Ancient Hermon - Map of New Testament Israel
HER`MON (lofty, prominent). The most conspicuous and
beautiful mountain in Israel. It is the southern point of
the Anti-Lebanon range, at the head waters of the Jordan.
Called Sirion by Sidonians, Shenir by Amorites, and Sion in
Deut. 4:4S. It was the great northern landmark of the
Hebrews. Height 10,000 feet, Josh, 11:17; Deut. 3:8.
Hermon in Easton's Bible Dictionary
a peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range,
reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the
Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of
3:8, 4:48; Josh. 11:3, 17; 13:11; 12:1), and is seen
great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the
Galilee. It is called "the Hermonites" (Ps. 42:6)
because it has
more than one summit. The Sidonians called it
Sirion, and the
Amorites Shenir (Deut. 3:9; Cant. 4:8). It is also
Baal-hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23) and Sion (Deut.
There is every probability that one of its three
summits was the
scene of the transfiguration (q.v.). The "dew of
referred to (Ps. 89: 12). Its modern name is Jebel-
"the chief mountain." It is one of the most
mountains in Israel or Syria. "In whatever part
the Israelite turned his eye northward, Hermon was
terminating the view. From the plain along the
coast, from the
Jordan valley, from the heights of Moab and Gilead,
plateau of Bashan, the pale, blue, snow-capped cone
one feature in the northern horizon."
Our Lord and his disciples climbed this "high
one day, and remained on its summit all night,
their long and toilsome ascent." During the night
transfigured before them; and his face did shine as
The next day they descended to Caesarea Philippi.
Hermon in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
("mountain nose, or peak".) The highest of the Antilibanus
range, at its S. end. N.E. of Israel (Joshua 12:1), over
against Lebanon (Joshua 11:17), adjoining Bashan (1
Chronicles 5:23). Called Sion, "the lofty," distinct from
Zion at Jerusalem (Deuteronomy 4:48); among the Amorites
Shenir, rather Senir, i.e. cataract or else breast-plate,
from senar "to clatter" (Deuteronomy 3:8-9; Ezekiel 27:5);
among the Sidonians Sirion, the breast-plate, a name given
from the rounded snowy top glittering in the sun, from
shaarah "to glitter" (Psalm 29:6). A center to Syria and
Israel; the watershed of the Jordan fountains, and of the
Syrian Abana and Pharpar of Damascus, the Orontes of
Antioch, and the Leontes. Bashan, Damascus, Syria, and
Israel converged there. It had numerous Baal sanctuaries,
which gave it a name very anciently. (See BAAL HERMON.)
Rising 9,500 feet, it is seen even from the Jordan
valley and the shores of the Dead Sea. Lebanon means the
"white" mountain, the Mont Blanc of Israel. Now Jebel es
Sheykh, "the old white-headed man's mountain," referring to
the long streaks of snow remaining in the ravines radiating
from the center, when the snow has disappeared elsewhere,
like an old man's scanty white locks. Jebel esh Tilj, "the
mount of ice." Shenir and Hermon are mentioned distinctly,
Song of Solomon 4:8. The whole was called Hermon. The part
held by the Sidonians was "Sirion," that by the Amorites
Shenir, infested by devouring "lions" and swift though
stealthy "leopards," in contrast to "the mountain of myrrh"
(Song of Solomon 5:6), the mountain of the Lord's house
(Isaiah 2:2), the good land (Isaiah 35:9). In Psalm 89:12
Tabor is made the western, Hermon the eastern landmark.
Thus, N., S., E., and W. represent the whole earth.
"The dew of Hermon" (Psalm 133:3) is used proverbially of an
abundant, refreshing dew. (See DEW.) The distance precludes
the possibility of the literal dew of Hermon "descending
upon the mountains of Zion." But a Hermon dew was a dew such
as falls there, the snow on the summit condensing the summer
vapors which float in the higher air, and causing light
clouds to hover round and abundant dew to fall on it, while
the air is elsewhere without a cloud and the whole country
parched. The "ointment" sets forth "how good" and "precious"
is brotherly "unity"; the dew "how pleasant" it is. Zion is
the mountain where this spiritual dew descends, as pleasant
as the natural dew that descends on Hermon. It has three
summits, a quarter of a mile from each other; hence arises
the plural "Hermons" (Psalm 42:6), not "Hermonites."
