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    Human Sacrifice in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE hu'-man: As an expression of religious devotion, human sacrifice has been widespread at certain stages of the race's development. The tribes of Western Asia were deeply affected by the practice, probably prior to the settlement of the Hebrews in Israel, and it continued at least down to the 5th century BC. At times of great calamity, anxiety and danger, parents sacrificed their children as the greatest and most costly offering which they could make to propitiate the anger of the gods and thus secure their favor and help. There is no intimation in the Bible that enemies or captives were sacrificed; only the offering of children by their parents is mentioned. The belief that this offering possessed supreme value is seen in Mic 6:6 f, where the sacrifice of the firstborn is the climax of a series of offerings which, in a rising scale of values, are suggested as a means of propitiating the angry Yahweh. A striking example of the rite as actually practiced is seen in 2 Ki 3:27, where Mesha the king of Moab (made famous by the Moabite Stone), under the stress of a terrible siege, offered his eldest son, the heir-apparent to the throne, as a burnt offering upon the wall of Kir-hareseth. As a matter of fact this horrid act seems to have had the effect of driving off the allies. Human sacrifice was ordinarily resorted to, no doubt, only in times of great distress, but it seems to have been practiced among the old Canaanitish tribes with some frequency (Dt 12:31). The Israelites are said to have borrowed it from their Canaanite neighbors (2 Ki 16:3; 2 Ch 28:3), and as a matter of fact human sacrifices were never offered to Yahweh, but only to various gods of the land. The god who was most frequently worshipped in this way was Moloch or Molech, the god of the Ammonites (2 Ki 23:10; Lev 18:21; 20:2), but from Jeremiah we learn that the Phoenician god Baal was, at least in the later period of the history, also associated with Molech in receiving this worship (Jer 19:5; 31:35). As in the case of the Canaanites, the only specific cases of human sacrifice mentioned among the Israelites are those of the royal princes, sons of Ahaz and Manasseh, the two kings of Judah who were most deeply affected by the surrounding heathen practices and who, at the same time, fell into great national distress (2 Ki 16:3; 2 Ch 28:3; 2 Ki 21:6; 2 Ch 33:6). But it is clear from many general statements that the custom was widespread among the masses of the people as well. It is forbidden in the Mosaic legislation (Lev 18:21; 20:2-5; Dt 18:10); it is said in 2 Ki 17:17 that the sacrifice of sons and daughters was one of the causes of the captivity of the ten tribes. Jeremiah charges the people of the Southern Kingdom with doing the same thing (Jer 7:31; 19:5; 31:35); with these general statements agree Isa 57:5; Ezek 16:2 f; 20:31; 23:37; Ps 106:37 f. A study of these passages makes it certain that in the period immediately before the captivity of Judah, human sacrifice was by no means confined to the royal family, but was rather common among the people. Daughters as well as sons were sacrificed. It is mentioned only once in connection with the Northern Kingdom, and then only in the summary of the causes of their captivity (2 Ki 17:17), but the Southern Kingdom in its later years was evidently deeply affected. There were various places where the bloody rite was celebrated (Jer 19:5), but the special high place, apparently built for the purpose, was in the Valley of Tophet or Hinnom (ge-hinnom, Gehenna) near Jerusalem (2 Ch 28:3; 33:6). This great high place, built for the special purpose of human sacrifice (Jer 7:31; 32:35), was defiled by the good king Josiah in the hope of eradicating the cruel practice (2 Ki 23:10). The Biblical writers without exception look upon the practice with horror as the supreme point of national and religious apostasy, and a chief cause of national disaster. They usually term the rite "passing through fire," probably being unwilling to use the sacred term "sacrifice" in reference to such a revolting custom. There is no evidence of a continuance of the practice in captivity nor after the return. It is said, however, that the heathen Sepharvites, settled by the Assyrian kings in the depopulated territory of the Northern Kingdom, "burnt their children in the fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim" (2 Ki 17:31). The practice is not heard of again, and probably rapidly died out. The restored Israelites were not affected by it. Compare SACRIFICE (Old Testament), VI, 10.

