Manners & Customs: Winepress
The winepress in ancient Bible times
Biblical Description of a Vineyard
Care of Vineyards
THE DESCRIPTION OF A VINEYARD BY ISAIAH AND BY JESUS IN ISAIAH'S PARABLE of the Vineyard, and in CHRIST's Parable of the Wicked Husbandman, taken together, we get an accurate picture of an Oriental vineyard. Isaiah wrote: "My well beloved had a vineyard in a very fruitful hill: and he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein" (Isaiah 5:1, 2). JESUS spoke thus: "There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen" (Matthew 21:33). These two accounts list eight interesting facts that are true of many vineyards in Bible lands. They are often located on a hillside, they usually have a hedge or fence around them, the soil is cultivated by hoeing or spading, large stones are gathered out of the ground, choice vines are planted, a watch-tower is built, a winepress is constructed, and sometimes vineyards are rented. These points suggest the main features that need to be noticed in a study of the Oriental vineyard. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]
God's Winepress of Judgment
The winepress as a figure of divine judgment. Isaiah describes the nations as being put in GOD's winepress where He treads upon them until His garments are sprinkled with their lifeblood (Isaiah 63:3-6). There is a graphic picture of the destruction of the army of Antichrist in the Book of Revelation. The coming Redeemer is described as being "clothed with a vesture dipped in blood," and He is said to tread "the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God" (Revelation 19:13,15). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]
The Oriental winepress. The winepress of Isaiah's parable was constructed by hewing it out of rock (Isaiah 5:2). Those seen today are composed of two depressions hewn out of solid rock. The one is higher than the other one, and is also larger. The grapes are put into this one, and then trodden by the feet of men, women, and also children, usually whole families working together. The juice flows into the lower depression. Usually each vineyard of any size has its own winepress.
This work of treading the grapes was customarily accompanied by shouts and songs of happiness. Jeremiah speaks of judgment in terms of the absence of this happiness. "And joy and gladness is taken from the plentiful field, and from the land of Moab; and I have caused wine to fail from the winepresses: none shall tread with shouting; their shouting shall be no shouting" (Jeremiah 48:33).
[Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]
Winepress in Easton's Bible Dictionary
Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb.
Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and
where they were
trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15;
Joel 3:13); and
(2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion)
into which the
juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh.
24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-
found in almost every part of Israel. They are "the
relics we have of the old days of Israel before the
Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all
slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no
in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous
Galilee." The "treading of the wine-press" is
divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev. 14:19,
Winepress in Naves Topical Bible
General scriptures concerning
Nu 18:27,30; De 15:14; Jud 6:11
Isa 5:2; Mt 21:33; Mr 12:1
-Trodden with joy and shouting
Treading the, of the sufferings of Christ
Of the judgments of God
La 1:15; Re 14:19,20
Winepress in Smiths Bible Dictionary
From the scanty notices contained in the Bible we gather
that, the wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two
receptacles of vats placed at different elevations, in the
upper one of which the grapes were trodden, while the lower
one received the expressed juice. The two vats are mentioned
together only in Joe 3:13 "The press is full: the fats
overflow" --the upper vat being full of fruit, the lower one
overflowing with the must. [WINE] The two vats were usually
hewn out of the solid rock.
Isa 5:2 margin; Mt 21:33 Ancient winepresses, so
constructed, are still to he seen in Israel.
