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    September 26    Scripture



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    Biblical Description of a Vineyard Care of Vineyards THE DESCRIPTION OF A VINEYARD BY ISAIAH AND BY JESUS IN ISAIAH'S PARABLE of the Vineyard, and in CHRIST's Parable of the Wicked Husbandman, taken together, we get an accurate picture of an Oriental vineyard. Isaiah wrote: "My well beloved had a vineyard in a very fruitful hill: and he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein" (Isaiah 5:1, 2). JESUS spoke thus: "There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen" (Matthew 21:33). These two accounts list eight interesting facts that are true of many vineyards in Bible lands. They are often located on a hillside, they usually have a hedge or fence around them, the soil is cultivated by hoeing or spading, large stones are gathered out of the ground, choice vines are planted, a watch-tower is built, a winepress is constructed, and sometimes vineyards are rented. These points suggest the main features that need to be noticed in a study of the Oriental vineyard. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    God's Winepress of Judgment The winepress as a figure of divine judgment. Isaiah describes the nations as being put in GOD's winepress where He treads upon them until His garments are sprinkled with their lifeblood (Isaiah 63:3-6). There is a graphic picture of the destruction of the army of Antichrist in the Book of Revelation. The coming Redeemer is described as being "clothed with a vesture dipped in blood," and He is said to tread "the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God" (Revelation 19:13,15). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    God's Winepress of Judgment The winepress as a figure of divine judgment. Isaiah describes the nations as being put in GOD's winepress where He treads upon them until His garments are sprinkled with their lifeblood (Isaiah 63:3-6). There is a graphic picture of the destruction of the army of Antichrist in the Book of Revelation. The coming Redeemer is described as being "clothed with a vesture dipped in blood," and He is said to tread "the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God" (Revelation 19:13,15). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Vineyards on Hills Hillsides often used. Although vineyards are to be found in various locations in Israel, it has been customary during past years for the hillsides to be utilized for the purpose, or the ground at the foot of a hill that slopes gently. Grapevines like a sandy or loose soil. They need plenty of sunshine and air by day, and dew by night, and their roots will penetrate deep crevices of rock to get nourishment. It was "in a very fruitful hill" that Isaiah's vineyard grew (Isaiah 5:1). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Wine in Easton's Bible Dictionary The common Hebrew word for wine is _yayin_, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is _oinos_, and the Latin _vinun_. But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus rendered. (1.) Ashishah (2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hos. 3:1), which, however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes, or, as in the Revised Version, a cake of raisins. (2.) 'Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the same year (Cant. 8:2; Isa. 49:26; Joel 1:5; 3:18; Amos 9:13), from a root meaning "to tread," hence juice trodden out or pressed out, thus referring to the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of intoxication is ascribed to it. (3.) Hometz. See VINEGAR -T0003771. (4.) Hemer, Deut. 32:14 (rendered "blood of the grape") Isa. 27:2 ("red wine"), Ezra 6:9; 7:22; Dan. 5:1, 2, 4. This word conveys the idea of "foaming," as in the process of fermentation, or when poured out. It is derived from the root _hamar_, meaning "to boil up," and also "to be red," from the idea of boiling or becoming inflamed. (5.) 'Enabh, a grape (Deut. 32:14). The last clause of this verse should be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the blood of the grape ['enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hos. 3:1 the phrase in Authorized Version, "flagons of wine," is in the Revised Version correctly "cakes of raisins." (Comp. Gen. 49:11; Num. 6:3; Deut. 23:24, etc., where this Hebrew word is rendered in the plural "grapes.") (6.) Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices that increase its stimulating properties (Isa. 5:22). Ps. 75:8, "The wine [yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Prov. 23:30, "mixed wine;" Isa. 65:11, "drink offering" (R.V., "mingled wine"). (7.) Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" (Deut. 28:51); "new wine" (Prov. 3:10); "sweet wine" (Micah 6:15; R.V., "vintage"). This Hebrew word has been traced to a root meaning "to take possession of" and hence it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in intoxicating it takes possession of the brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau (Gen. 27:28) mention is made of "plenty of corn and tirosh." Israel is called "a land of corn and tirosh" (Deut. 33:28; comp. Isa. 36:17). See also Deut. 28:51; 2 Chr. 32:28; Joel 2:19; Hos. 4:11, ("wine [yayin] and new wine [tirosh] take away the heart"). (8.) Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess," "to suck up," "absorb"), found only in Isa. 1:22, Hos. 4:18 ("their drink;" Gesen. and marg. of R.V., "their carouse"), and Nah. 1:10 ("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked according to their drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink", i.e., according to their sobhe). (9.) Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a root meaning "to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Num. 28:7, "strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink"). It is sometimes distinguished from wine, c.g., Lev. 10:9, "Do not drink wine [yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4, 7; Isa. 28:7 (in all these places rendered "strong drink"). Translated "strong drink" also in Isa. 5:11; 24:9; 29:9; 56:12; Prov. 20:1; 31:6; Micah 2:11. (10.) Yekebh (Deut. 16:13, but in R.V. correctly "wine-press"), a vat into which the new wine flowed from the press. Joel 2:24, "their vats;" 3:13, "the fats;" Prov. 3:10, "Thy presses shall burst out with new wine [tirosh];" Hag. 2:16; Jer. 48:33, "wine-presses;" 2 Kings 6:27; Job. 24:11. (11.) Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In Isa. 25:6 it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine that has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine. (12.) Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength, or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken (Ps. 75:8; Prov. 23:30). In Acts 2:13 the word _gleukos_, rendered "new wine," denotes properly "sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating. In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they called _debash_, which was obtained by boiling down must to one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In Gen. 43:11 this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash), Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5; 33:3; Lev. 20:24; Num. 13: 27. (See HONEY -T0001809.) Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine (Jer. 35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period of their vow (Num. 6:1-4); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were perpetually to abstain from it (Judg. 13:4, 5; Luke 1:15; 7:33). The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong drink when engaged in their sacred functions (Lev. 10:1, 9-11). "Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the Bible. A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice (Ex. 29:40, 41), and also with the offering of the first-fruits (Lev. 23:13), and with various other sacrifices (Num. 15:5, 7, 10). Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood. Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine (Luke 21:34; Rom. 13:13; Eph. 5:18; 1 Tim. 3:8; Titus 1:7).

