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    September 30    Scripture

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    Clothing of the Pharisees SPECIAL DRESS OF THE PHARISEES The Pharisees in their religious garb, took two articles of dress which were worn by other Jews and emphasized them in a special way until they became their distinctive apparel. One of these was the phylactery. It was a little box of metal, or bands of parchment which was fastened to the hand or forehead by straps. It contained passages of Scripture referring to the Passover and the redemption of the first-born from Egypt. The custom was based on certain Scriptural admonitions (Exodus 13:9, 16). And the Jews still bind them upon their arms and foreheads. The other special feature of the Pharisees' dress was the blue fringes placed at the corners of the mantle, as the law of Moses commanded (Numbers 15:37,38; Deuteronomy 22:12). The Pharisees had unusually broad phylacteries, and very long fringes (Matthew 23:5). It was for this proud use of these things without an appreciation of their value, that JESUS condemned them so severely.[Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]

    Frontlets Scripture - Deuteronomy 11:18 Therefore shall ye lay up these my words in your heart and in your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand, that they may be as frontlets between your eyes.

    Frontlets Scripture - Deuteronomy 6:8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes.

    Frontlets Scripture - Exodus 13:16 And it shall be for a token upon thine hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes: for by strength of hand the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt.

    Phylacteries in Easton's Bible Dictionary (Gr. phulakteria; i.e., "defences" or "protections"), called by modern Jews tephillin (i.e., "prayers") are mentioned only in Matt. 23:5. They consisted of strips of parchment on which were inscribed these four texts: (1.) Ex. 13:1-10; (2.) 11-16; (3.) Deut. 6:4-9; (4.) 11:18-21, and which were enclosed in a square leather case, on one side of which was inscribed the Hebrew letter shin, to which the rabbis attached some significance. This case was fastened by certain straps to the forehead just between the eyes. The "making broad the phylacteries" refers to the enlarging of the case so as to make it conspicuous. (See FRONTLETS -T0001386.) Another form of the phylactery consisted of two rolls of parchment, on which the same texts were written, enclosed in a case of black calfskin. This was worn on the left arm near the elbow, to which it was bound by a thong. It was called the "Tephillah on the arm."

    Phylacteries in Fausset's Bible Dictionary nezem, which also includes the nose ring hanging on one side of the nose (Genesis 24:47, where the words "upon her face" imply either a nose ring or one to be hung from her forehead, Genesis 35:4). Circular, as its other name 'agil implies. Oriental men wore them as well as women. Judges 8:24 seems to imply that the Israelite men did not wear them, as did the Ishmaelites; but Exodus 32:2 proves that young "sons" wore them. There were besides netiphot (Judges 8:26), not "collars" but pearlshaped "ear drops," or jewels attached to the rings, or else pendent scent bottles, or pendants from the neck on the breast, "Chains" KJV (Isaiah 3:19; Isaiah 3:21), "earrings" (leehashim, from laachash "to whisper"), AMULETS with magic inscriptions, and so surrendered along with the idols by Jacob's household (Genesis 35:4). The best use made of them was that in Numbers 31:50, an offering to the Lord to "make atonement for souls"; not that our gifts can wipe away guilt, but acknowledgments of God's grace not being offered in loving gratitude evince an unatoned state, and so a state of guilt. When offered in loving faith, they evidence and seal visibly our reception of the atonement (Luke 7:44-47). The "phylacteries," headbands, totapkot (Matthew 23:5) in the Talmudists' opinion were the sanctioned antidote to the idolatrous amulets and "earrings" (Deuteronomy 6:7-8; Deuteronomy 11:18-19; contrast Hosea 2:13; Isaiah 3:21, lechashim. But the language in Deuteronomy and in Exodus 13:9; Exodus 13:16 is rightly taken by the Karaite Jews as proverbial, not literal; as is apparent from the reason added, "that the law of Jehovah may be in thy mouth"; for it is by receiving the law into the heart, and by keeping it, that it would be naturally on the tongue continually. God does not say that His law was to be written upon scrolls, but to be "for a sign upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes," i.e., was to be kept in view like memorials upon the forehead and the hand, the prominent visible parts symbolizing respectively open confession and action (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 22:4). This view is proved by Proverbs 3:3; Proverbs 4:21; Proverbs 6:21-22; Proverbs 7:3. But latterly the Jews used the "phylacteries," totaphot, or tephillim, prayer fillets, parchment strips with sentences of the law, bound on the forehead or left arm during prayer.

