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    August 13    Scripture

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    Gilead in Easton's Bible Dictionary hill of testimony, (Gen. 31:21), a mountainous region east of Jordan. From its mountainous character it is called "the mount of Gilead" (Gen. 31:25). It is called also "the land of Gilead" (Num. 32:1), and sometimes simply "Gilead" (Ps. 60:7; Gen. 37:25). It comprised the possessions of the tribes of Gad and Reuben and the south part of Manasseh (Deut. 3:13; Num. 32:40). It was bounded on the north by Bashan, and on the south by Moab and Ammon (Gen. 31:21; Deut. 3:12-17). "Half Gilead" was possessed by Sihon, and the other half, separated from it by the river Jabbok, by Og, king of Bashan. The deep ravine of the river Hieromax (the modern Sheriat el-Mandhur) separated Bashan from Gilead, which was about 60 miles in length and 20 in breadth, extending from near the south end of the Lake of Gennesaret to the north end of the Dead Sea. Abarim, Pisgah, Nebo, and Peor are its mountains mentioned in Scripture.

    Gilead in Fausset's Bible Dictionary ("a hard rocky region".) The mountainous range and the region E. of Jordan are meant by "mount Gilead," not some one mountain. Bashan ("soft level soil"), a fertile plateau, bounds it on the N.; the Arabian table land on the E.; Moab and Ammon on the S. (Deuteronomy 3:12-17); Jordan on the W.; Hieromax river (now Sheriat'el Mandhur) divides it from Bashan. The Jabbok divided Og's northern half of Gilead (now Jebel Ajlun) from Sihon's southern half (now Belka.). The valley of Heshbon was probably Gilead's southern bound. Mishor, "a table land," is used to denote the plateau S. and E. of Gilead. Thus Bezer was in the country of the Mishor ("plain country," KJV Deuteronomy 4:43), the smooth downs of Moab contrasting with the higher districts of Bashan northwards and the rugged country W. of the Jordan. One prominent peak is still called Jebel Jil'ad, "mount Gilead," the probable site of Ramath Mizpeh (Joshua 13:26), and the "Mizpeh of Gilead" from whence Jephthah passed over to Ammon (Judges 11:29), an admirable place for assembling forces for war. Es-Salt, a town close by, is on the site of "Ramoth Gilead," the city of refuge in Gad. The mountains of Gilead, 2,000 or 3,000 ft. high, appear still more elevated from the W. owing to the depression of the Jordan valley 1,000 ft., and resemble a massive wall along the horizon; but when ascended they present a" wide table land tossed about in wild confusion of undulating downs, clothed with rich grass and magnificent forests, and broken by three deep defiles, those of the Jarmuk, Jabbok, and Arnon" (Stanley, Sinai and Israel) The high Arabian plateau makes them look low from the E. Pasturage abounds in Gilead more than in western Israel, from whence Reuben and Gad chose it for their numerous flocks and herds (Numbers 32). The physical nature of the country affected the character of its people, who ever retained nomadic pastoral habits. Gad, which lay S. and W. by Jordan, stretching N. as far as the sea of Galilee.) frontGAD.) Manasseh lay N. and E., and stretched S. to Mahanaim. Gilead's isolation kept its people in the background in Israel's history. Its aromatic spices and balm were exported to Egypt (Genesis 37:25; Jeremiah 8:22). Chedorlaomer attacked the giant Zuzim in Ham, i.e. probably Gilead; having first attacked the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, now the Hauran, afterward the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim, the country subsequently of Moab. In Gilead Saul's son at Mahanaim tried to gain his father's throne (2 Samuel 2:8-9). Here David found shelter and hospitality while fleeing from Absalom (2 Samuel 17:22; 2 Samuel 17:27-29). Elijah the Tishbite was of Gilead, and in garb, abruptness, and active energy reflected his country's characteristics. Being a border land, it was exposed to the marauding tribes of the desert (Joshua 17:1), and Ramoth Gilead was thought the eastern key of Israel (1 Kings 22:3-6). (See RAMOTH GILEAD.) Twice our Lord withdrew to the trans-jordanic hills: after His baptism; again just before His last stay at Jerusalem (John 10:39-40). At Pella in the same region the disciples found the refuge from the siege of Jerusalem which their Lord had told them of beforehand; Cestius Gallus having providentially retired, and so given them the opportunity of fleeing (Matthew 24:15-16).