    Wine in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Tirosh is the most general term for "vintage fruit," put in connection with "corn and oil," necessaries (dagan, yitshar, rather more generally the produce of the field and the orchard) and ordinary articles of diet in Israel. It occurs 38 times, namely, six times by itself, eleven times with dagan, twice with yitshar, nineteen times with both dagan and yitshar. Besides, it is seven times with "firstfruits," ten times with "tithes" or "offerings" of fruits and grain; very rarely with terms expressing the process of preparing fruits or vegetable produce. Yayin is the proper term for "wine." In Micah 6:15, "thou shalt tread ... sweet wine (tirowsh, vintage fruit), but shalt not drink wine," the vintage fruit, that which is trodden, is distinguished from the manufactured "wine" which it yields. Tirowh is never combined with shemen "oil"; nor yitshar, "orchard produce," with "wine" the manufactured article. In Deuteronomy 11:14, "gather in thy grain, wine" (tirosh), it is described as a solid thing, eaten in Deuteronomy 12:7; compare 2 Chronicles 31:5-6. In Isaiah 65:8 "the tirowsh (vintage) is found in the cluster"; Isaiah 62:8-9, "the stranger shall not drink thy tirowsh, but they that have gathered it ... and brought it together (verbs hardly applicable to a liquid) shall drink it." Proverbs 3:10, "presses ... burst out with tirowsh"; and Joel 2:24, "fats shall overflow with tirowsh (vintage fruit) and yitshar." Deuteronomy 14:22-26, "tithe of tirowsh," not merely of wine but of the vintage fruit. Scripture denounces the abuse of yayin, "wine." Hosea 4:11, "whoredom, wine, and tirowsh take away the heart": the tirowsh is denounced not as evil in itself, but as associated with whoredom to which wine and grape cakes were stimulants; compare Hosea 3:1, "love pressed cakes of dried grapes" (not "flagons of wine"): Ezekiel 16:49. Yayin, from a root "boil up," is the extract from the grape, whether simple grape juice unfermented, or intoxicating wine; related to the Greek oinos, Latin vinum. Vinum, vitis, are thought related to Sanskrit we, "weave," viere. Chamar is the Chaldee equivalent to Hebrew yayin, the generic term for grape liquor. It literally, means "to foam" (Deuteronomy 32:14, "the blood of the grape, even wine," not "pure"): Ezra 6:9; Ezra 7:22; Daniel 5:1; Isaiah 27:2. 'asis, from a root to "tread," the grape juice newly expressed (Song of Solomon 8:2); "sweet wine" (Isaiah 49:26; Amos 9:13); "new wine" (Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18). Mesek; Psalm 75:8, translated"the wine is fermenting ('foaming with wine,' Hengstenberg), it is full ...