A rude wall of massive stones surrounds the crest of
the peak, within are the remains of a small ancient temple.
Jerome refers to this, and no doubt it is one of those Baal
high places set up by the former inhabitants, and so often
condemned in the Old Testament. A circle of temples
surrounded Hermon, facing its summit, so that Hermon seems
to have been the great sanctuary of Baal. At the top, says
Capt. Warren, is a plateau comparatively level; here are two
small peaks lying N. and S., about 400 yards from each
other. The third peak is 500 yards to the W. On the southern
peak a hole scooped out is surrounded by an oval of hewn
stones; at its southern end is the temple nearly destroyed,
with Roman moldings, and of later date than the stone oval,
of stones from 2 to 8 ft. long, 2 1/2 broad and thick.
Hermon in Hitchcock's Bible Names
anathema; devoted to destruction
Hermon in Naves Topical Bible
A mountain in the north of Israel
De 3:8,9; Ps 29:6
De 4:48; Ps 133:3
De 3:9; 1Ch 5:23; So 4:8
Hermon in Smiths Bible Dictionary
(a peak, summit), a mountain on the northeastern border of
Israel, De 3:8; Jos 12:1 over against Lebanon, Jos 11:17
adjoining the plateau of Bashan. 1Ch 5:23 It stands at the
southern end, and is the culminating point of the anti-
Libanus range; it towers high above the ancient border city
of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most
conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Israel or Assyria.
At the present day it is called Jebel esh-Sheikh, "the chief
mountain," and Jebel eth-Thelj, "snowy mountain." When the
whole country is parched with the summer sun, white lines of
snow streak the head of Hermon. This mountain was the great
landmark of the Israelites. It was associated with their
northern border almost as intimately as the sea was with the
western. Hermon has three summits, situated like the angles
of a triangle, and about a quarter of a mile from each
other. In two passages of Scripture this mountain is called
Baal-hermon, Jud 3:3; 1Ch 5:23 possibly because Baal was
there worshipped. (It is more than probable that some part
of Hermon was the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands
near Caesarea Philippi, where we know Christ was just before
that event --ED.) The height of Hermon has never been
measured, though it has often been estimated. It may safely
be reckoned at 10,000 feet.
Hermon in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
hur'-mon (chermon; Codex Vaticanus, Haermon):
The name of the majestic mountain in which the Anti-Lebanon
range terminates to the South (Dt 3:8, etc.). It reaches a
height of 9,200 ft. above the sea, and extends some 16 to 20
miles from North to South. It was called Sirion by the
Sidonians (Dt 3:9; compare Ps 29:6), and Senir by the
Amorites (Dt 3:9). It is also identified with Sion (Dt
4:48). See SIRION; SENIR; SION. Sometimes it is called "Mt.
Hermon" (Dt 3:8; Josh 11:17; 1 Ch 5:23, etc.); at other
times simply "Hermon" (Josh 11:3; Ps 89:12, etc.).
2. The Hermons:
Once it is called "Hermons" (chermonim). the King James
Version mistakenly renders this "the Hermonites" (Ps 42:6).
It must be a reference to the triple summits of the
mountain. There are three distinct heads, rising near the
middle of the mass, the two higher being toward the East.
The eastern declivities are steep and bare; the western
slopes are more gradual; and while the upper reaches are
barren, the lower are well wooded; and as one descends he
passes through fruitful vineyards and orchards, finally
entering the rich fields below, in Wady etteim. The Aleppo
pine, the oak, and the poplar are plentiful. The wolf and
the leopard are still to be found on the mountain; and it is
the last resort of the brown, or Syrian, bear. Snow lies
long on the summits and shoulders of the mountain; and in
some of the deeper hollows, especially to the North, it may
be seen through most of the year.
