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October 26    Scripture

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Bible Cities : Ancient Jerusalem - Map of New Testament Israel JE-RU`SA-LEM (vision of peace)
If not the Salem of Gen. 14:18, certainly the Jebus of the Old Testament until the time of David when the name Jerusalem was fully adopted. Situated in the southern portion of Benjamin, twenty-four miles from the Jordan and thirtyseven miles from the Mediterranean Sea near the summit of a broad mountain ridge. Partially destroyed at the time of conquest, soon after the death of Joshua, but Jebusite not expelled, Judg. 1:8. Assaulted by David (1 Chron. 12:23-39) and taken B.C. 1046. Rebuilt by him, beautified with palaces, surrounded by walls, and made his capital. In the time of Solomon the temple, pools and gardens were built, fortifications enhanced, and the city was made the most beautiful and renowned city of antiquity.
From Judges to A.D. 100 the city was besieged seventeen times, twice razed to the ground, and twice had its walls levelled. Largest acreage within old walls: 180. Maximum population: 70,000. Captured and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 588. Jews returned after seventy years and rebuilt it. Taken by Alexander, of Macedon, B.C. 332. A few years it fell into the hands of Ptolemy of Egypt. B.C. 170 Jerusalem was taken by Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria. B.C. 163, restored to Jews by Maccabees. A.D. 70-71, taken and destroyed by Rome. Jews banished A.D. 135, and city named Aelia Capitolina. Name restored under Constantine. A.D. 613, captured by Persia. A.D. 627, recovered by Greeks. Captured by Omar the Mohammedan, A.D. 637. A.D. 863, taken by Turks. A.D. 1099-1187 was under Christian kings-Crusaders. Since then mostly under Turkish rule until Israel became a nation again in 1948.

Ancient Jerusalem - Kids Bible maps This map shows the great city of Jerusalem where Jesus visited the temple as a boy. Many things happened in the city of Jerusalem throughout the Bible. Jerusalem was captured by Nebuchadnezzar in the Old Testament, David established Jerusalem as his capital, Solomon built the temple, and Jesus visited the city many times throughout his life.

Jerusalem in Easton's Bible Dictionary called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the "city of God," the "holy city;" by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the holy;" once "the city of Judah" (2 Chr. 25:28). This name is in the original in the dual form, and means "possession of peace," or "foundation of peace." The dual form probably refers to the two mountains on which it was built, viz., Zion and Moriah; or, as some suppose, to the two parts of the city, the "upper" and the "lower city." Jerusalem is a "mountain city enthroned on a mountain fastness" (comp. Ps. 68:15, 16; 87:1; 125:2; 76:1, 2; 122:3). It stands on the edge of one of the highest table-lands in Israel, and is surrounded on the south- eastern, the southern, and the western sides by deep and precipitous ravines. It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem (Gen. 14:18; comp. Ps. 76:2). When first mentioned under the name Jerusalem, Adonizedek was its king (Josh. 10:1). It is afterwards named among the cities of Benjamin (Judg. 19:10; 1 Chr. 11:4); but in the time of David it was divided between Benjamin and Judah. After the death of Joshua the city was taken and set on fire by the men of Judah (Judg. 1:1-8); but the Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it. The city is not again mentioned till we are told that David brought the head of Goliath thither (1 Sam. 17:54). David afterwards led his forces against the Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove them out, fixing his own dwelling on Zion, which he called "the city of David" (2 Sam. 5:5-9; 1 Chr. 11:4-8). Here he built an altar to the Lord on the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite (2 Sam. 24:15-25), and thither he brought up the ark of the covenant and placed it in the new tabernacle which he had prepared for it. Jerusalem now became the capital of the kingdom. After the death of David, Solomon...