    Killing the Fatted Calf Two occasions called for the slaying of this animal. First, if a special guest was to be received and thus honored, the calf was then killed. When the witch of Endor entertained King Saul with a meal, the account says that she "had a fat calf in the house; and she hasted, and killed it" (I Samuel 28:24). The well-known New Testament example was when the prodigal's father said to his servants, "Bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry" (Luke 15:23). It was the custom to kill the animal, cook it, and then eat it, in quick succession. Abraham, Gideon, Manoah, the witch of Endor, as well as the prodigal's father, are examples of this. The Bedouin Arabs do this today when unexpected guests arrive. These Orientals would appear to be expert in the art.36 Second, the "fatted calf' was sometimes slain as a special sacrifice or offering unto the LORD. The prophet Amos mentions "the peace-offerings of your fat beasts" (Amos 5:22, Keil). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Sacrifice in Easton's Bible Dictionary The offering up of sacrifices is to be regarded as a divine institution. It did not originate with man. God himself appointed it as the mode in which acceptable worship was to be offered to him by guilty man. The language and the idea of sacrifice pervade the whole Bible. Sacrifices were offered in the ante-diluvian age. The Lord clothed Adam and Eve with the skins of animals, which in all probability had been offered in sacrifice (Gen. 3:21). Abel offered a sacrifice "of the firstlings of his flock" (4:4; Heb. 11:4). A distinction also was made between clean and unclean animals, which there is every reason to believe had reference to the offering up of sacrifices (Gen. 7:2, 8), because animals were not given to man as food till after the Flood. The same practice is continued down through the patriarchal age (Gen. 8:20; 12:7; 13:4, 18; 15:9-11; 22:1-18, etc.). In the Mosaic period of Old Testament history definite laws were prescribed by God regarding the different kinds of sacrifices that were to be offered and the manner in which the offering was to be made. The offering of stated sacrifices became indeed a prominent and distinctive feature of the whole period (Ex. 12:3-27; Lev. 23:5-8; Num. 9:2-14). (See ALTAR -T0000185.) We learn from the Epistle to the Hebrews that sacrifices had in themselves no value or efficacy. They were only the "shadow of good things to come," and pointed the worshippers forward to the coming of the great High Priest, who, in the fullness of the time, "was offered once for all to bear the sin of many." Sacrifices belonged to a temporary economy, to a system of types and emblems which served their purposes and have now passed away. The "one sacrifice for sins" hath "perfected for ever them that are sanctified." Sacrifices were of two kinds: 1. Unbloody, such as (1) first-fruits and tithes; (2) meat and drink- offerings; and (3) incense. 2. Bloody, such as (1) burnt-offerings; (2) peace-offerings; and (3) sin and trespass offerings. (See OFFERINGS -T0002770.)

    Sacrifice in Fausset's Bible Dictionary Every sacrifice was assumed to be vitally connected with the spirit of the worshipper. Unless the heart accompanied the sacrifice God rejected the gift (Isaiah 1:11; Isaiah 1:13). Corban included all that was given to the Lord's service, whether firstfruits, tithes (Leviticus 2:12; Leviticus 27:30), and gifts, for maintaining the priests and endowing the sanctuary (Numbers 7:3; Numbers 31:50), or offerings for the altar. The latter were: 1. Animal (1) burnt offerings, (2) peace offerings, (3) sin offerings. 2. Vegetable: (1) meat and drink offerings for the altar outside, (2) incense and meat offerings for the holy place within. Besides there were the peculiar offerings, the Passover lamb, the scape-goat, and the red heifer; also the chagigah peace offering during the Passover. (See PASSOVER.) The public sacrifice as the morning and evening lamb, was at the cost of the nation. The private sacrifice was offered by the individual, either by the ordinance of the law or by voluntary gift. Zebach is the general term for "a slaughtered animal", as distinguished from minchah, "gift," a vegetable offering, our "meat (i.e. food) offering." 'Owlah is the "burnt offering", that which ascends (from 'alah) or "is burnt"; also kaleel, "whole," it all being consumed on the altar; "whole burnt sacrifice." Shelem is the "peace offering". Todah the "thank offering". Chattath ("sin and punishment") the "sin offering". 'Asham, "trespass offering", accompanied by pecuniary fine or forfeit, because of injury done to some one (it might be to the Lord Himself) in respect to property. The burnt offering was wholly burnt upon the altar; the sin offering was in part burnt upon the altar, in part given to the priests, or burnt outside the camp. The peace offering was shared between the altar, the priests, and the sacrificer. The five animals in Abraham's sacrifice of the covenant (Genesis 15:9) are the five alone named in the law for sacrifice: the ox, sheep, goat, dove, and pigeon. They fulfilled the three legal conditions: (1) they were clean; (2) used for food; (3) part of the home property of the sacrificers. They must be without spot or blemish; but a disproportioned victim was allowed in a free will peace offering (Leviticus 7:16-17; Leviticus 22:23). The age was from a week to three years old; Judges 6:25 is exceptional. The sacrificer (the offerer generally, but in public sacrifice the priests or Levites) slew the victim at the N. side of the altar. The priest or his assistant held a bowl under the cut throat to receive the blood. The sacrificial meal was peculiar to the peace offering. The priest sprinkled the blood of the burnt offering, the peace offering, and the trespass offering "round about upon the altar." But in the sin offering, for one of the common people or a ruler, he took of the blood with his finger and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and poured out what blood remained at the bottom of the altar; in the sin offering for the congregation and for the high priest he brought some of the blood into the sanctuary and sprinkled it seven times before the veil, and put some on the horns of the altar of incense...