Winepress in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
(1) (~yayin), apparently from a non-Tsere root allied to
Greek oinos, Latin vinum, etc. This is the usual word for
"wine" and is found 141 times in Massoretic Text. (2)
chemer, perhaps "foaming" (Dt 32:14 and Massoretic Text Isa
27:2 (but see the English Revised Version margin)); Aramaic
chamar (Ezr 6:9; 7:22; Dan 5:1,2,4,23). (3) tirosh. Properly
this is the fresh grape juice (called also mishreh, Nu 6:3),
even when still in the grape (Isa 65:8). But unfermented
grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the
aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation
in the warm and not over-cleanly conditions of ancient
Israel was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean
wine that was not fully aged (although with full
intoxicating properties (Jdg 9:13; Hos 4:11; compare Acts
11:13)) or wine when considered specifically as the product
of grapes (Dt 12:17; 18:4, etc.). The Septuagint always
(except Isa 65:8; Hos 4:11) translates by oinos and the
Targums by chamar. the King James Version has "wine" 26
times, "new wine" 11 times, "sweet wine" in Mic 6:15; the
Revised Version (British and American) "vintage" in Nu
18:12; Mic 6:15 (with the same change in Neh 10:37,39 the
Revised Version margin; Isa 62:8 the English Revised Version
margin). Otherwise the English Revised Version has left the
King James Version unchanged, while the American Standard
Revised Version uses "new wine" throughout. (4) Two
apparently poetic words are `acic (the Revised Version
(British and American) "sweet wine," Isa 49:26; Am 9:13;
Joel 1:5; 3:18, "juice"; Song 8:2), and cobhe' ("wine," Isa
1:22; "drink," Hos 4:18 (margin "carouse"); Nah 1:10). (5)
For spiced wine three words occur: mecekh, Ps 75:8 (English
Versions of the Bible "mixture"); mimcakh, Prov 23:30
("mixed wine"); Isa 65:11 (the Revised Version (British and
American) "mingled wine"); mezegh, Song 7:2 (the Revised
Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); compare also
yayin hareqach, Song 8:2 ("spiced wine"). (6) mamethaqqim,
literally, "sweet," Neh 8:10.
(7) shekhar (22 times), translated "strong drink" in English
Versions of the Bible. Shekhar appears to mean "intoxicating
drink" of any sort and in Nu 28:7 is certainly simply "wine"
(compare also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isa
5:11,22, etc.). In certain passages (Lev 10:9; Nu 6:3; 1 Sam
1:15, etc.), however, it is distinguished from "wine," and
the meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean
"drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine
is named in the Bible (Song 8:2), but a variety of such
preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley,
etc.) were known to the ancients and must have been used in
Israel also. The translation "strong drink" is unfortunate,
for it suggests "distilled liquor," "brandy," which is
hardly in point.
See DRINK, STRONG.
(8) In the Apocrypha and New Testament "wine" represents
oinos, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2:13, where
the Greek is gleukos, "sweet," English Versions of the Bible
See also BLOOD; DRINK; FLAGON; FRUIT; HONEY.
2. Wine Press:
(1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was...
Winepress Scripture - 2 Kings 6:27
And he said, If the LORD do not help thee, whence shall I help
thee? out of the barnfloor, or out of the winepress?
Winepress Scripture - Deuteronomy 15:14
Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy flock, and out of
thy floor, and out of thy winepress: [of that] wherewith the
LORD thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto him.
Winepress Scripture - Isaiah 5:2
And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and
planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the
midst of it, and also made a winepress therein: and he looked
that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild
Winepress Scripture - Isaiah 63:3
I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people [there
was] none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and
trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled
upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment.
Winepress Scripture - Judges 7:25
And they took two princes of the Midianites, Oreb and Zeeb;
and they slew Oreb upon the rock Oreb, and Zeeb they slew at
the winepress of Zeeb, and pursued Midian, and brought the
heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon on the other side Jordan.
Winepress Scripture - Lamentations 1:15
The Lord hath trodden under foot all my mighty [men] in the
midst of me: he hath called an assembly against me to crush my
young men: the Lord hath trodden the virgin, the daughter of
Judah, [as] in a winepress.
Winepress Scripture - Matthew 21:33
Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which
planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a
winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to
husbandmen, and went into a far country:
Winepress Scripture - Numbers 18:30
Therefore thou shalt say unto them, When ye have heaved the
best thereof from it, then it shall be counted unto the
Levites as the increase of the threshingfloor, and as the
increase of the winepress.
Winepress Scripture - Revelation 14:19
And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and
gathered the vine of the earth, and cast [it] into the great
winepress of the wrath of God
Winepress Scripture - Revelation 19:15
And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he
should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of
iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and
wrath of Almighty God.
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