    Wine in Naves Topical Bible Made from grapes Ge 40:11; 49:11; Isa 25:6; Jer 40:1,12 -From pomegranates So 8:2 -Kept in jars Jer 13:12; 48:12 -In skins (R. V.) Jos 9:4,13; Job 32:19; Mt 9:17; Lu 5:37,38 -In bottles Jos 9:4,13; Job 32:19; Jer 13:12; 48:12; Mt 9:17; Lu 5:37,38 -Cellars for 1Ch 27:27 -New Hag 1:11 -Old Lu 5:39 -Medicinal use of Pr 31:6,7 -Recommended by Paul to Timothy 1Ti 5:23 -Used at meals Mt 26:27-29; Mr 14:23 -Made by Jesus at the marriage feast in Cana Joh 2:9,10 -Sacramental use of Mt 26:27-29; Lu 22:17-20 -Forbidden to priests while on duty Le 10:9; Eze 44:21 -Forbidden to Nazarites Nu 6:2,3 -See NAZARITE -Abstinence from Of Daniel Da 1:5,8,16; 10:3 Of the courtiers of Ahasuerus Es 1:8 Of Timothy 1Ti 5:23 -Samson's mother forbidden to drink Jud 13:4,5 -Forbidden to kings Pr 31:4 -Denied to the Israelites in the wilderness, so that they could know that the Lord was their God De 29:6 -Offered with sacrifices Ex 29:40; Le 23:13; Nu 15:5,10; 28:7,14 -Given by Melchizedek to Abraham Ge 14:18 -Fermented Le 10:9; Nu 6:3; 28:7; De 14:26; 29:6; Pr 23:31,32; Mr 2:22 -Refined Isa 25:6; Jer 48:11 -Of staggering (R. V.) Ps 60:3 -Inflames the eyes Ge 49:12 -Commerce in Re 18:13 -Banquets of Es 5:6 -Cheap wine (like vinegar) given to Jesus at the crucifixion Mt 27:48; Mr 15:23; Lu 23:36; Joh 19:29 -Intoxication from the use of Ps 104:15; Pr 4:17 -INSTANCES OF INTOXICATION FROM Noah Ge 9:21 Lot Ge 19:32 Joseph and his brothers Ge 43:34 Nabal 1Sa 25:36 Amnon 2Sa 13:28,29 Ahasuerus Es 1:10 Kings of Israel Ho 7:5 Falsely charged against the disciples Ac 2:13 -FIGURATIVE Of the divine judgments Ps 60:3; 75:8; Jer 51:7 Of the joy of wisdom Pr 9:2,5 Of the joys of spiritual matters Isa 25:6; 55:1; Joe 2:19 Of abominations Re 14:8; 16:19 -SYMBOLICAL Of the blood of Jesus Mt 26:28; Mr 14:23,24; Lu 22:20; Joh 6:53-56 -UNCLASSIFIED SCRIPTURES RELATING TO De 14:26; 33:28; 2Ki 18:32; 2Ch 32:28; Ne 10:39; Ps 4:7; 104:14,15; Pr 31:6,7; Ec 2:3,11; Isa 56:12; Ho 2:8,22; 7:14; Joe 1:5; 2:24; 3:3; Am 6:6; Hab 2:5; Hag 1:11; Zec 9:17; 10:7; 1Ti 5:23 See VINE See VINEYARD -ADMONITIONS AGAINST THE USE OF Le 10:9; Nu 6:3; Jud 13:4; Pr 20:1; 21:17; 23:29-32; 31:4,5; Isa 5:11,22; 24:9; 28:1,3,7; Jer 23:9; 35:2-10,14,18,19; Eze 44:21; Ho 4:11; Lu 1:15; Ro 14:21; Eph 5:18; Tit 2:3