Jerusalem in Hitchcock's Bible Names vision of peace

Jerusalem in Naves Topical Bible Called JEBUS Jos 18:28; Jud 19:10 ZION 1Ki 8:1; Zec 9:13 CITY OF DAVID 2Sa 5:7; Isa 22:9 SALEM Ge 14:18; Ps 76:2 ARIEL Isa 29:1 CITY OF GOD Ps 46:4 CITY OF THE GREAT KING Ps 48:2 CITY OF JUDAH 2Ch 25:28 THE PERFECTION OF BEAUTY, THE JOY OF THE WHOLE EARTH La 2:15 THE THRONE OF THE LORD Jer 3:17 HOLY MOUNTAIN Da 9:16,20 HOLY CITY Ne 11:1,18; Mt 4:5 CITY OF SOLEMNITIES Isa 33:20 CITY OF TRUTH Zec 8:3 To be called "THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS," Jer 33:16 JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH (margin) Eze 48:35 -NEW JERUSALEM Re 21:2,10-27 -Location and appearance of Ps 122:3; 125:2; So 6:4; Mic 4:8 -Walls of Jer 39:4 -Gates of Old gate, fish gate, sheep gate, prison gate Ne 3:1,3,32; 12:39 -Gate of Ephraim 2Ch 25:23; Ne 12:39 -Gate of Benjamin Jer 37:13; Zec 14:10 -Gate of Joshua 2Ki 23:8 -Old gate Ne 3:6; 12:39 -Corner gate Zec 14:10 -Valley gate Ne 2:13; 3:13 -Dung gate Ne 2:13; 3:13; 12:31 -Gate of the fountain Ne 2:14; 3:15; 12:37 -Water gate Ne 3:26; 8:1; 12:37 -Horse gate Ne 3:28 -King's gate 1Ch 9:18 -Shallecheth 1Ch 26:16 -High gate 2Ch 23:20 -East gate Ne 3:29 -Miphkad Ne 3:31 -Middle gate Jer 39:3 -First gate Zec 14:10 -Buildings High priest's palace Joh 18:15 -Castle Ac 21:34 -Stairs Ne 3:15...

Jerusalem in Smiths Bible Dictionary (the habitation of peace), Jerusalem stands in latitude 31 degrees 46' 35" north and longitude 35 degrees 18' 30" east of Greenwich. It is 32 miles distant from the sea and 18 from the Jordan, 20 from Hebron and 36 from Samaria. "In several respects," says Dean Stanley, "its situation is singular among the cities of Israel. Its elevation is remarkable; occasioned not from its being on the summit of one of the numerous hills of Judea, like most of the towns and villages, but because it is on the edge of one of the highest table-lands of the country. Hebron indeed is higher still by some hundred feet, and from the south, accordingly (even from Bethlehem), the approach to Jerusalem is by a slight descent. But from any other side the ascent is perpetual; and to the traveller approaching the city from the east or west it must always have presented the appearance beyond any other capital of the then known world --we may say beyond any important city that has ever existed on the earth --of a mountain city; breathing, as compared with the sultry plains of Jordan, a mountain air; enthroned, as compared with jericho or Damascus, Gaza or Tyre, on a mountain fastness." --S. & P. 170, 1. Jerusalem, if not actually in the centre of Israel, was yet virtually so. "It was on the ridge, the broadest and most strongly-marked ridge of the backbone of the complicated hills which extend through the whole country from the plain of Esdraelon to the desert." Roads. --There appear to have been but two main approaches to the city:-- 1. From the Jordan valley by Jericho and the Mount of Olives. This was the route commonly taken from the north and east of the country. 2. From the great maritime plain of Philistia and Sharon. This road led by the two Beth-horons up to the high ground at Gibeon, whence it turned south, and came to Jerusalem by Ramah and Gibeah, and over the ridge north of the city. Topography. --To convey an idea of the position of Jerusalem, we may say, roughly, that the city occupies the southern termination of the table-land which is cut off from the country round it on its west, south and east sides by ravines more than usually deep and precipitous. These ravines leave the level of the table-land, the one on the west and the other on the northeast of the city, and fall rapidly until they form a junction below its southeast corner. The eastern one --the valley of the Kedron, commonly called the valley of Jehoshaphat --runs nearly straight from north by south. But the western one --the valley of Hinnom-- runs south for a time, and then takes a sudden bend to the east until it meets the valley of Jehoshaphat, after which the two rush off as one to the Dead Sea. How sudden is their descent may be gathered from the fact that the level at the point of junction -about a mile and a quarter from the starting-point of each-- is more than 600 feet below that of the upper plateau from which they began their descent. So steep...

