Manners & Customs: Weaving
Weaving Cloth in the ancient world
Weave Scripture - Isaiah 19:9
Moreover they that work in fine flax, and they that weave
networks, shall be confounded.
Weave Scripture - Isaiah 59:5
They hatch cockatrice' eggs, and weave the spider's web: he
that eateth of their eggs dieth, and that which is crushed
breaketh out into a viper.
Weaving Clothes with the Spindle
WEAVING CLOTH AND MAKING CLOTHES
The Jewish women were responsible for making the clothing for the family. The wool which was used came from their flocks. It had to be spun into yarn without the use of modern spinning wheels. Concerning this process, the Book of Proverbs in its tribute to the ideal mother, describes it thus: "She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff" (Proverbs 31:19). The ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, being experts in weaving, had large looms, but for the most part the common people of Israel used a very primitive loom and the weaving process was of necessity a slow and tedious one. Of course there were no sewing machines or steel needles. Their needles were coarse ones made of bronze or sometimes of splinters of bone that had been sharpened at one end, and with a hole through the other end.
It is said that today most of the spinning in Syria is done by the older women. It gives occasion for these spinners to get together. And they spin while they talk, or even sometimes while they are eating in an informal way. When Scripture says, "She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff" (Proverbs 31:19), it is the same way as saying, "She is never idle," or as the Syrians would say, "Her spindle is never out of her hands." [Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]
Weaving in Easton's Bible Dictionary
Weaving was an art practised in very early times (Ex.
The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa.
27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors.
In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised it (Ex.
28:4, 39; Lev. 13:47). It is referred to in
subsequent times as
specially the women's work (2 Kings 23:7; Prov.
31:13, 24). No
mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we
read of the
"shuttle" (Job 7:6), "the pin" of the beam (Judg.
web" (13, 14), and "the beam" (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam.
rendering, "with pining sickness," in Isa. 38:12
be, as in the Revised Version, "from the loom," or,
as in the
margin, "from the thrum." We read also of the "warp"
(Lev. 13:48, 49, 51-53, 58, 59), but the Revised
has, instead of "warp," "woven or knitted stuff."
Weaving in Fausset's Bible Dictionary
(See LINEN.) The "fine linen" of Joseph (Genesis 41:42)
accords with existing specimens of Egyptian weaving equal to
the finest cambric. The Israelites learned from the
Egyptians the art, and so could weave the tabernacle
curtains (Exodus 35:35). In Isaiah 19:9 Gesenius translated
choral (from chur, "white") "they that weave white cloth,"
for "networks" (Esther 1:6; Esther 8:15). The Tyrians got
from Egypt their "fine linen with embroidered work" for
sails (Ezekiel 27:7). Men wove anciently (1 Chronicles
4:21); latterly females (1 Samuel 2:19; Proverbs 31:13;
Proverbs 31:19; Proverbs 31:24). The Egyptian loom was
upright, and the weaver stood. Jesus' seamless coat was
woven "from the top" (John 19:23). In Leviticus 13:48 the
"warp" and "woof" are not parts of woven cloth, but yarn
prepared for warp and yarn prepared for woof.
The speed of the shuttle, the decisive cutting of the web
from the thrum when the web is complete, symbolize the rapid
passing away of life and its being cut off at a stroke (Job
7:6; Isaiah 38:12); each day, like the weaver's shuttle,
leaves a thread behind. Textures with gold thread interwoven
(Psalm 45:13) were most valuable. The Babylonians wove men
and animals on robes; Achan appropriated such a "goodly
Babylonish garment" (Joshua 7:21). Sacerdotal garments were
woven without seam (Josephus, Ant. 3:7, section 4); so
Jesus' "coat without seam" (John 19:23)was appropriately
sacerdotal, as He was at once the Priest and the sacrifice.