    Sacrifice in Smiths Bible Dictionary The peculiar features of each kind of sacrifice are referred to under their respective heads. I. (A) ORIGIN OF SACRIFICE. --The universal prevalence of sacrifice shows it to have been primeval, and deeply rooted in the instincts of humanity. Whether it was first enjoined by an external command, or whether it was based on that sense of sin and lost communion with God which is stamped by his hand on the heart of man, is a historical question which cannot be determined. (B) ANTE-MOSAIC HISTORY OF SACRIFICE. --In examining the various sacrifices recorded in Scripture before the establishment of the law, we find that the words specially denoting expiatory sacrifice are not applied to them. This fact does not at all show that they were not actually expiatory, but it justified the inference that this idea was not then the prominent one in the doctrine of sacrifice. The sacrifices of Cain and Abel are called minehah, tend appear to have been eucharistic. Noah's, Ge 8:20 and Jacob's at Mizpah, were at the institution of a covenant; and may be called federative. In the burnt offerings of Job for his children Job 1:5 and for his three friends ch. Job 42:8 we for the first time find the expression of the desire of expiation for sin. The same is the case in the words of Moses to Pharaoh. Ex 10:26 Here the main idea is at least deprecatory. (C) THE SACRIFICES OF THE MOSAIC PERIOD. --These are inaugurated by the offering of the Passover and the sacrifice of Ex 24:1 ... The Passover indeed is unique in its character but it is clear that the idea of salvation from death by means of sacrifice is brought out in it with a distinctness before unknown. The law of Leviticus now unfolds distinctly the various forms of sacrifice: (a) The burnt offering: Self-dedicatory. (b) The meat offering: (unbloody): Eucharistic. (c) The sin offering; the trespass offering: Expiatory. To these may be added, (d) The incense offered after sacrifice in the holy place and (on the Day of Atonement) in the holy of holies, the symbol of the intercession of the priest (as a type of the great High Priest) accompanying and making efficacious the prayer of the people. In the consecration of Aaron and his sons, Le 8:1 ... we find these offered in what became ever afterward their appointed order. First came the sin offering, to prepare access to God; next the burnt offering, to mark their dedication to his service; and third the meat offering of thanksgiving. Henceforth the sacrificial system was fixed in all its parts until he should come whom it typified. (D) POST-MOSAIC SACRIFICES. --It will not be necessary to pursue, in detail the history of the Poet Mosaic sacrifice, for its main principles were now fixed forever. The regular sacrifices in the temple service were-- (a) Burnt offerings. 1, the daily burnt offerings, Ex 29:38-42 2, the double burnt offerings on the Sabbath, Nu 28:9,10 3, the burnt offerings at the great festivals; Nu 26:11 ... 29:39 (b) Meat offerings. 1, the daily meat offerings accompanying the daily burnt offerings, Ex 29:40,41 2, the shewbread, renewed every Sabbath, Le 24:6,9 3, the special meat offerings at the Sabbath and the great festivals, Nu 28:1 ..., 29:1 ... 4, the first-fruits, at the Passover, Le 23:10-14 at Pentecost, Le 23:17-20 the firstfruits of the dough and threshing-floor at the harvest time. Nu 15:20,21; De 26:1-11 (c) Sin offerings. 1, sin offering each new moon Nu 28:15 2, sin offerings at the passover, Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets...

