabbeh and thence East to the Jordan. A second natural frontier commences at the same line on the West, but after following the Wady Deir Baldt, branches off southward along the Wady Nimr (now traversed by the modern carriage road from Jerusalem to Nablus), crosses the water-parting close to the lofty Tell Ashur and runs successively down the Wady Sanieh and the Wady `Aujeh and by the eastern river `Aujeh to the Jordan. This division-line is one conformable to the physical features, because north of it the table-lands of "Judea" give place to the more broken mountain groups of "Samaria." Another less natural, though much more historic, frontier is that which traverses the Vale of Ajalon, follows the Beth-horon pass, and, after crossing the central plateau near el Jib (Gibeon) and er Ram (Ramah of Benjamin), runs down the deep and rugged Wady SuweiniT, between Jeba` (Geba) and Mukhmas (Michmash), to Jericho and the Jordan. It was along this line that the great frontier fortresses, Bethel, Gibeon, Ramah, Adasa, Geba and Michmash, were erected. Such, on the North, South, East, and West, were the natural boundaries...

Judah in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (yehudah; in Gen 29:35 Codex Vaticanus, Ioudan; Codex Alexandrinus, Iouda; elsewhere Codices Vaticanus and Alexandrinus, Ioudas): 1. Jacob's Son: The 4th son born to Jacob by Leah in Paddan-aram (Gen 29:35, etc.). Of this patriarch's life only scanty details remain to us. He turned his brethren from their purpose to slay Joseph, persuading them to sell him to the Midianites at Dothan (Gen 37:26 ff). A dark stain is left upon his memory by the disgraceful story told in Genesis 38. Reuben forfeited the rights of primogeniture by an act of infamy; Simeon and Levi, who came next in order, were passed over because of their cruel and treacherous conduct at Shechem; to Judah, therefore, were assigned the honors and responsibilities of the firstborn (34; 35:22; 49:5 ff). On the occasion of their first visit to Egypt, Reuben acted as spokesman for his brethren (42:22,37). Then the leadership passed to Judah (43:3, etc.). The sons of Joseph evidently looked askance upon Judah's promotion, and their own claims to hegemony were backed by considerable resources (49:22 ff). The rivalry between the two tribes, thus early visible, culminated in the disruption of the kingdom. To Judah, the "lion's whelp," a prolonged dominion was assured (49:9 ff). 2. Tribe of Judah: The tribe of Judah, of which the patriarch was the name- father, at the first census in the wilderness numbered 74,600 fighting men; at Sinai the number "from 20 years old and upward" was 76,500 (Nu 1:27; 26:22; see NUMBERS). The standard of the camp of Judah, with which were also the tribes of Zebulun and Issachar, was to the East of the tabernacle "toward the sunrising," the prince of Judah being Nahshon, the son of Amminadab (Nu 2:3). Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, represented Judah among the spies (Nu 13:6); he also was told off to assist at the future allocation of the tribal portions (Nu 34:19). 3. Territory: The land assigned to Judah lay in the South of Israel (see JUDAH, TERRITORY OF), comprising part of the mountain, the Shephelah, and the maritime plain. The information given of its conquest is meager and cannot be arranged in a self- consistent story. In Josh 11:21 ff, the conquest is ascribed to Joshua. Caleb is described as conquering at least a portion in Josh 14:12; 15:13 ff; while in Jdg 1 the tribes of Judah and Simeon play a conspicuous part; and the latter found a settlement in the South within the territory of Judah The tribal organization seems to have been maintained after the occupation of the land, and Judah was so loosely related to the northern tribes that it was not expected to help them against Sisera. Deborah has no reproaches for absent Judah. It is remarkable that no judge over Israel (except Othniel, Jdg 3:9-11) arose from the tribe of Judah. The first king of all Israel was chosen from the tribe of Benjamin. This made acquiescence on the part of Judah easier than it would have been had Saul sprung from the ancient rival, Ephraim. But the dignity of Judah was fully vindicated by the splendid reigns of David and Solomon, in lineal descent from whom the Saviour of the world should come. The further history of the tribe is merged in that of Israel.

Judah Scripture - 1 Chronicles 21:5 And Joab gave the sum of the number of the people unto David. And all [they of] Israel were a thousand thousand and an hundred thousand men that drew sword: and Judah [was] four hundred threescore and ten thousand men that drew sword.

Judah Scripture - 2 Chronicles 25:19 Thou sayest, Lo, thou hast smitten the Edomites; and thine heart lifteth thee up to boast: abide now at home; why shouldest thou meddle to [thine] hurt, that thou shouldest fall, [even] thou, and Judah with thee?

Judah Scripture - 2 Chronicles 30:24 For Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the congregation a thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; and the princes gave to the congregation a thousand bullocks and ten thousand sheep: and a great number of priests sanctified themselves.

Judah Scripture - 2 Kings 10:13 Jehu met with the brethren of Ahaziah king of Judah, and said, Who [are] ye? And they answered, We [are] the brethren of Ahaziah; and we go down to salute the children of the king and the children of the queen.

Judah Scripture - 2 Kings 23:8 And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had burned incense, from Geba to Beersheba, and brake down the high places of the gates that [were] in the entering in of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which [were] on a man's left hand at the gate of the city.

Judah Scripture - 2 Kings 3:7 And he went and sent to Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, saying, The king of Moab hath rebelled against me: wilt thou go with me against Moab to battle? And he said, I will go up: I [am] as thou [art], my people as thy people, [and] my horses as thy horses.

Judah Scripture - 2 Samuel 12:8 And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if [that had been] too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things.

Judah Scripture - Ezekiel 37:16 Moreover, thou son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon it, For Judah, and for the children of Israel his companions: then take another stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and [for] all the house of Israel his companions:

Judah Scripture - Joshua 7:17 And he brought the family of Judah; and he took the family of the Zarhites: and he brought the family of the Zarhites man by man; and Zabdi was taken:

Judah Scripture - Judges 1:18 Also Judah took Gaza with the coast thereof, and Askelon with the coast thereof, and Ekron with the coast thereof.

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