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    September 20    Scripture

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    Preparing the Body for Burial PREPARATION OF THE BODY FOR BURIAL In Syria the custom has prevailed of wrapping the dead. Usually the face is covered with a napkin, and then the hands and feet are bound round with linen cloth. The body is then put upon a bier, with a pole at each corner, and thus carried on the shoulders of men to the tomb for burial. The description of Lazarus, when JESUS called him forth from the tomb, indicates that the same custom was practiced in those days: "And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go"(John 11:44). Also we know that the body of JESUS was thus wrapped by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus: "Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury" (John 19:40). Embalming spices were used when they could be afforded. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Spices in Easton's Bible Dictionary aromatic substances, of which several are named in Ex. 30. They were used in the sacred anointing oil (Ex. 25:6; 35:8; 1 Chr. 9:29), and in embalming the dead (2 Chr. 16:14; Luke 23:56; 24:1; John 19:39, 40). Spices were stored by Hezekiah in his treasure-house (2 Kings 20:13; Isa. 39:2).

    Spices in Fausset's Bible Dictionary basam. Not pungent, as pepper, ginger, etc., but aromatic woods, seeds, or gums (Song of Solomon 6:2; Song of Solomon 5:1). Balsam or balm of Gilead, Amyris opobalsamum; a tropical plant that grew in the plains of Jericho and the hot valleys of southern Israel. KJV translated not basam, but tseri or tsori, "balm". (See BALM.) The balm of Gilead tree is not more than 15 ft. high, with straggling branches and scanty foil age. The balsam is procured from the bark by incision, and from the green and ripe berries. The nekoth, "spicery" Genesis 37:25, is the storax or gum of the styrax tree (Speaker's Commentary). Arabic nekaat, the gum exuding from the tragacanth (astragalus); when exposed to the air it hardens into lumps or worm-like spires (Smith's Bible Dictionary). In 2 Kings 20:13 margin, "house of spicery" expresses the original design of the house; but it was used ultimutely for storing Hezekiah's other "precious things." Sammim, a general term for aromatics used in preparing the holy anointing oil. Certain Levites especially "oversaw the frankincense and spices" (1 Chronicles 9:29-30). Myrrh and aloes were among the spices wrapped with Jesus' body (John 19:39-40; compare also 2 Chronicles 16:4; Mark 16:1; Luke 23:56; Luke 24:1).

    Spices in Naves Topical Bible In the formula for the sacred oil Ex 25:6; 35:8 -Stores of 2Ki 20:13 -Used in the temple 1Ch 9:29 -Exported from Gilead Ge 37:25 -Sent as a present by Jacob to Joseph Ge 43:11 -Presented by the Queen of Sheba to Solomon 1Ki 10:2,10 -Sold in the marketplaces of Tyre Eze 27:22 -Used in the embalming of Asa 2Ch 16:14 -Prepared for embalming the corpse of Jesus Mr 16:1; Lu 23:56; 24:1; Joh 19:39,40

    Spices in Smiths Bible Dictionary 1. Heb. basam, besem or bosem. In So 5:1 "I have gathered my myrrh with my spice," the word points apparently to some definite substance. In the other places, with the exception perhaps of So 1:13; 6:2 the words refer more generally to sweet aromatic odors, the principal of which was that of the balsam or balm of Gilead; the tree which yields this substance is now generally admitted to be the Balsam- odendron opobalsamum. The balm of Gilead tree grows in some parts of Arabia and Africa, and is seldom more than fifteen feet high, with straggling branches and scanty foliage. The balsam is chiefly obtained from incisions in the bark, but is procured also from the green and ripe berries. 2. Necoth. Ge 37:25; 43:11 The most probable explanation is that which refers the word to the Arabic naku'at i.e. "the gum obtained from the tragacanth" (Astragalus). 3. Sammim, a general term to denote those aromatic substances which were used in the preparation of the anointing oil, the incense offerings, etc. The spices mentioned as being used by Nicodemus for the preparation of our Lord's body, Joh 19:39,40 are "myrrh and aloes," by which latter word must be understood not the aloes of medicine, but the highly-scented wood of the Aquilaria agallochum.