Jerusalem in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE I. The Name. 1. In Cuneiform: The earliest mention of Jerusalem is in the Tell el-Amarna Letters (1450 BC), where it appears in the form Uru-sa-lim; allied with this we have Ur-sa-li-immu on the Assyrian monuments of the 8th century BC. The most ancient Biblical form is yerushalem, shortened in Ps 76:2 (compare Gen 14:18) to Salem, but in Massoretic Text we have it vocalized yerushalaim. In Jer 26:18; Est 2:6; 2 Ch 25:1; 32:9 we have yerushalayim, a form which occurs on the Jewish coins of the Revolt and also in Jewish literature; it is commonly used by modern Talmudic Jews. 2. In Hebrew: The form Hebrew with the ending -aim or -ayim is interpreted by some as being a dual, referring to the upper and lower Jerusalem, but such forms occur in other names as implying special solemnity; such a pronunciation is both local and late. 3. In Greek and Latin: In the Septuagint we get (Ierousalem), constantly reflecting the earliest and the common Hebrew pronunciation, the initial letter being probably unaspirated; soon, however, we meet with (Hierousalem)--with the aspirate--the common form in Josep hus, and (Hierosoluma) in Macc (Books II through IV), and in Strabo. This last form has been carried over into the Latin writers, Cicero, Pliny, Tacitus and Suetonius. It was replaced in official use for some centuries by Hadrian's Aelia Capitolina, which occurs as late as Jerome, but it again comes into common use in the documents of the Crusades, while Solyma occurs at various periods as a poetic abbreviation. In the New Testament we have (Hierousalem), particularly in the writings of Luke and Paul, and (ta Hierosoluma) elsewhere. The King James Version of 1611 has Ierosalem in the Old Testament and Hierusalem in the New Testament. The form Jerusalem first occurs in French writings of the 12th century. 4. The Meaning of Jerusalem: With regard to the meaning of the original name there is no concurrence of opinion. The oldest known form, Uru-sa-lim, has been considered by many to mean either the "City of Peace" or the "City of (the god) Salem," but other interpreters, considering the name as of Hebrew origin, interpret it as the "possession of peace" or "foundation of peace." It is one of the ironies of history that a city which in all its long history has seen so little peace and for whose possession such rivers of blood have been shed should have such a possible meaning for its name. 5. Other Names: Other names for the city occur. For the name Jebus see JESUS. In Isa 29:1, occurs the name 'ari'el probably "the hearth of God," and in 1:26 the "city of righteousness." In Ps 72:16; Jer 32:24 f; Ezek 7:23, we have the term ha`ir, "the city" in contrast...

Jerusalem in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE IV. General Topography of Jerusalem. From the foregoing description of the "natural site," it will be seen that we have to deal with 5 natural subdivisions or hills, two on the western and three on the eastern ridges. 1. Description of Josephus: In discussing the topography it is useful to commence with the description of Josephus, wherein he gives to these 5 areas the names common in his day (BJ, V, iv, 1,2). He says: "The city was built upon two hills which are opposite to one another and have a valley to divide them asunder .... Now the Valley of the Cheesemongers, as it was called, and was that which distinguished the hill of the upper city from that of the lower, extended as far as Siloam" (ibid., V, iv, 1). Here we get the first prominent physical feature, the bisection of the city-site into two main hills. Farther on, however, in the same passage--one, it must be admitted, of some obscurity--Josephus distinguishes 5 distinct regions: (1) The Upper City or Upper Market Place: (The hill) "which sustains the upper city is much higher and in length more direct. Accordingly, it was called the citadel (phrourion) of King David .... but it is by us called the Upper Market Place." This is without dispute the southwestern hill. (2) Akra and Lower City: "The other hill, which was called Akra, and sustains the lower city, was double-curved" (amphikurtos). The description can apply only to the semicircular shape of the southeastern hill, as viewed from the "upper city." These names, "Akra" and "Lower City," are, with reservations, therefore, to be applied to the southeastern hill. (3) The Temple Hill: Josephus' description here is curious, on account of its indefiniteness, but there can be no question as to which hill he intends. He writes: "Over against this is a third hill, but naturally lower than the Akra and parted formerly from the other by a fiat valley. However, in those times when the Hasmoneans reigned, they did away with this valley, wishing to connect the city with the temple; and cutting down the summit of the Akra, they made it lower, so that the temple might be visible over it." Comparison with other passages shows that this "third hill" is the central- eastern--the "Temple Hill." (4) Bezetha: "It was Agrippa who encompassed the parts added to the old city with this wall (i.e. the third wall) which had been all naked before; for as the city grew more populous, it gradually crept beyond its old limits, and those parts of it that stood northward of the Temple, and joined that hill to the city, made it considerably larger, and occasioned that hill which is in number the fourth, and is called `Bezetha,' to be inhabited also. It lies over against the tower Antonia, but is divided from it by a deep valley, which was dug on purpose. .... This new-built part of the city was called `Bezetha' in our language, which, if interpreted...