    Wine in Smiths Bible Dictionary The manufacture of wine is carried back in the Bible to the age of Noah, Ge 9:20,21 to whom the discovery of the process is apparently, though not explicitly, attributed. The natural history and culture of the vine are described under a separate head. [VINE] The only other plant whose fruit is noticed as having been converted into wine was the pomegranate. So 8:2 In Israel the vintage takes place in September, and is celebrated with great rejoicing. The ripe fruit was gathered in baskets, Jer 6:9 as represented in Egyptian paintings, and was carried to the wine-press. It was then placed in the upper one of the two vats or receptacles of which the winepress was formed, and was subjected to the process of "treading," which has prevailed in all ages in Oriental and south European countries. Ne 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa 18:10; Jer 25:30; 48:33; Am 9:13; Re 19:15 A certain amount of juice exuded front the ripe fruit from its own pressure before treading commenced. This appears to have been kept separate from the rest of the juice, and to have formed the "sweet wine" noticed in Ac 2:13 [See below] The "treading" was effected by one or more men, according to the size of the vat. They encouraged one another by shouts. Isa 16:9,10; Jer 25:30; 48:33 Their legs and garments were dyed red with the juice. Ge 40:11; Isa 63:2,3 The expressed juice escaped by an aperture into the lower vat, or was at once collected in vessels. A hand-press was occasionally used in Egypt, but we have no notice of such an instrument in the Bible. As to the subsequent treatment of the wine we have but little information. Sometimes it was preserved in its unfermented state and drunk as must, but more generally it was bottled off after fermentation and if it were designed to be kept for some time a certain amount of lees was added to give it body. Isa 25:6 The wine consequently required to be "refined" or strained previous to being brought to table. Isa 25:6 To wine, is attributed the "darkly-flashing eye," Ge 40:12 Authorized Version "red," the unbridled tongue, Pr 20:1; Isa 28:7 the excitement of the spirit, Pr 31:6; Isa 5:11; Zec 9:15; 10:7 the enchained affections of its votaries, Ho 4:11 the perverted judgment, Pr 31:5; Isa 28:7 the indecent exposure, Hab 2:15,16 and the sickness resulting from the heat (chemah, Authorized Version "bottles") of wine. Ho 7:5 The allusions to the effects of tirosh are confined to a single passage, but this a most decisive one, viz. Ho 4:11 "Whoredom and wine (yayin) and new wine (tirosh) take away the heart," where tirosh appears as the climax of engrossing influences, in immediate connection with yayin. It has been disputed whether the Hebrew wine was fermented; but the impression produced on the mind by a general review of the above notices is that the Hebrew words indicating wine refer to fermented, intoxicating wine. The notices of fermentation are not very decisive. A certain amount of fermentation is implied in the distension of the leather bottles when new wine was placed in them, and which was liable to burst old bottles. It is very likely that new wine was preserved in the state of must by placing it in jars or bottles and then burying it in the earth. The mingling that we read of in conjunction with wine may have been designed either to increase or to diminish the strength of the wine, according as spices or water formed the ingredient that was added. The notices chiefly favor the former view; for mingled liquor was prepared for high festivals, Pr 9:2,5 and occasions of excess. Pr 23:30; Isa 5:22 At the same time strength was not the sole object sought; the wine "mingled with myrrh," given to Jesus, was designed to deaden pain, Mr 15:23 and the spiced pomegranate wine prepared by the bride, So 8:2 may well have been of a mild character. In the New Testament the character of the "sweet wine," noticed in Ac 2:13 calls for some little remark. It could not be new wine in the proper sense of the term, inasmuch as about eight months must have elapsed between the vintage and the feast of Pentecost. The explanations of the ancient lexicographers rather lead us to infer that its luscious qualities were due, not to its being recently made, but to its being produced from the very purest juice of the grape. There can be little doubt that the wines of palestine varied in quality, and were named after...