    Gilead in Hitchcock's Bible Names the heap or mass of testimony

    Gilead in Naves Topical Bible 1. A region east of the Jordan River allotted to the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh Nu 32:1-30; De 3:13; 34:1; 2Ki 10:33 Reubenites expel the Hagarites from 1Ch 5:9,10,18-22 Ammonites make war against; defeated by Jephthah Jud 11 The prophet Elijah a native of 1Ki 17:1 David retreats to, at the time of Absalom's rebellion 2Sa 17:16,22,24 Pursued into, by Absalom 2Sa 17:26 Absalom defeated and slain in the forests of 2Sa 18:9 Hazael, king of Syria, smites the land of 2Ki 10:32,33; Am 1:3 Invaded by Tiglath-pileser, king of Syria 2Ki 15:29 A grazing country Nu 32:1; 1Ch 5:9 Exported spices, balm, and myrrh Ge 37:25; Jer 8:22; 46:11 -FIGURATIVE Of prosperity Jer 22:6; 50:19 -2. A mountain Jud 7:3; So 4:1; 6:5 Laban overtakes Jacob at Ge 31:21-25 -3. A city Ho 6:8; 12:11 -4. Grandson of Manasseh Nu 26:29,30; 27:1; 36:1; Jos 17:1,3; 1Ch 2:21,23; 7:14,17 -5. Father of Jephthah Jud 11:1,2 -6. A chief of Gad 1Ch 5:14

    Gilead in Smiths Bible Dictionary (rocky region). 1. A mountainous region bounded on the west by the Jordan, on the north by Bashan, on the east by the Arabian plateau, and on the south by Moab and Ammon. Ge 31:21; De 3:12-17 It is sometimes called "Mount Gilead," Ge 31:25 sometimes "the land of Gilead," Nu 32:1 and sometimes simply "Gilead." Ps 60:7; Ge 37:25 The name Gilead, as is usual in Israel, describes the physical aspect of the country: it signifies "a hard rocky region." The mountains of Gilead, including Pisgah, Abarim and Peor, have a real elevation of from 2000 to 3000 feet; but their apparent elevation on the western side is much greater, owing to the depression of the Jordan valley, which averages about 3000 feet. Their outline is singularly uniform, resembling a massive wall running along the horizon. Gilead was specially noted for its balm collected from "balm of Gilead" trees, and worth twice its weight in silver. 2. Possibly the name of a mountain west of the Jordan, near Jezreel. Jud 7:3 We are inclined, however, to think that the true reading in this place should be GILBOA. 3. Son of Machir, grandson of Manasseh. Nu 26:29,30 4. The father of Jephthah. Jud 11:1,2