Weaving in Naves Topical Bible
General scriptures concerning
Isa 19:9; 38:12
-Bezaleel skilled in
-Performed by women
-Of the ephod
Ex 28:32; 39:22
Jud 16:14; 2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 11:23
Weaving in Smiths Bible Dictionary
The art of weaving appears to be coeval with the first
dawning of civilization. We find it practiced with great
skill by the Egyptians at a very early period; The vestures
of fine linen" such as Joseph wore, Ge 41:42 were the
product of Egyptian looms. The Israelites were probably
acquainted with the process before their sojourn in Egypt;
but it was undoubtedly there that they attained the
proficiency which enabled them to execute the hangings of
the tabernacle, Ex 35:35; 1Ch 4:21 and other artistic
textures. The Egyptian loom was usually upright, and the
weaver stood at his work. The cloth was fixed sometimes at
the top, sometimes at the bottom. The modern Arabs use a
procumbent loom, raised above the ground by short legs. The
textures produced by the Jewish weavers were very various.
The coarser kinds, such tent-cloth, sack-cloth and the
"hairy garments" of the poor, were made goat's or camel's
hair. Ex 26:7; Mt 3:4 Wool was extensively used for ordinary
clothing, Le 13:47; Pr 27:26; 31:13; Eze 27:18 while for
finer work flax was used, varying in quality, and producing
the different textures described in the Bible as "linen" and
"fine linen." The mixture of wool and flax in cloth intended
for a garment was interdicted. Le 19:19; De 22:11
Weaving in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
we'-ving: Although weaving was one of the most important and
best developed of the crafts of Bible times, yet we have but
few Biblical references to enlighten us as to the processes
used in those early days. A knowledge of the technique of
weaving is necessary, however, if we are to understand some
of the Biblical incidents. The principle of weaving in all
ages is illustrated by the process of darning. The hole to
be darned is laid over with parallel threads which
correspond to the "warp" (shethi) of a woven fabric. Then,
by means of a darning needle which takes the place of the
shuttle in the loom, other threads are interlaced back and
forth at right angles to the first set of strands. This
second set corresponds to the woof (`erebh) or weft of woven
cloth. The result is a web of threads across the hole. If
the warp threads, instead of being attached to the edges of
a fabric, are fastened to two beams which can be stretched
either on a frame or on the ground, and the woof is
interlaced exactly as in darning, the result will be a web
of cloth. The process is then called weaving ('aragh), and
the apparatus a loom. The most up-to-date loom of our modern
mills differs from the above only in the devices for
accelerating the process. The first of these improvements
dates back some 5,000 years to the early Egyptians, who
discovered what is technically known as shedding, i.e.
dividing the warp into two sets of threads, every other
thread being lifted so that the woof can run between, as is
shown in the diagram of the Arabic loom.of considerable
means (Mk 1:19,20; Jn 19:27).
The looms are still commonly used among the Bedouins.
Supppose only eight threads are used for an illustration. In
reality the eight strands are made by passing one continuous
thread back and forth between the two poles which are held
apart by stakes driven into the ground. The even strands run
through loops of string attached to a rod, and from there
under a beam to the pole. By placing the ends upon stones,
or by suspending it on loops, the even threads are raised
above the odd threads, thus forming a shed through which the
weft can be passed. The separating of odds and evens is
assisted by a flat board of wedge-shaped cross-section,
which is turned at right angles to the odd threads. After
the shuttle has been passed across, this same stick is used
to beat up the weft.
The threads are removed from the stones or loops, and
allowed to lie loosely on the warp; it is pulled forward
toward the weaver and raised on the stones in the position
previously occupied by it. The flat spreader is passed
through the new shed in which the odd threads are now above
and the even threads below. The weft is run through and is
beaten into place with the thin edge of it. The shuttle
commonly used is a straight tree branch on which the thread
is loosely wound "kite-string" fashion.
The loom used by Delilah was no doubt like the one described
above (Jdg 16:13,14). It would have been an easy matter for
her to run in Samson's locks as strands of the weft while he
lay sleeping on the ground near the loom adjacent to rod
under the beam. The passage might be transposed thus: "And
he said unto her, If thou weavest the seven locks of my head
into the web. And she passed in his locks and beat...
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