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    September 26    Scripture

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    Archaeology and History Attest to the Bible`s Reliability By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

    Archaeology and the Bible Biblical archaeology as an academic discipline, does not differ from any other type of archaeology, except that it narrows the focus to the remains of the people who lived in the land of the Bible during the period it covers. [Century One Foundation Bookstore]

    Ark of the Covenant - Pharaoh Pillages the Temple "Who is the Pharoah that Pillaged the Temple of Jerusalem and did he really steal the Ark of the Covenant?" By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

    Atlas of the Hebrew World From Richard Hooker's World Cultures, a map of the major regions and cities of ancient Israel.

    Caesarea cache of 11 gold ornaments Gold ornaments found under a floor in Caesarea, Israel, reflect the city's wealth during the Late Roman era. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

    Caesarea Harbor Construction Caesarea is located today half way between Tel Aviv and Haifa on Israel's Mediterranean coast. It was here that Herod the Great built the city of Caesarea Maritima with Sebastos, its huge harbour complex. Although Herod chose the then ruinous town of Straton's Tower as the nucleus for his new city and port, it had no natural features that made it suited to the formation of a large harbour, a fact vividly recorded by Flavius Josephus (Jewish War, 1930: 410-414; Jewish Antiquities 1930: 331-342)(Josephus' Description ). He noted the absence of any suitable anchorage along the coastline of the region from Dor to Jaffa, and how even in mild weather conditions the sea was always rough. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

    Caesarea Research Projects In 21 BC, King Herod the Great, ruler of the Jewish state of Judea, commissioned and built an all-weather harbor at Caesarea. He hoped to ingratiate himself to the new ruler of Rome, Caesar Augustus, and at the same time to satisfy some of his economic needs. The construction of the harbor was difficult due to natural constraints presented by the Israeli coastline ( Israeli Coastline ). The coast is straight, with no natural topography that could be expanded upon to build a harbor. However, Herod's engineers succeeded in building an all-weather harbor by using hydraulic concrete, a new Roman building material, to construct breakwaters extending out into the sea. ( A View of Herod's Harbor ). Construction of the harbor took twelve years. Herod named the completed city Caesarea and the harbor Sebastos (Greek for Augustus) (Details on Harbor Construction ). Archaeological evidence suggests that the city of Caesarea had a bustling harbor at least up to the mid to late first century. However, findings suggest the outer harbor had some problems towards the end of the 1st century AD which affected harbor use. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence to indicate whether these problems were due to natural or human-induced causes. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

    Destruction of Herod's Temple and Intermediate occupation The Temple Platform at Caesarea Maritima: Destruction of Herod's Temple and Intermediate Occupation Construction of the Temple to Roma and Augustus on the highest point of the city facing the harbor was meant to symbolize the connection between Herod and his patron, Augustus. [Articles] [Archaeology]

    Herod the Great's Enormous Temple Base Found Foundation stones of Herod the Great's enormous temple in Caesarea, Israel, built 2,000 years ago as a display of his loyalty to Augustus, were recently uncovered by archaeologists from the University of Maryland and Israel's Haifa University. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

    History of Palestine From ArabNET.

    Internet Archaeology "Internet Archaeology is the world's first fully refereed electronic journal for archaeology. We aim to become one of the world's archaeological journals of record and we have set ourselves the task of publishing papers of high academic standing which also try to utilise the potential of electronic publication. We wish to present the results of archaeologicalresearch in a readable manner and yet make it possible for readers to explore the data upon which conclusions are based." [Archaeology Resources]

    Israel Museum of Jerusalem A display of artifacts and brief summaries of several sites in Israel.

    Josephus' description of Sebastos The historian Flavius Josephus, who was born around 7 or 8 CE, published a history of the Jewish War between 75 and 79 CE and a history of the Jewish people in 93-94 CE. Both these works contain a detailed description of the city of Caesarea and its harbour, Sebastos. Despite certain inevitable inaccuracies, the data contained in these descriptions has been of great value in assisting the reconstruction of the layout and appearance of the harbour in the Flavian period. [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

    King Herod's Temple of Roma and Augustus at Caesarea Maritim This deluxe volume contains 40 papers from an international symposium - held on January 3-11, 1995 - on Caesarea Maritima, a celebrated Jewish, Roman, and Early Christian city. Climaxing a major excavation campaign in 1992-95 [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

    Roman Archaeology Field Reports By Patrick Conway. [Archaeology Resources]

    The Dung File "The Dung File consists of a list of references dealing with pollen, parasites, and plant remains in coprolites and latrine fills from archaeological and paleoenvironmental sites. Compiled and copyrighted by Alwynne B. Beaudoin. [Archaeology Resources]

    The Iron Age II in Palestine An article by Larry Hess in Biblical Archaelogist, covering archaeology and ethnoarchaeology from all over the southern Levant.

    Underwater Archaeology Introduction to Marine Archaeology in Israel. Classification of Underwater Archaeological Sites Submerged prehistoric settlements 1. Settlement: structures, installations, burials, tools. 2. Seasonal settlement: installations, tools. 3. Concentration of ancient remnants. Coastal settlements 1. Coastal town: structures and installations on the coastline and in the sea. 2. Coastal settlement: village, fortress, structures, installations. 3. Concentration of ancient remnants. Shipwrecks 1. Remains of wooden hull and cargo. 2. Concentration of cargo and remnants of vessel lacking wooden sections of the hull. 3. Concentration of ballast stones. 4. Single find that originated from a ship. Ports and Anchorages 1. Built-up port: docks, quays and breakwaters. 2. Anchorage: natural formation improved by man. 3. Natural anchorage: temporary shelter ships in a bay or a natural feature. 4. Anchorage in open sea: concentration of anchors off shore. Rock-cut installations on the coastline 1. Quarries. 2. Pools. 3. Slipways 4. Channels. 5. Installations for producing salt. 6. Rock-cut bollards and mooring facilities [Articles of Interest] [Caesarea] [Archaeology]

    Who was the Pharoah Akhenaten The Heretic King (1372-1354 BC) By Richard M. Fales, Ph.D. [from the Biblical and American Archaeologist]

    Yarmukian Culture in Israel One of several Pottery Neolithic groups which flourished in the Southern Levant in the 6th millennium B.C. Published in Paleorient 19/1 (1993), pp.115-134 by Yosef Garfinkel of the Hebrew University.