    Wine in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE win, win'-pres: I. Terms. 1. Wine: (1) (~yayin), apparently from a non-Tsere root allied to Greek oinos, Latin vinum, etc. This is the usual word for "wine" and is found 141 times in Massoretic Text. (2) chemer, perhaps "foaming" (Dt 32:14 and Massoretic Text Isa 27:2 (but see the English Revised Version margin)); Aramaic chamar (Ezr 6:9; 7:22; Dan 5:1,2,4,23). (3) tirosh. Properly this is the fresh grape juice (called also mishreh, Nu 6:3), even when still in the grape (Isa 65:8). But unfermented grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation in the warm and not over-cleanly conditions of ancient Israel was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean wine that was not fully aged (although with full intoxicating properties (Jdg 9:13; Hos 4:11; compare Acts 11:13)) or wine when considered specifically as the product of grapes (Dt 12:17; 18:4, etc.). The Septuagint always (except Isa 65:8; Hos 4:11) translates by oinos and the Targums by chamar. the King James Version has "wine" 26 times, "new wine" 11 times, "sweet wine" in Mic 6:15; the Revised Version (British and American) "vintage" in Nu 18:12; Mic 6:15 (with the same change in Neh 10:37,39 the Revised Version margin; Isa 62:8 the English Revised Version margin). Otherwise the English Revised Version has left the King James Version unchanged, while the American Standard Revised Version uses "new wine" throughout. (4) Two apparently poetic words are `acic (the Revised Version (British and American) "sweet wine," Isa 49:26; Am 9:13; Joel 1:5; 3:18, "juice"; Song 8:2), and cobhe' ("wine," Isa 1:22; "drink," Hos 4:18 (margin "carouse"); Nah 1:10). (5) For spiced wine three words occur: mecekh, Ps 75:8 (English Versions of the Bible "mixture"); mimcakh, Prov 23:30 ("mixed wine"); Isa 65:11 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); mezegh, Song 7:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); compare also yayin hareqach, Song 8:2 ("spiced wine"). (6) mamethaqqim, literally, "sweet," Neh 8:10. (7) shekhar (22 times), translated "strong drink" in English Versions of the Bible. Shekhar appears to mean "intoxicating drink" of any sort and in Nu 28:7 is certainly simply "wine" (compare also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isa 5:11,22, etc.). In certain passages (Lev 10:9; Nu 6:3; 1 Sam 1:15, etc.), however, it is distinguished from "wine," and the meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean "drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine is named in the Bible (Song 8:2), but a variety of such preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley, etc.) were known to the ancients and must have been used in Israel also. The translation "strong drink" is unfortunate, for it suggests "distilled liquor," "brandy," which is hardly in point. See DRINK, STRONG. (8) In the Apocrypha and New Testament "wine" represents oinos, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2:13, where the Greek is gleukos, "sweet," English Versions of the Bible "new wine." See also BLOOD; DRINK; FLAGON; FRUIT; HONEY. 2. Wine Press: (1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was...

    Wine Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:3 Then shalt thou go on forward from thence, and thou shalt come to the plain of Tabor, and there shall meet thee three men going up to God to Bethel, one carrying three kids, and another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a bottle of wine:

    Wine Scripture - 2 Chronicles 2:10 And, behold, I will give to thy servants, the hewers that cut timber, twenty thousand measures of beaten wheat, and twenty thousand measures of barley, and twenty thousand baths of wine, and twenty thousand baths of oil.

    Wine Scripture - Daniel 5:23 But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose hand thy breath [is], and whose [are] all thy ways, hast thou not glorified:

    Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:23 And thou shalt eat before the LORD thy God, in the place which he shall choose to place his name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herds and of thy flocks; that thou mayest learn to fear the LORD thy God always.

    Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 14:26 And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth: and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household,

    Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 28:51 And he shall eat the fruit of thy cattle, and the fruit of thy land, until thou be destroyed: which [also] shall not leave thee [either] corn, wine, or oil, [or] the increase of thy kine, or flocks of thy sheep, until he have destroyed thee.

    Wine Scripture - Deuteronomy 7:13 And he will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee: he will also bless the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep, in the land which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee.

    Wine Scripture - Ezra 7:22 Unto an hundred talents of silver, and to an hundred measures of wheat, and to an hundred baths of wine, and to an hundred baths of oil, and salt without prescribing [how much].

    Wine Scripture - Isaiah 36:17 Until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards.

    Wine Scripture - John 2:9 When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,

    Winepress The Oriental winepress. The winepress of Isaiah's parable was constructed by hewing it out of rock (Isaiah 5:2). Those seen today are composed of two depressions hewn out of solid rock. The one is higher than the other one, and is also larger. The grapes are put into this one, and then trodden by the feet of men, women, and also children, usually whole families working together. The juice flows into the lower depression. Usually each vineyard of any size has its own winepress. This work of treading the grapes was customarily accompanied by shouts and songs of happiness. Jeremiah speaks of judgment in terms of the absence of this happiness. "And joy and gladness is taken from the plentiful field, and from the land of Moab; and I have caused wine to fail from the winepresses: none shall tread with shouting; their shouting shall be no shouting" (Jeremiah 48:33). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]