Jerusalem in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE VII. Antiquarian Remains Connected with the Water-Supply. In a city like Jerusalem, where the problem of a water- supply must always have been one of the greatest, it is only natural that some of the most ancient and important works should have centered round it. The three sources of supply have been (1) springs, (2) cisterns, (3) aqueducts. 1. Gihon: The Natural Spring: (1) The natural springs have been described in II, 3; but connected with them, and especially with the city's greatest and most venerated source, the Gihon, there are certain antiquarian remains of great interest. (a) The "Virgin's Fount," ancient Gihon, arises, as has been described (II, 3), in a rocky cleft in the Kidron valley bottom; under natural conditions the water would run along the valley bed, now deeply buried under debris of the ancient city, and doubtless when the earliest settlers made their dwellings in the caves (which have been excavated) on the sides of the valley near the spring, they and their flocks lived on the banks of a stream of running water in a sequestered valley among waterless hills. From, however, a comparatively early period--at the least 2000 BC--efforts were made to retain some of the water, and a solid stone dam was built which converted the sources into a pool of considerable depth. Either then, or somewhat later, excavations were made in the cliffs overhanging the pool, whereby some at least of these waters were conducted, by means of a tunnel, into the heart of the southeastern hill, "Ophel," so that the source could be reached from within the city walls. There are today two systems of tunnels which are usually classed as one under the name of the "Siloam aqueduct," but the two systems are probably many centuries apart in age. 2. The Aqueduct of the Canaanites: The older tunnel begins in a cave near the source and then runs westward for a distance of 67 ft.; at the inner end of the tunnel there is a perpendicular shaft which ascends for over 40 ft. and opens into a lofty rock-cut passage which runs, with a slight lateral curvature, to the North, in the direction of the surface. The upper end has been partially destroyed, and the roof, which had fallen in, was long ago partially restored by a masonry arch. At this part of the passage the floor is abruptly interrupted across its whole width by a deep chasm which Warren partially excavated, but which Parker has since conclusively shown to end blindly. It is clear that this great gallery, which is 8 to 9 ft. wide, and in places as high or higher, was constructed (a natural cavern possibly utilized in the process) to enable the inhabitants of the walled-in city above it to reach the spring. It is in fact a similar work to the great water- passage at GEZER (which see), which commenced in a rock-cut pit 26 ft. deep and descended with steps, to a depth of 94 ft. 6 inches below the level of the rock surface; the sloping passage was 23 ft. high and 13 ft. broad. This passage which could be dated with certainty as before 1500 BC, and almost certainly as early as 2000 BC, was cut out with flint ...

Jerusalem in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE IX. History. Pre-Israelite period.--The beginnings of Jerusalem are long before recorded history: at various points in the neighborhood, e.g. at el Bukei`a to the Southwest, and at the northern extremity of the Mount of Olives to the Northeast, were very large settlements of Paleolithic man, long before the dawn of history, as is proved by the enormous quantities of Celts scattered over the surface. It is certain that the city's site itself was occupied many centuries before David, and it is a traditional view that the city called SALEM (which see) (Gen 14:18), over which Melchizedek was king, was identical with Jerusalem. 1. Tell el-Amarna Correspondence: The first certain reference to this city is about 1450 BC, when the name Ur-u-salem occurs in several letters belonging to the Tell el-Amarna Letters correspondence. In 7 of these letters occurs the name Abd Khiba, and it is clear that this man was "king," or governor of the city, as the representative of Pharaoh of Egypt. In this correspondence Abd Khiba represents himself as hard pressed to uphold the rights of his suzerain against the hostile forces which threaten to overwhelm him. Incidentally we may gather that the place was then a fortified city, guarded partly by mercenary Egyptian troops, and there are reasons for thinking that then ruler of Egypt, Amenhotep IV, had made it a sanctuary of his god Aten--the sun-disc. Some territory, possibly extending as far west as Ajalon, seems to have been under the jurisdiction of the governor. Professor Sayce has stated that Abd Khiba was probably a Hittite chief, but this is doubtful. The correspondence closes abruptly, leaving us in uncertainty with regard to the fate of the writer, but we know that the domination of Egypt over Israel suffered an eclipse about this time. 2. Joshua's Conquest: At the time of Joshua's invasion of Canaan, ADONI-ZEDEK (which see) is mentioned (Josh 10:1-27) as king of Jerusalem; he united with the kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon to fight against the Gibeonites who had made peace with Joshua; the 5 kings were defeated and, being captured in hiding at the cave Makkedah, were all slain. Another king, ADONIBEZEK (which see) (whom some identify with Adoni-zedek), was defeated by Judah after the death of Joshua, and after being mutilated was brought to Jerusalem and died there (Jdg 1:1-7), after which it is recorded (Jdg 1:8) that Judah "fought against Jerusalem, and took it .... and set the city on fire." But it is clear that the city remained in the hands of the "Jebusites" for some years more (Jdg 1:21; 19:11), although it was theoretically reckoned on the southern border of Benjamin (Josh 15:8; 18:16,28). David, after he had reigned 7 1/2 years at Hebron, determined to make the place his capital and, about 1000 BC, captured the city. 3. Site of the Jebusite City: Up to this event it is probable...

Jerusalem in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Hierousalem kaine): This name occurs in Rev 21:2 (21:10, "holy city"). The conception is based on prophecies which predict a glorious future to Jerusalem after the judgment (Isa 52:1). In Revelation, however, it is not descriptive of any actual locality on earth, but allegorically depicts the final state of the church ("the bride," "the wife of the Lamb," Rev 21:2,9), when the new heaven and the new earth shall have come into being. The picture is drawn from a twofold point of view: the new Jerusalem is a restoration of Paradise (Rev 21:6; 22:1,2,14); it is also the ideal of theocracy realized (Rev 21:3,12,14,22). The latter viewpoint explains the peculiar representation that the city descends "out of heaven from God" (Rev 21:2,10), which characterizes it as, on the one hand, a product of God's supernatural workmanship, and as, on the other hand, the culmination of the historic process of redemption. In other New Testament passages, where theocratic point of view is less prominent, the antitypical Jerusalem appears as having its seat in heaven instead of, as here, coming down from heaven to earth (compare Gal 4:26; Heb 11:10; 12:22). See also REVELATION OF JOHN.

Jerusalem Scripture - 1 Chronicles 29:27 And the time that he reigned over Israel [was] forty years; seven years reigned he in Hebron, and thirty and three [years] reigned he in Jerusalem.

Jerusalem Scripture - 1 Kings 12:27 If this people go up to do sacrifice in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this people turn again unto their lord, [even] unto Rehoboam king of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again to Rehoboam king of Judah.

Jerusalem Scripture - 2 Kings 12:18 And Jehoash king of Judah took all the hallowed things that Jehoshaphat, and Jehoram, and Ahaziah, his fathers, kings of Judah, had dedicated, and his own hallowed things, and all the gold [that was] found in the treasures of the house of the LORD, and in the king's house, and sent [it] to Hazael king of Syria: and he went away from Jerusalem.

Jerusalem Scripture - 2 Kings 19:21 This [is] the word that the LORD hath spoken concerning him; The virgin the daughter of Zion hath despised thee, [and] laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.

Jerusalem Scripture - Ezra 6:3 In the first year of Cyrus the king [the same] Cyrus the king made a decree [concerning] the house of God at Jerusalem, Let the house be builded, the place where they offered sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits, [and] the breadth thereof threescore cubits;

Jerusalem Scripture - Isaiah 37:22 This [is] the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him; The virgin, the daughter of Zion, hath despised thee, [and] laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head at thee.

Jerusalem Scripture - Jeremiah 24:1 The LORD shewed me, and, behold, two baskets of figs [were] set before the temple of the LORD, after that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon had carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah, and the princes of Judah, with the carpenters and smiths, from Jerusalem, and had brought them to Babylon.

Jerusalem Scripture - Jeremiah 44:9 Have ye forgotten the wickedness of your fathers, and the wickedness of the kings of Judah, and the wickedness of their wives, and your own wickedness, and the wickedness of your wives, which they have committed in the land of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem?

Jerusalem Scripture - Lamentations 2:13 What thing shall I take to witness for thee? what thing shall I liken to thee, O daughter of Jerusalem? what shall I equal to thee, that I may comfort thee, O virgin daughter of Zion? for thy breach [is] great like the sea: who can heal thee?

Jerusalem Scripture - Zechariah 3:2 And the LORD said unto Satan, The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan; even the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee: [is] not this a brand plucked out of the fire?