    Sacrifice in the New Testament 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia - IN THE NEW TESTAMENT I. TERMS OF SACRIFICE EPITOMIZED II. ATTITUDE OF JESUS AND NEW TESTAMENT WRITERS TO THE OLD TESTAMENT SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM 1. Jesus' Attitude 2. Paul's Attitude 3. Attitude of the Author of Hebrews III. THE SACRIFICIAL IDEA IN THE NEW TESTAMENT 1. Teaching of John the Baptist 2. Teaching of Jesus 3. Teaching of Peter 4. Paul's Teaching 5. Teaching of Hebrews 6. Johannine Teaching IV. RELATION OF CHRIST'S SACRIFICE TO MAN'S SALVATION 1. Redemption or Deliverance from Curse of Sin 2. Reconciliation 3. Remission of Sins 4. The Cancellation of Guilt 5. Justification or Right Standing with God 6. Cleansing or Sanctification 7. Sonship V. HOW CHRIST'S SACRIFICE PROCURES SALVATION 1. Jesus' Teaching 2. Paul's Teaching 3. Teaching of Hebrews 4. Petrine and Johannine Teaching VI. RATIONALE OF THE EFFICACY OF CHRIST'S SACRIFICE 1. Jesus' Teaching 2. Paul's Teaching 3. The Teaching in Hebrews VII. THE HUMAN CONDITIONS OF APPLICATION 1. Universal in Objective Potentiality 2. Efficacious When Subjectively Applied VIII. THE CHRISTIAN'S LIFE THE LIFE OF SACRIFICE 1. Consequence of Christ's Sacrifice 2. Christ's Death the Appeal for Christian's Sacrifice 3. Necessary to Fill Out Christ's Sacrifice 4. Content of the Christian's Sacrifice 5. The Supper as a Sacrifice LITERATURE I. Terms of Sacrifice Epitomized. The word "offering" (prosphora) describes the death of Christ, once in Paul (Eph 5:2); 5 times in Hebrews (Heb 10:5,8,10,14,18). The verb prosphero, "to offer," is also used, 15 times in Hebrews (Heb 5:1,3; 8:3,4; 9:7,14,25,28; 10:1,8,11,12; 11:4). The noun prosphora occurs 15 times in the Septuagint, usually as the translation of minchah, "sacrifice." This noun in the New Testament refers to Old Testament sacrifices in Acts 7:42; 21:26; to the offering of money in Acts 24:17; Rom 15:16. The verb anaphero, also occurs 3 times in Hebrews (7:27; 9:28; 13:15); also in 1 Pet 2:5. The word "sacrifice" (thusia in the Septuagint translates 8 different Hebrew words for various kinds of sacrifice, occurring about 350 times) refers to Christ's death, once in Paul (Eph 5:2) 5 times in Heb (5:1; 9:23,26; 10:12,26). It refers several times to Old Testament sacrifice and 5 times to Christian living or giving (Phil 2:17; 4:18; Heb 13:15,16; 1 Pet 2:5). The verb "to sacrifice" (thuo) is used once by Paul to describe Christ's death (1 Cor 5:7). The blood (haima) of Christ is said to secure redemption or salvation, 6 times in Paul (Rom 3:25; 5:9; 1 Cor 10:16; Eph 1:7; 2:13; Col 1:20); 3 times in Hebrews (9:12,14; 10:19; compare also 10:29); 2 times in 1 Peter (1:2,19) and 5 times in the Johannine writings (1 Jn 1:7; 5:62,8; Rev 1:5). Unmistakably this figure of the blood refers to Christ's sacrificial death. "In any case the phrase (en to autou haimati, `in his blood,' Rom 3:25) carries with it the idea of sacrificial blood-shedding" (Sanday, Commentary on Epistle to Romans, 91). (lutron, "ransom," the price paid for redeeming, occurring in Septuagint 19 times, meaning the price paid for redeeming the servant (Lev 25:51,52); ransom for first-born (Nu 3:46); ransom for the life of the owner of the goring ox (Ex 21:30, etc.)) occurs in the New Testament only twice (Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45). This word is used by Jesus to signify the culmination of His sacrificial life in His sacrificial death. (antilutron, "ransom," a word not found in Septuagint, stronger in meaning than the preceding word) occurs only once in the New Testament (1 Tim 2:6). (apolutrosis, "redemption," in Ex 21:8, meaning the ransom paid by a father to redeem his daughter from a cruel master) signifies (1) deliverance from sin by Christ's death, 5 times in Paul (Rom 3:24; 1 Cor 1:30; Eph 1:7,14; Col 1:14); once in Hebrews (9:15); (2) general deliverance, twice (Lk 21:28; Heb 11:35); (3) the Christian's final deliverance, physical and spiritual (Rom 8:23; Eph 4:30). The simple word (lutrosis, "redemption," 10 times in Septuagint as the translation of 5 Hebrew words) occurs once for spiritual deliverance (Heb 9:12). (exagorazo, "redeem," only once in Septuagint, Dan 2:8) in the New Testament means (1) to deliver from the curse of the law, twice by Paul (Gal 3:13; 4:5); (2) to use time wisely, twice by Paul (Eph 5:16; Col 4:5). The simple verb (agorazo, meaning in Lev 27:19 to redeem land) occurs twice in Paul (1 Cor 6:20; 7:23) and means "to redeem" (in a spiritual sense). katallage, "reconciliation," only twice in the Septuagint) means...

