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October 26    Scripture

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Bible Cities : Hell in Easton's Bible Dictionary derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered: (1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty- five times. This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning "to ask," "demand;" hence insatiableness (Prov. 30:15, 16). It is rendered "grave" thirty-one times (Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; 1 Sam. 2:6, etc.). The Revisers have retained this rendering in the historical books with the original word in the margin, while in the poetical books they have reversed this rule. In thirty-one cases in the Authorized Version this word is rendered "hell," the place of disembodied spirits. The inhabitants of sheol are "the congregation of the dead" (Prov. 21:16). It is (a) the abode of the wicked (Num. 16:33; Job 24:19; Ps. 9:17; 31:17, etc.); (b) of the good (Ps. 16:10; 30:3; 49:15; 86:13, etc.). Sheol is described as deep (Job 11:8), dark (10:21, 22), with bars (17:16). The dead "go down" to it (Num. 16:30, 33; Ezek. 31:15, 16, 17). (2.) The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. It is a prison (1 Pet. 3:19), with gates and bars and locks (Matt. 16:18; Rev. 1:18), and it is downward (Matt. 11:23; Luke 10:15). The righteous and the wicked are separated. The blessed dead are in that part of hades called paradise (Luke 23:43). They are also said to be in Abraham's bosom (Luke 16:22). (3.) Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New Testament, designates the place of the lost (Matt. 23:33). The fearful nature of their condition there is described in various figurative expressions (Matt. 8:12; 13:42; 22:13; 25:30; Luke 16:24, etc.). (See HINNOM -T0001790.)

Hell in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Representing two distinct words: Gehenna and Hades (Greek), Sheol (Hebrew). Gehenna) is strictly "the valley of Hinnom" (Joshua 15:8; Nehemiah 11:30); "the valley of the children of Hinnom" (2 Kings 23:10); "the valley of the son of Hinnom" (2 Chronicles 28:3); "the valley of dead bodies," or Tophet, where malefactors' dead bodies were cast, S. of the city (Jeremiah 31:40). A deep narrow glen S. of Jerusalem, where, after Ahaz introduced the worship of the fire gods, the sun, Baal, Moloch, the Jews under Manasseh made their children to pass through the fire (2 Chronicles 33:6), and offered them as burntofferings (Jeremiah 7:31; Jeremiah 19:2-6). So the godly Josiah defiled the valley, making it a receptacle of carcass and criminals' corpses, in which worms were continually gendering. A perpetual fire was kept to consume this putrefying matter; hence it became the image of that awful place where all that are unfit for the holy city are cast out a prey to the ever gnawing "worm" of conscience from within and the "unquenchable fire" of torments from without. Mark 9:42-50, "their worm dieth not." implies that not only the worm but they also on whom it preys die not; the language is figurative, but it represents corresponding realities never yet experienced, and therefore capable of being conveyed to us only by figures. The phrase "forever and ever " (eis tous aionas aioonoon) occurs 20 times in New Testament: 16 times of God, once of the saints' future blessedness, the three remaining of the punishment of the wicked and of the evil one: is it likely it is used 17 times of absolute eternity, yet three times of limited eternity? The term for "everlasting" (aidiois) in Judges 1:6, "the angels who kept not their first estate He hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day," is from a word meaning absolutely "always" (aei). Gehenna is used by our Lord Jesus (Matthew 5:29-30; Matthew 10:28; Matthew 23:15; Matthew 23:33; Luke 12:5); with the addition "of fire," Matthew 5:22; Matthew 18:9; Mark 9:47; and by James (James 3:6). Our present meaning of "hell" then applies to Gehenna, but not to the other word Hades or Sheol. "Hell" formerly did apply when the KJV of the Bible was written; it then meant "hole," "hollow," or unseen place. Sheol comes from a root "to make hollow," the common receptacle of the dead below the earth (Numbers 16:30; Deuteronomy 32:22), deep (Job 11:8), insatiable (Isaiah 5:14; Song of Solomon 8:6). "Hell," Hades, often means the "grave" (Job 14:13). In the Old Testament time, when as yet Christ had not "abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel" (2 Timothy 1:10), death and the intermediate state represented by Hades suggested thoughts of gloom (as to Hezekiah, Isaiah 38:9- 20), lit up however with gleams of sure hope from God's promises of the resurrection (Psalm 16:10-11; Psalm 17:15; Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Hints too occur of the spirit's being with God in peace in the intermediate state (Ecclesiastes 3:21; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Psalm 23:6; Psalm 139:8; Isaiah 57:2). The passages which represent Hades and the grave as a place where God can no longer be praised mean simply that the physical powers are all suspended, so that God's peruses can be no longer set forth on earth among the living. The anomalous state in which man is unclothed of the body is repulsive to the mind, and had not yet the clear gospel light to make it attractive as Paul viewed it (Philemon 1:21-23; 2 Corinthians 5:6-8). To the bad Hades was depicted as a place of punishment, where God's wrath reached to the depths (Deuteronomy 32:22; Amos 9:2; Psalm 9:17; Psalm 49:14; Isaiah 14). Thus, the unseen state even in Old Testament was regarded as having a distinction between the godly and the ungodly; Proverbs 14:32, "the wicked is driven away in his wickedness, but the righteous hath hope...