    Gilead in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE gil'-e-ad (ha-gil`adh, "the Gilead"): The name is explained in Gen 31:46 ff,51, as derived from Hebrew gal, "a cairn," and `edh, "witness," agreeing in meaning with the Aramaic yegharsahadhutha'. The Arabic jilead means "rough," "rugged." (1) A city named in Hos 6:8; 12:11, possibly to be identified with Gilead near to Mizpah (Jdg 10:17). If this is correct, the ancient city may be represented by the modern Jil`ad, a ruin about 5 miles North of es-Salt. (2) A mountain named in Jdg 7:3. Gideon, ordered to reduce the number of men who were with him, commanded all who were "fearful and trembling" to "return and depart from Mt. Gilead." the Revised Version, margin reads "return and go round about from Mt. Gilead." Gideon and his army lay to the South of the plain of Jezreel on the lower slopes of Gilboa. It has been suggested (Studer, Comm., at the place) that, as the Midianites lay between the men of the northern tribes and their homes, they were told to cross the Jordan, make a detour through Gilead, and thus avoid the enemy. Possibly, however, we should read Gilboa for Gilead; or part of the mountain may have borne the name of Gilead. The last suggestion is favored by the presence of a strong spring under the northern declivity of Gilboa, nearly 2 miles from Zer`in, possibly to be identified with the Well of Harod. In the modern name, `Ain Jalud, there may be an echo of the ancient Gilead. (3) The name is applied generally to the mountain mass lying between the Yarmuk on the North, and Wady Chesban on the South; the Jordan being the boundary on the West, while on the East it marched with the desert. 1. The Land of Gilead: Mount Gilead--literally, "Mount of the Gilead"--may refer to some particular height which we have now no means of identifying (Gen 31:23). The name Jebel Jil`ad is still, indeed, applied to a mountain South of Nahr ez-Zerqa and North of es-Salt; but this does not meet the necessities of the passage as it stands. The same expression in Dt 3:12 obviously stands for the whole country. This is probably true also in Song 4:1. The name Gilead is sometimes used to denote the whole country East of the Jordan (Gen 37:25; Josh 22:9; 2 Sam 2:9, etc.). Again, along with Bashan, it indicates the land East of Jordan, as distinguished from the Moab plateau (Dt 3:10; Josh 13:11; 2 Ki 10:33). 2.Bashan: In the North Gilead bordered upon Geshur and Maacah (Josh 13:11,13); and here the natural boundary would be formed by the deep gorge of the Yarmuk and Wady esh-Shellaleh. In pre- Israelite times the Jabbok (Nahr ez-Zerqa), which cuts the country in two, divided the kingdom of Sihon from that of Og (Dt 3:16; Josh 12:2). The frontiers between the tribes of Reuben, Gad and Manasseh cannot be indicated with any certainty. Probably they varied at different times (compare Josh 13:24 ff; 1 Ch 5:8,9,11,16). It greatly increases the difficulty that so many of the cities named are still unidentified. But in any case it is clear that the bulk of Gilead fell to Gad, so that Gilead might stand for Gad (Jdg 5:17). HAVVOTH-JAIR (which see), "the villages of Jair," lay in Gilead (Jdg 10:4). The modern division of the country follows the natural features. From the Yarmuk to Nahr ez- Zerqa is the district of `Ajlun; and from the Zerqa to the Arnon is el-Belqa. 3. Geology: The geological formation is the same as that of Western Israel, but the underlying sandstone, which does not appear West of the Jordan, forms the base slopes of the chain of Moab and Gilead, and is traceable as far as the Jabbok. It is covered in part by the more recent white marls which form the curious peaks of the foothills immediately above the Jordan valley; but reaches above them to an elevation...

    Gilead Scripture - Deuteronomy 3:10 All the cities of the plain, and all Gilead, and all Bashan, unto Salchah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan.

    Gilead Scripture - Ezekiel 47:18 And the east side ye shall measure from Hauran, and from Damascus, and from Gilead, and from the land of Israel [by] Jordan, from the border unto the east sea. And [this is] the east side.

    Gilead Scripture - Genesis 31:25 Then Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mount: and Laban with his brethren pitched in the mount of Gilead.

    Gilead Scripture - Joshua 13:31 And half Gilead, and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan, [were pertaining] unto the children of Machir the son of Manasseh, [even] to the one half of the children of Machir by their families.

    Gilead Scripture - Joshua 22:32 And Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, and the princes, returned from the children of Reuben, and from the children of Gad, out of the land of Gilead, unto the land of Canaan, to the children of Israel, and brought them word again.

    Gilead Scripture - Joshua 22:9 And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh returned, and departed from the children of Israel out of Shiloh, which [is] in the land of Canaan, to go unto the country of Gilead, to the land of their possession, whereof they were possessed, according to the word of the LORD by the hand of Moses.

    Gilead Scripture - Numbers 32:1 Now the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a very great multitude of cattle: and when they saw the land of Jazer, and the land of Gilead, that, behold, the place [was] a place for cattle;

    Gilead Scripture - Numbers 36:1 And the chief fathers of the families of the children of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of the sons of Joseph, came near, and spake before Moses, and before the princes, the chief fathers of the children of Israel:

    Gilead Scripture - Obediah 1:19 And [they of] the south shall possess the mount of Esau; and [they of] the plain the Philistines: and they shall possess the fields of Ephraim, and the fields of Samaria: and Benjamin [shall possess] Gilead.

    Gilead Scripture - Song of Solomon 4:1 Behold, thou [art] fair, my love; behold, thou [art] fair; thou [hast] doves' eyes within thy locks: thy hair [is] as a flock of goats, that appear from mount Gilead.