    Sacrifice in the New Testament 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia VI. Rationale of the Efficacy of Christ's Sacrifice. 1. Jesus' Teaching: Jesus emphasizes His voluntary spirit in making the sacrifice. "The Son of man also came .... to give his life a ransom." The sacrifice was voluntary, not compulsory. God did not force Him to lay down His life; He chose to do so (compare Jn 10:11). But Jesus gives us no philosophy on this or any other element in His sacrifice as being the ground of its efficacy. 2. Paul's Teaching: Paul also emphasizes the voluntary gift of Christ (Gal 2:20), but he urges rather the dignity of Him who makes the sacrifice as a ground of its efficacy. It is the sacrifice of God's Son, shown to be such in His resurrection (Rom 1:4; 4:25b). It was no ordinary man but the sinless Son who gave "himself" (Gal 2:20). It was not merely a dying Christ but the Son who rose again "in power" (Rom 1:4), who secures our "justification" (Rom 4:25b; 1 Cor 15:3,4,17b). Paul also emphasizes the sinless life and character of Jesus as a ground of efficacy in Christ's sacrifice, "who knew no sin" in His life experience (2 Cor 5:21a). 3. The Teaching in Hebrews: The author of Hebrews, most of all New Testament writers, elaborates the grounds of efficacy in Christ's sacrifice. (1) It was a personal not an animal sacrifice (9:12-14; 9:26, "sacrifice of himself"; 10:4). (2) It was the sacrifice of the Son of God (3:5). (3) It was a royal person who made the sacrifice (6:20b; 7:1, "after the order of Melchizedek .... king of Salem"). (4) It was a sinless person (7:26,27; 9:14; 10:10,12). Westcott, Commentary on Hebrews, 298, well says, "It becomes necessary, therefore, in order to gain a complete view of the Sacrifice of Christ, to combine with the crowning act upon the Cross His fulfillment of the will of God from first to last, the Sacrifice of Life with the Sacrifice of Death." (5) It was an eternal person (6:20, "for ever"; 7:16, "after the power of an endless (margin "indissoluble") life"). The author of Hebrews reaches the climax of his argument for the superior efficacy of Christ's sacrifice when he represents Him as entering the holy of holies in the very presence of God to complete the offering for man's sin (8:1,2; 9:11,12,24). Peter and John do not discuss the ground of efficacy, and so add nothing to our conclusions above. The efficacy of the sacrifice is suggested by describing the glory of the person (1 Pet 1:19; 2:22,23; 1 Jn 1:7b; 2:2). To sum up our conclusion as to the efficacy of Christ's sacrifice: Jesus and the leading New Testament writers intimate that the efficacy of His sacrifice centers in His personality. Jesus, Peter and John do not discuss the subject directly. Paul, though discussing it more extensively, does not do so fully, but the author of Heb centers and culminates his argument for the finality of Christianity, in the superior efficacy of Christ's sacrifice, which is grounded in His personality, divine, royal, sinless, eternal (see Menegoz, Theol. de l'Ep. aux Hebreux). It is easy to see, from the position...

    Sacrifice in the Old Testament 1 in the Bible Encyclopedia sak'-ri-fis, sak'-ri-fiz: IN THE OLD TESTAMENT I. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS II. ORIGIN AND NATURE OF SACRIFICES 1. Theory of a Divine Revelation 2. Theories of a Human Origin (1) The Gift-Theory (2) The Magic Theory (3) The Table-Bond Theory (4) The Sacramental Communion Theory (5) The Homage Theory (6) The Piacular Theory (7) Originating Religious Instincts III. CLASSIFICATION OF SACRIFICES 1. Maimonides 2. W.R. Smith and Others 3. Oehler 4. Paterson and Others 5. H.M. Wiener IV. SACRIFICES IN THE PRE-MOSAIC AGE 1. In Egypt 2. In Babylonia 3. Nomads and Tribes of Arabia and Syria 4. The Offerings of Cain and Abel 5. Of Noah 6. Of Abraham 7. Of Job 8. Of Isaac 9. Of Jacob 10. Of Israel in Egypt 11. Of Jethro 12. Summary and Conclusions V. THE MOSAIC SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM 1. The Covenant Sacrifice 2. The Common Altars 3. The Consecration of Aaron and His Sons 4. Sacrifices before the Golden Calf 5. The Law of the Burnt Offering (`Olah) (1) Ritual for the Offerer (Leviticus 1:3-17) (2) Ritual for the Priest (Leviticus 1:3-17) (3) General Laws for the Priest (4) Laws in Deuteronomy 12:6,13,14,27; 27:6 6. The Law of the Meal Offering (Minchah)...

    Sacrifice in the Old Testament 2 in the Bible Encyclopedia V. The Mosaic Sacrificial System. 1. The Covenant Sacrifice: The fundamental function of Moses' work was to establish the covenant between Israel and God. This important transaction took place at Sinai and was accompanied by solemn sacrifices. The foundation principle was obedience, not sacrifices (Ex 19:4-8). No mention is made of these at the time, as they were incidental--mere by-laws to the constitution. The center of gravity in Israel's religion is now shifted from sacrifices to obedience and loyalty to Yahweh. Sacrifices were helps to that end and without obedience were worthless. This is in exact accordance with Jer 7:21 ff. God did not speak unto the fathers at this time about sacrifices; He did speak about obedience. The covenant having been made, the terms and conditions are laid down by Moses and accepted by the people (Ex 24:3). The Decalogue and Covenant Code are given, an altar is built, burnt offerings and peace offerings of oxen are slain by young men servants of Moses, not by priests, and blood is sprinkled on the altar (Ex 24:4 ff). The blood would symbolize the community of life between Yahweh and Israel, and consecrated the altar. The Law was read, the pledge again given, and Moses sprinkled the representatives of the people, consecrating them also (Ex 24:7 f). Ascending the mount, they had a vision of God, held a feast before Him, showing the joys and privileges of the new relationship. The striking feature of these ceremonies is the use of the blood. It is expiatory and consecrating, it is life offered to God, it consecrates the altar and the people: they are now acceptable to God and dare approach Him and feast with Him. There is no idea of God's drinking the blood. The entire ritual is far removed from the crass features of common Semitic worship. 2. The Common Altars: In the Covenant Code, which the people accepted, the customary altars are not abolished, but regulated (Ex 20:24 ff). This law expressly applies to the time when they shall be settled in Canaan. `In the whole place where I cause my name to be remembered,' etc. (Ex 20:24 margin). No need to change the reading to "in every place where I cause," etc., as the Wellhausen school does for obvious reasons. All the land was eligible. On such rude altars sacrifices were allowed. This same law is implied in Dt 16:21, a passage either ignored or explained away by the Wellhausen school (see Wiener, Essays in Pentateuchal Criticism, 200 f). Moses commanded Joshua in accordance with it (Dt 27:5 ff). Joshua, Gideon, Jephthah, Samuel, Saul, David, Elijah and many others used such altars. There were altars at Shechem (Josh 24:1,26), Mizpah in Gilead (Jdg 11:11), Gilgal (1 Sam 13:9). High places were chiefly used until the times of Hezekiah and Josiah, when they were abolished because of their corruptions, etc. All such altars were perfectly legitimate and in fact necessary, until there was a central capital and sanctuary in Jerusalem. The customary burnt offerings and peace offerings with the worshipper officiating were the chief factors. Heathen sacrifices and the use of heathen altars were strictly forbidden (Ex 22:20 (Hebrew 19); 34:15) 3. The Consecration of Aaron and His Sons: The altar used at the consecration of Aaron and his sons was a "horned" or official altar, the central one. The offerings were a bullock, two rams, unleavened bread, etc. (Ex 29:1- 4), and were brought to the door of the sanctuary. The ritual consisted of Aaron laying his hand on the bullock's head, designating it as his substitute (Ex 29:10), killing it before the tent of meeting (Ex 29:11), smearing some blood on the horns of the altar, and pouring...

    Sacrifice in the Old Testament 3 in the Bible Encyclopedia VIII. Sacrifice in the "Writings." 1. Proverbs: Dates are very uncertain here. The Psalms and Proverbs extend from David and Solomon into the Persian period. The sages take the same attitude as the prophets. They enjoin the sacrifice of first-fruits (Prov 3:9). A feast usually follows a sacrifice of peace offerings (7:14). The trespass offering (?) has no meaning to fools (14:9), and the sacrifices of the wicked are an abomination to God (15:8; 21:27). Righteousness and justice are more acceptable to Yahweh than sacrifices (21:3), yet to them sacrifices are a regular part of worship. Qoheleth speaks of sacrifices as quite the custom, and deprecates the offerings of fools (Eccl 5:1; 9:2). 2. The Psalms: The Psalmist admonishes the faithful to offer the sacrifices of righteousness, i.e. sacrifices offered in the right spirit (Ps 4:5). The drink offerings of idolaters are well known (Ps 16:4). Prayer is made for the acceptance of sacrifices (Ps 20:3). It is a coveted privilege to offer them (Ps 27:6; 84:1-4). The true relation between sacrifice and obedience is expressed in Ps 40:6-8. As in Jer 7:21 f, the emphasis is laid on obedience, without which sacrifices are worthless and repugnant to God. They are not the important thing in Israel's religion, for that religion could exist without them as in the wilderness and exile. The teaching corresponds exactly with that of the prophets and is probably late. Ps 50 is even more emphatic. The Psalmist knows that sacrifices are in the covenant regulations (50:5), but repudiates the idea of giving anything to God or of feeding Him (50:12,13). Everything belongs to Him, He is not hungry, He would scorn the idea of drinking the blood of goats, etc. The idea of the cult being of any real value to God is scouted. Yet in the next verse the reader is admonished to offer sacrifices of thanksgiving and pay vows (50:14). The sacrifices that express worship, penitence, prayer, thanksgiving and faith are acceptable. The penitent Psalmist speaks in similar terms. Sacrifices as such are no delight to God, the real sacrifice is a broken heart (51:16 f). When the heart is right, then, as an expression of true- heartedness, devotion, repentance and faith, burnt offerings are highly acceptable (51:19). Another Psalmist promises a freewill offering to God (54:6; 66:13,15). Sacrifices of thanksgiving are advised (96:8; 107:22; 118:27) and promised (116:17). Prayer is likened to the evening sacrifice (141:2). IX. The Idea and Efficacy of Sacrifices. That the Hebrews thoroughly believed in the efficacy of sacrifices is without doubt. What ideas they entertained regarding them is not so clear. No single theory can account for all the facts. The unbloody sacrifices were regarded as food for the Deity, or a pleasant odor, in one instance, taking the place of a bloody offering (see above). The bloody offerings present some difficulties, and hence, many different views. 1. A Gift of Food to the Deity: Included under the head of gifts of food to the Deity would be the meal and peace offerings, in so far as they were consumed by fire, the burnt offerings and the shewbread, etc. They were fire-food, the fire-distilled essence or etherealized food for God which gave Him pleasure and disposed Him favorably toward the offerer. They were intended either to appease wrath, to win favor, or to express thanks and gratitude for favors experienced. The earlier and more naive idea was probably to win the favor of the Deity by a gift. Later, other ideas were expressed in the offerings. 2. Expression of Adoration and Devotion, etc.: The burnt offering best gave expression to the sentiments of adoration and devotion, though...

    Sacrifice Scripture - 1 Kings 12:27 If this people go up to do sacrifice in the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, then shall the heart of this people turn again unto their lord, [even] unto Rehoboam king of Judah, and they shall kill me, and go again to Rehoboam king of Judah.

    Sacrifice Scripture - 1 Samuel 10:8 And thou shalt go down before me to Gilgal; and, behold, I will come down unto thee, to offer burnt offerings, [and] to sacrifice sacrifices of peace offerings: seven days shalt thou tarry, till I come to thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do.

    Sacrifice Scripture - 2 Chronicles 2:6 But who is able to build him an house, seeing the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain him? who [am] I then, that I should build him an house, save only to burn sacrifice before him?

    Sacrifice Scripture - Exodus 29:28 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it [is] an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, [even] their heave offering unto the LORD.

    Sacrifice Scripture - Ezekiel 40:42 And the four tables [were] of hewn stone for the burnt offering, of a cubit and an half long, and a cubit and an half broad, and one cubit high: whereupon also they laid the instruments wherewith they slew the burnt offering and the sacrifice.

    Sacrifice Scripture - Jeremiah 33:11 The voice of joy, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that shall say, Praise the LORD of hosts: for the LORD [is] good; for his mercy [endureth] for ever: [and] of them that shall bring the sacrifice of praise into the house of the LORD. For I will cause to return the captivity of the land, as at the first, saith the LORD.

    Sacrifice Scripture - Leviticus 7:12 If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried.

    Sacrifice Scripture - Numbers 28:8 And the other lamb shalt thou offer at even: as the meat offering of the morning, and as the drink offering thereof, thou shalt offer [it], a sacrifice made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.

    Sacrifice Scripture - Numbers 29:6 Beside the burnt offering of the month, and his meat offering, and the daily burnt offering, and his meat offering, and their drink offerings, according unto their manner, for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.

    Sacrifice Scripture - Psalms 40:6 Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened: burnt offering and sin offering hast thou not required.

    Sacrifices in Naves Topical Bible FIGURATIVE Isa 34:6; Eze 39:17; Zep 1:7,8; Ro 12:1; Php 2:17; 4:18 Of self-denial Php 3:7,8 Of praise Ps 116:17; Jer 33:11; Ho 14:2; Heb 13:15 "Calves of the lips" signifying praise Ho 14:2 See OFFERINGS

    Sacrificing Sheep The sheep was used in Bible times more than any other animal for sacrificial purposes. A young male lamb was used in most cases as a thanksgiving offering, as atonement for transgression, or as redemption of a more valuable animal. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Scapegoat and Goat Sacrifices Use of goats for sacrifices. The Levitical Code often allowed the Hebrews a choice of a sheep or of a goat for the offering. "If his offering be of the flocks, namely, of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt sacrifice" (Leviticus 1:10). On the Day of Atonement, it was required that a goat be sacrificed by the high priest, and that another goat should be "the scapegoat." "And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness" (Leviticus 16:22). Moses had ordered that the scapegoat should be taken out into the wilderness and turned loose. But in order to prevent its return to Jerusalem, it became customary to lead the creature to the height of a mountain, where it was pushed over and would be certainly killed. This was the symbol of the forgiveness of sin through the sacrifice of CHRIST. Although John the Baptist spoke of JESUS as the Lamb of GOD, he may have had in mind also the picture of the scapegoat when he said: "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29). [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    The Fatted Calf Special use of the fatted calf. The "fatted calf" as used by the Jews served a special purpose. This calf was stall-fed as is indicated by the prophet Malachi: "And grow up as calves of the stall" (Malachi 4:2). This animal is not only allowed to eat all that he wants to eat, but he is forced to eat more. The whole family, and especially the children, are interested in feeding it. It is fattened up in order that it may be killed for some special occasion. [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]