Hell in Naves Topical Bible (In the A. V. this word occurs in O. T. Scriptures, cited below, and is the translation of the Hebrew word "sheol," which signifies the unseen state) -In the R. V. of O. T. it appears only in Isa 5:14; 14:9,15; 28:15,18; 57:9; Eze 31:16,17; 32:21,27; Am 9:2; Jon 2:2; Hab 2:5 -In the R. V., "sheol" is translated "lowest pit" De 32:22; Ps 86:13 -And it is translated "pit" in Ps 55:15 -In the R. V. the word "Sheol" itself occurs in the following scriptures 2Sa 22:6; Job 11:8; 26:6; Ps 9:17; 16:10; 18:5; 116:3; 139:8; Pr 5:5; 7:27; 9:18; 15:11,24; 23:14; 27:20 -"Sheol" is translated "grave" in A. V. in Ge 37:35; 42:38; 44:29,31; 1Sa 2:6; 1Ki 2:6; 9; Job 7:9; 14:13; 17:13; 21:13; 24:19; Ps 6:5; 30:3; 31:17; 49:14,15; 88:3; 89:48; 141:7; Pr 1:12; 30:16; Ec 9:10; So 8:6; Ho 13:14 -In the R. V. the Greek word "gehenna" is translated "hell" in the following scriptures Mt 5:22,29,30; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15,33; Mr 9:43,45,47; Lu 12:5; Jas 3:6 -The R. V. has introduced "Hades," the word found in the Greek text, which signifies the unseen world, in the following scriptures Mt 11:23; 16:18; Lu 10:15; 16:23; Ac 2:27,31; Re 1:18; 6:8; 20:13,14 -THE FUTURE HOME OF THE WICKED Ps 9:17; Pr 5:5; 9:13,15-18; 15:24; 23:13,14; Isa 30:33; 33:14; Mt 3:12; 5:29,30; 7:13,14; 8:11,12; 10:28; 13:30,38-42,49,50; 16:18; 18:8,9,34,35; 22:13; 25:28-30,41,46; Mr 9:43-48; Lu 3:17; 16:23-26,28; Ac 1:25; 2Th 1:9; 2Pe 2:4; Jude 1:6-23; Re 2:11; 9:1,2; 11:7; 14:10,11; 19:20; 20:10,15; 21:8 See WICKED, PUNISHMENT OF