Mt. Hermon is the source of many blessings to the land over
which it so proudly lifts its splendid form. Refreshing
breezes blow from its cold heights. Its snows are carried to
Damascus and to the towns on the seaboard, where, mingled
with the sharab, "drink," they mitigate the heat of the
Syrian summer. Great reservoirs in the depths of the
mountain, fed by the melting snows, find outlet in the
magnificent springs at Chasbeiyeh, Tell el-Kady, and Banias,
while the dew-clouds of Hermon bring a benediction wherever
they are carried (Ps 133:3).
Hermon marked the northern limit of Joshua's victorious
campaigns (Josh 12:1, etc.). It was part, of the dominion of
Og (Josh 12:5), and with the fall of that monarch, it would
naturally come under Israelite influence. Its remote and
solitary heights must have attracted worshippers from the
earliest times; and we cannot doubt that it was a famous
sanctuary in far antiquity. Under the highest peak are the
ruins of Kacr `Antar, which may have been an ancient
sanctuary of Baal. Eusebius, Onomasticon, speaks of a temple
on the summit much frequented by the surrounding peoples;
and the remains of many temples of the Roman period have
been found on the sides and at the base of the mountain. The
sacredness of Hermon may be inferred from the allusion in Ps
89:12 (compare Enoch 6:6; and see also BAAL-HERMON).
Some have thought that the scene of the Transfiguration
should be sought here; see, however, TRANSFIGURATION, MOUNT
The modern name of Hermon is Jebel eth-thilj, "mount of
snow," or Jebel esh-sheikh, "mount of the elder," or "of the
Little Hermon, the name now often applied to the hill
between Tabor and Gilboa, possibly the Hill of Moreh, on
which is the sanctuary of Neby Dahy, has no Biblical
authority, and dates only from the Middle Ages.
Hermon Scripture - 1 Chronicles 5:23
And the children of the half tribe of Manasseh dwelt in the
land: they increased from Bashan unto Baalhermon and Senir,
and unto mount Hermon.
Hermon Scripture - Deuteronomy 3:8
And we took at that time out of the hand of the two kings of
the Amorites the land that [was] on this side Jordan, from the
river of Arnon unto mount Hermon;
Hermon Scripture - Deuteronomy 3:9
([Which] Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion; and the Amorites
call it Shenir;)
Hermon Scripture - Deuteronomy 4:48
From Aroer, which [is] by the bank of the river Arnon, even
unto mount Sion, which [is] Hermon,
Hermon Scripture - Joshua 11:17
[Even] from the mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir, even unto
Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon under mount Hermon: and all
their kings he took, and smote them, and slew them.
Hermon Scripture - Joshua 11:3
[And to] the Canaanite on the east and on the west, and [to]
the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the
Jebusite in the mountains, and [to] the Hivite under Hermon in
the land of Mizpeh.
Hermon Scripture - Joshua 12:1
Now these [are] the kings of the land, which the children of
Israel smote, and possessed their land on the other side
Jordan toward the rising of the sun, from the river Arnon unto
mount Hermon, and all the plain on the east:
Hermon Scripture - Joshua 12:5
And reigned in mount Hermon, and in Salcah, and in all Bashan,
unto the border of the Geshurites and the Maachathites, and
half Gilead, the border of Sihon king of Heshbon.
Hermon Scripture - Joshua 13:11
And Gilead, and the border of the Geshurites and Maachathites,
and all mount Hermon, and all Bashan unto Salcah;
Hermon Scripture - Joshua 13:5
And the land of the Giblites, and all Lebanon, toward the
sunrising, from Baalgad under mount Hermon unto the entering
Hermon Scripture - Psalms 133:3
As the dew of Hermon, [and as the dew] that descended upon the
mountains of Zion: for there the LORD commanded the blessing,
[even] life for evermore.
Hermon Scripture - Psalms 89:12
The north and the south thou hast created them: Tabor and
Hermon shall rejoice in thy name.
Hermon Scripture - Song of Solomon 4:8
Come with me from Lebanon, [my] spouse, with me from Lebanon:
look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon,
from the lions' dens, from the mountains of the leopards.
Hinnom Scripture - Jeremiah 32:35
And they built the high places of Baal, which [are] in the
valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their
daughters to pass through [the fire] unto Molech; which I
commanded them not, neither came it into my mind, that they
should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.