    Phylacteries in Hitchcock's Bible Names things to be especially observed

    Phylacteries Scripture - Matthew 23:5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,

    Phylactery in Naves Topical Bible A small box containing slips of parchment on which there were written portions of the law Ex 13:9,16; De 6:4-9; 11:18 -Worn ostentatiously by the Jews upon the head and left arm Mt 23:5

    Phylactery in Smiths Bible Dictionary [FRONTLETS]

    Phylactery in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE fi-lak'-ter-i (phulakterion, "guard"): 1. Bible References: This word is found only in Mt 23:5 in our Lord's denunciation of the Pharisees, who, in order that their works might "be seen of men," and in their zeal for the forms of religion, "make broad their phylacteries and enlarge the borders of their garments." The corresponding word in the Old Testament, ToTaphoth (Kennedy in HDB suggests pointing as the segholate feminine singular, ToTepheth), is fonnd in three passages (Ex 13:16; Dt 6:8; 11:18), where it is translated "frontlets." This rendering, however, is not at all certain, and may have been read into the text from its later interpretation. In Ex 13:9 the corresponding word to the Totaphoth of 13:16 is zikkaron, "memorial" or "reminder"; and in the parallel clauses of both verses the corresponding word is 'oth, "a sign" upon the hand, also used for the "sign" which Yahweh appointed for Cain (Gen 4:15). It may be rendered then as a mark or ornament or jewel, and used figuratively of Yahweh's Law as an ornament or jewel to the forehead of the Israelite, a reference to the charm or amulet worn by the pagan. The word used in the Talmud for the phylactery is tephillah, "prayer," or "prayer-band" (plural tephillin), indicating its use theoretically as a reminder of the Law, although practically it might be esteemed as an automatic and ever- present charm against evil: an aid within toward the keeping of the Law, a guard without against the approach of evil; a degradation of an Old Testament figurative and idealistic phrase to the materialistic and superstitious practices of the pagans. 2. Description: The phylactery was a leather box, cube-shaped, closed with an attached flap and bound to the person by a leather band. There were two kinds: (1) one to be bound to the inner side of the left arm, and near the elbow, so that with the bending of the arm it would rest over the heart, the knot fastening it to the arm being in the form of the Hebrew letter yodh (y), and the end of the string, or band, finally wound around the middle finger of the hand, "a sign upon thy hand" (Dt 6:8). This box had one compartment containing one or all of the four passages given above. The writer in his youth found one of these in a comparatively remote locality, evidently lost by a Jewish peddler, which contained only the 2nd text (Ex 13:11-16) in unpointed Hebrew. (2) Another was to be bound in the center of the forehead, "between thine eyes" (Dt 6:8), the knot of the band being in the form of the Hebrew letter daleth (d), with the Hebrew letter shin (sh) upon each end of the box, which was divided into four compartments with one of the four passages in each. These two Hebrew letters, with the yodh (y) of the arm-phylactery (see (1) above), formed the divine name shadday, "Almighty." Quite elaborate ceremonial accompanied the "laying" on of the phylacteries, that of the arm being bound on first, and that of the head next, quotations from Scripture or Talmud being repeated at each stage of the binding. They were to be worn by every male over 13 years old at the time of morning prayer, except on Sabbaths and festal days, such days being in themselves sufficient reminders of "the commandment, the statutes, and the ordinances" of Yahweh (Dt 6:1). 3. Interpretation of Old Testament Passages: The passages on which the wearing of the phylacteries is based are as follows: "It (i.e. the feast of...