Hell in Smiths Bible Dictionary In the Old Testament this is the word generally and unfortunately used by our translators to render the Hebrew Sheol. It really means the place of the dead, the unseen world, without deciding whether it be the place of misery or of happiness. It is clear that in many passages of the Old Testament Sheol can only mean "the grave," and is rendered in the Authorized Version; see, for example, Ge 37:35; 42:38; 1Sa 2:6; Job 14:13 In other passages, however, it seems to Involve a notion of punishment, and is therefore rendered in the Authorized Version by the word "hell." But in many cases this translation misleads the reader. In the New Testament "hell" is the translation of two words, Hades and Gehenna. The word Hades, like Sheol sometimes means merely "the grave," Ac 2:31; 1Co 15:55, Re 20:13 or in general "the unseen world." It is in this sense that the creeds say of our Lord, "He went down into hell," meaning the state of the dead in general, without any restriction of happiness or misery. Elsewhere in the New Testament Hades is used of a place of torment, Mt 11:23; Lu 16:23; 2Pe 2:4 etc.; consequently it has been the prevalent, almost the universal, notion that Hades is an intermediate state between death and resurrection, divided into two parts one the abode of the blest and the other of the lost. It is used eleven times in the New Testament, and only once translated "grave." 1Co 15:55 The word most frequently used (occurring twelve times) in the New Testament for the place of future punishment is Gehenna or Gehenna of fire. This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their destruction. [See HINNOM]

Hell in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE hel (see SHEOL; HADES; GEHENNA): 1. The Word in the King James Version: The English word, from a Teutonic root meaning "to hide" or "cover," had originally the significance of the world of the dead generally, and in this sense is used by Chaucer, Spenser, etc., and in the Creed ("He descended into hell"); compare the English Revised Version Preface. Now the word has come to mean almost exclusively the place of punishment of the lost or finally impenitent; the place of torment of the wicked. In the King James Version of the Scriptures, it is the rendering adopted in many places in the Old Testament for the Hebrew word she'ol (in 31 out of 65 occurrences of that word it is so translated), and in all places, save one (1 Cor 15:55) in the New Testament, for the Greek word Hades (this word occurs 11 times; in 10 of these it is translated "hell"; 1 Cor 15:55 reads "grave," with "hell" in the margin). In these cases the word has its older general meaning, though in Lk 16:23 (parable of Rich Man and Lazarus) it is specially connected with a place of "torment," in contrast with the "Abraham's bosom" to which Lazarus is taken (16:22). 2. The Word in the Revised Version: In the above cases the Revised Version (British and American) has introduced changes, replacing "hell" by "Sheol" in the passages in the Old Testament (the English Revised Version retains "hell" in Isa 14:9,15; the American Standard Revised Version makes no exception), and by "Hades" in the passages in the New Testament (see under these words). 3. Gehenna: Besides the above uses, and more in accordance with the modern meaning, the word "hell" is used in the New Testament in the King James Version as the equivalent of Gehenna (12 t; Mt 5:22,29; 10:28, etc.). the Revised Version (British and American) in these cases puts "Gehenna" in the margin. Originally the Valley of Hinnom, near Jerusalem, Gehenna became among the Jews the synonym for the place of torment in the future life (the "Gehenna of fire," Mt 5:22, etc.; see GEHENNA). 4. Tartarus: In yet one other passage in the New Testament (2 Pet 2:4), "to cast down to hell" is used (the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American)) to represent the Greek tartaroo, ("to send into Tartarus"). Here it stands for the place of punishment of the fallen angels: "spared not angels when they sinned, but cast them down to hell, and committed them to pits (or chains) of darkness" (compare Jude 1:6; but also Mt 25:41). Similar ideas are found in certain of the Jewish apocalyptic books (Book of Enoch, Book of Jubilees, Apocrypha Baruch, with apparent reference to Gen 6:1-4; compare ESCHATOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT). On theological aspect, see PUNISHMENT, EVERLASTING. For literature, see references in above-named arts., and compare article "Hell" by Dr. D. S. Salmond in HDB.

Hell Scripture - James 3:6 And the tongue [is] a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell.

Hell Scripture - Job 11:8 [It is] as high as heaven; what canst thou do? deeper than hell; what canst thou know?

Hell Scripture - Luke 12:5 But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him.

Hell Scripture - Matthew 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

Hell Scripture - Matthew 18:9 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast [it] from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.

Hell Scripture - Matthew 5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

Hell Scripture - Matthew 5:29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast [it] from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not [that] thy whole body should be cast into hell.

Hell Scripture - Matthew 5:30 And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast [it] from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not [that] thy whole body should be cast into hell.

Hell Scripture - Psalms 16:10 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

Hell Scripture - Revelation 6:8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.