    Spices in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE spis, spi'-sis, -sez: (1) (besem (Ex 30:23), bosem, plural besamim, all from root "to attract by desire," especially by smell): The list of spices in Ex 30:23 includes myrrh, cinnamon, "sweet calamus cassia." These, mixed with olive oil, made the "holy anointing oil." Officials of the temple had charge of the spices (1 Ch 9:29). Among the treasures of the temple shown by Hezekiah to the messengers of Babylon were the spices (2 Ki 20:13). They were used in the obsequies of kings (2 Ch 16:14) and in preparation of a bride for a royal marriage (Est 2:12, "sweet-odors" = balsam). Spices are frequently mentioned in Song (4:10,14,16; 5:1, margin and the King James Version "balsam"; Song 5:13; 6:2, "bed of spices," margin "balsam"; 8:14). These passages in Song may refer in particular to balsam, the product of the balsam plant, Balsamodendron opobalsamum, a plant growing in Arabia. According to Josephus it was cultivated at Jericho, the plant having been brought to Israel by the Queen of Sheba (Ant., VIII, vi, 6; see also XIV, iv, 1; XV, iv, 2; BJ, I, vi, 6). See MYRRH. (2) cammim (Ex 30:34, "sweet spices")): "Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; sweet spices with pure frankincense." It is a general term for fragrant substances finely powdered. Compare Arabic shamm, "a smell" or "sense of smell"; generally translated "sweet incense" (Ex 25:6; 30:7; 31:11; 35:8,15,28; 39:38; 40:27 (the King James Version only); Lev 4:7; 16:12; Nu 4:16; 2 Ch 2:4 (the King James Version only); 2 Ch 13:11). In Ex 37:29; 40:27; 2 Ch 2:4, we have qsToreth cammim, "incense of sweet spices." (3) (nekho'th; thumiamata (Gen 37:25, "spicery," margin "gum tragacanth or storax"); thumiama "incense" (Gen 43:11, "spicery"; some Greek versions and the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) have "storax")): Storax is the dried gum of the beautiful Styrax officinalis (see POPLAR), which was used as incense--different article from that now passing under that name. Tragacanth is the resinous gum of several species of milk vetch (Natural Order, Leguminosae), especially of the Astragalus gummifer. Septuagint "incense" is probably the best translation. (4) (reqach, "spiced" wine (Song 8:2)). See WINE. (5) (aroma, "spices" (Mk 16:1, the King James Version "sweet spices"; Lk 23:56; 24:1; Jn 19:40; in 19:39 defined as a mixture of aloes and myrrh)). See PERFUME; BURIAL. (6) (amomon (Rev 18:13), margin "amomum"; the King James Version "odours"): The Greek means "blameless," and it was apparently applied in classical times to any sweet and fine odor. In modern botany the name Amomum is given to a genus in the Natural Order. Zingiberaceae. The well-known cardamon seeds (Amomum cardamomum) and the A. grana Paradisi which yields the well-known "grains of Paradise," used as a stimulant, both belong to this genus. What was the substance indicated in Rev 18:13 is quite uncertain.

    Spices Scripture - 1 Kings 10:25 And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and armour, and spices, horses, and mules, a rate year by year.

    Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 16:14 And they buried him in his own sepulchres, which he had made for himself in the city of David, and laid him in the bed which was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds [of spices] prepared by the apothecaries' art: and they made a very great burning for him.

    Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:1 And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon, she came to prove Solomon with hard questions at Jerusalem, with a very great company, and camels that bare spices, and gold in abundance, and precious stones: and when she was come to Solomon, she communed with him of all that was in her heart.

    Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:24 And they brought every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and raiment, harness, and spices, horses, and mules, a rate year by year.

    Spices Scripture - 2 Chronicles 9:9 And she gave the king an hundred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices great abundance, and precious stones: neither was there any such spice as the queen of Sheba gave king Solomon.

    Spices Scripture - 2 Kings 20:13 And Hezekiah hearkened unto them, and shewed them all the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious ointment, and [all] the house of his armour, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah shewed them not.

    Spices Scripture - Exodus 30:23 Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred [shekels], and of sweet cinnamon half so much, [even] two hundred and fifty [shekels], and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty [shekels],

    Spices Scripture - Isaiah 39:2 And Hezekiah was glad of them, and shewed them the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious ointment, and all the house of his armour, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah shewed them not.

    Spices Scripture - Mark 16:1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the [mother] of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.

    Spices Scripture - Song of Solomon 4:16 Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, [that] the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits.