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    September 29    Scripture

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    Ancient Camels Domestic Animals THE CAMEL VARIETY OF CAMELS IN BIBLE LANDS. The Arabian or dromedary camel, which has one hump on its back, is the one in use in Syria and Israel to-day, and is the kind found among the desert Arabs of the East. The Bactrian camel, that has two humps, comes from another region altogether, and is rarely seen in Bible lands. It was the Arabian camel that was used in Bible times. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Ancient Cattle CATTLE The domestic cattle of Israel have been much like those raised in the West, only there have not been as many kinds of breed. In the time of Israel's prosperity, cattle were much more numerous than they have been among the Arabs today, and were probably better developed animals. The ancient Jews used the cattle for sacrifices, and for this purpose they had to be without flaws. The Arabs do not use cattle for meat very much, but rather use sheep and goat meat. Various words are used in our English Bible to indicate cattle. The word "ox" is often used, and it is sometimes indicated that this animal was especially fatted for table use. "Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled ox and hatred therewith" (Proverbs 15:17). The words "bull" or "bullock" are used in Scripture to designate the male cattle. The bullock was one of animals that could be offered under the law of Moses as a burnt offering (Leviticus 1:5). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Animals in Easton's Bible Dictionary an organized living creature endowed with sensation. The Levitical law divided animals into clean and unclean, although the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood (Gen. 7:2). The clean could be offered in sacrifice and eaten. All animals that had not cloven hoofs and did not chew the cud were unclean. The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth in the Levitical law (Deut. 14:3-20; Lev. 11).

    Animals in Naves Topical Bible Creations of Ge 1:24; 2:19; Jer 27:5 -Food of Ge 1:30 -Named Ge 2:20 -Ordained as food for man Ge 9:2,3; Le 11:3,9,21,22; De 14:4-6,9,11,20 -God's care of Ge 9:9,10; De 25:4; Job 38:41; Ps 36:6; 104:11,21; 147:9; Jon 4:11; Mt 6:26; 10:29; Lu 12:6,24; 1Co 9:9 -Under the curse Ge 3:14; 6:7,17 -Suffer under divine judgments, sent upon man Jer 7:20; 12:4; 21:6; Eze 14:13,17,19-21; Joe 1:18- 20 -Two of every sort preserved in the ark Ge 6:19,20; 7:2,3,5,9,11; 8:19 -Suffered the plagues of Egypt Ex 8:17; 9:9,10,19; 11:5 -Perish at death Ec 3:21; 12:7 -Possessed of devils Mt 8:31,32; Mr 5:13; Lu 8:33 -Clean and unclean Ge 8:20; Le 7:21; 11; 20:25; De 14:3-20; Ac 10:11- 15; 1Ti 4:3-5 -Offered in sacrifice Ge 4:4; 7:2-8; 8:20 -See OFFERINGS -God's control of Ps 91:13; Isa 11:6,8; 35:9; Lu 10:19 -Instruments of God's will Ex 8; 9; 10:1-20; Nu 21:6; 22:28; Jos 24:12; Jer 8:17; Joe 1:4 -Belong to God Ps 50:10-12 -Sent in judgment Le 26:22; Nu 21:6,7; De 8:15; 28:26; Eze 5:17; 14:15; 32:4; Re 6:8 -Paul contends with 1Co 15:32 -Nature of Job 39; Ps 32:9; 49:12; Ec 3:18-21 -Habits of Job 12:7,8; 37:8; 39; 40:20; Ps 29:9; 104:20-25; Isa 13:21,22; 34:14; Jas 3:7 -Menstruation of Jer 2:24 -Facts about breeding Ge 30:35-43; 31:8,9 -Instincts of De 32:11; Job 35:11; 39; 40; 41; Ps 59:6; 104; Pr 6:6-8; 30:25-28; Jer 8:7; Mt 24:28 -Homes of Job 24:5; 37:8; 39; Ps 104:20-25; Isa 34:14; Jer 2:24; 50:39; Mr 1:13 -See BIRDS -See CATTLE -See FISH -BEASTS SYMBOLICAL Isa 30:6; Da 7:11,17,19; 8:4; Ac 10:12; Re 4:6-9; 5:6-14; 6:1-7; 7:11; 11:7; 13; 14:3,9,11; 15:2; 16:2,10-13; 17; 19:4,19,20; 20:4,10 -CRUELTY TO INSTANCES OF Balaam Nu 22:22-33 Houghing horses 2Sa 8:4; 1Ch 18:4 See HOUGHING -KINDNESS TO: INSTANCES OF Jacob, in erecting booths for his cattle Ge 33:17 People of Gerar, in providing tents for cattle 2Ch 14:15 -LAWS CONCERNING Ex 20:10; 21:28-36; 22:1-4; 23:5,12; Le 19:19; De 5:14; 22:4,6,7,10; 25:4; Pr 12:10; 1Ti 5:18

    Animals in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE an'-i-mal: See under the various names and also the general article on ZOOLOGY.

    Animals Scripture - Genesis 1:24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.

    Animals Scripture - Genesis 2:19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought [them] unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that [was] the name thereof.

    Animals Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:4 These [are] the beasts which ye shall eat: the ox, the sheep, and the goat,

    Animals Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:5 The hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois.

    Animals Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:6 And every beast that parteth the hoof, and cleaveth the cleft into two claws, [and] cheweth the cud among the beasts, that ye shall eat.

    Animals Scripture - Ecclesiastes 3:21 Who knoweth the spirit of man that goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that goeth downward to the earth?

    Animals Scripture - Exodus 8:17 And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.

    Animals Scripture - Genesis 1:30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein [there is] life, [I have given] every green herb for meat: and it was so.

    Animals Scripture - Genesis 2:20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.

    Animals Scripture - Jeremiah 27:5 I have made the earth, the man and the beast that [are] upon the ground, by my great power and by my outstretched arm, and have given it unto whom it seemed meet unto me.

    Bull Calves Bull calves were often used in Bible times for meat. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Cows Milk-giving cows, sometimes called "milch kine," were in common use (I Samuel 6:7; Deuteronomy 32:14). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Dog's in Biblical Times DOGS There are two kinds of dogs that are referred to in the Bible. First, There is the wolf-like, short-haired creature, that stands guard over the tent or the house, and which barks fiercely at strangers that come that way. He will eat whatever garbage is tossed to him, and in the evening he is usually heard barking about the city (cf. Psalm 59:6). Sometimes he is allowed to be under the table ready to receive scraps given to him (cf. Matthew 15:27). Second, there is the shepherd dog that goes out with the shepherd to help him in rounding up the sheep. Job speaks of these animals as "the dogs of my flock" (Job 30:1). Because dogs were so often regarded as mere scavengers, the Bible does not use the word "dog" as Westerners are accustomed to think of this animal. The price of a dog was never brought to the house of the LORD (Deuteronomy 23:18). To call anybody "a dog" was to consider him as very low down indeed (Revelation 22:15). The attitude of the Orientals toward dogs needs to be kept in mind in interpreting the Scriptures that refer to them. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Donkeys and Burdens The donkey as the Oriental pack animal. He has been the beast of burden from time immemorial. The packsaddle used with this animal differed somewhat according to the load being carried. When firewood was carried, a crosstree was used as a saddle. No doubt Abraham loaded his donkey in this way with wood for the sacrifice he was to make (Genesis 22:3). When sheaves of grain were carried by the donkey, a kind of cradle was either suspended to the crosstree or to the flat saddle. This saddle had as its under layer thick felt, and as its upper layer haircloth, with a padding of straw or sedges between. When sacks of grain or cut straw are carried, they are thrown over this saddle and tied with a rope going under the beast's breast. The sons of Jacob probably packed their donkeys in this way (Genesis 42:26,27). Large baskets are used for carrying bread and other provisions. If fruit is being taken, two boxes are slung in a similar way. Jesse and Abigail doubtless packed their donkeys in such a way when they sent their presents (I Samuel 16:20; I Samuel 25:18). Children are often carried in larger boxes on the donkeys. Sacks of grain are sometimes slung across the bare back of the donkey. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Horses in Bible Times HORSES Bible time horse same as Arab horse today. Assyrian and Egyptian sculpture would indicate that the horse of Bible times was the same as the Arabs use today. In those days the horse was used mainly for war purposes, although Isaiah, in connection with threshing, speaks of the use of horses (Isaiah 28:28), thus indicating that to a limited degree at least, horses were used in agriculture. But today the Arabs make much use of horses for riding. The horse is looked upon as part of the Arab's family. Although it is heavily bitted, the reins are rarely used, It is controlled by the rider's voice. When the camp or oasis is reached, the horses are unsaddled or unharnessed and allowed to roam free. They will graze around the place and always come when called. Hoofs of the Arab horses are never shod, this practice being made useless by the hot climate. In ancient days the same thing was true. In Scripture the quality of a horse was judged partially by the hardness of its hoofs. Isaiah said: "Their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint" (Isaiah 5:28). Micah wrote: "I will make thy hoofs brass" (Micah 4:13). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Mules in Bible Times Mules used by the Arabs of Bible lands. They scarcely ever breed the mule themselves, but instead import them from either the Lebanon district of Syria, or from Cyprus. The Arabs very seldom use the mule for the purposes of agriculture, but rather use it for riding or for carrying of burdens particularly in rocky country.27 Mules used in later Old Testament times. The mule is not mentioned in the Bible until the reign of King David.28 The law of Moses prohibited the rearing of any animals which were the result of the union of different species (Leviticus 19:19). So the Jews never bred mules, but evidently they thought the law did not prohibit them from using them. From the days of King David, they came to be used as beasts of burden, and for the saddle, and were imported from other countries, especially Egypt. Included in the tribute which King Solomon received from other nations was a quantity of "mules, a rate year by year" (I Kings 10:24, 25; II Chronicles 9:24). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Oxen But the chief use of oxen was by the farmer in his various activities. The Jews used the oxen where the modern farmer has used the horse. Oxen were put under the yoke and made to pull the plow. Cows as well as bulls were utilized, the latter having been castrated. "Elisha was plowing with twelve yoke of oxen" (I Kings 19:19). Oxen were used in threshing grain. "Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn [grain]" (Deuteronomy 25:4). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Wild Animals Hide-outs for wild animals. Israel and Syria have their hide-outs for wild animals and fowl. Wild beasts have lived in the wild parts of the Lebanon Mountains to the north of the Holy Land through the years, but this was more the source of these animals for Syria rather than for the main part of Israel itself. The marshes immediately north of Lake Merom have through the centuries been the haunt of many waterfowl, and the reeds thereby have provided lairs for various animals, especially the wild buffalo. When Herod the Great was a young man he used to come here to hunt game.22 Today, the Jews are busy draining much of this swampland that it may be used for agricultural purposes. The principal hide-out for wild animals that bother the citizens of Israel, and especially Judea and Samaria, is the Zor of the Jordan Valley. The Jordan Valley between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea is called by the Arabs, The Ghor, i.e., the Rift. Within the Ghor is a narrow and deep valley called The Zor, in the center of which the river flows. For much of this distance the Zor is a jungle of tropical plants, shrubs, and trees. It is thus a hideout for all kinds of wild animals. During the part of the year when the river overflows, the wild beasts are driven from their haunts, but return there when the river recedes.23 Most of the wild animals that have raided the habitable parts of Israel through its history have come from these haunts in Jordan Valley. Thus Jeremiah says: "Behold, he shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan against the habitation of the strong" (Jeremiah 49:19). The scene of the temptation of JESUS was doubtless the Wilderness of Judea. Mark says of Jesus: "And he . . . was with the wild beasts" (Mark 1:13). Quite probably most of these animals had come up from the Zor which was near at hand. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Wild Bulls While doing this they take on some of the characteristics of a wild animal. The Bible refers to some of these habits. The Psalmist cried: "Many bulls have compassed me, strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion" (Psalm 22:12). The prophet Joel referred to the custom of turning herds loose to search for their own pastures: "How do the beasts groan! the herds of cattle are perplexed, because they have no pasture" (Joel 1:18). Under the dire conditions described by the prophet, the cattle could find no pasturage. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]