Manners & Customs: Baking
Baking in Ancient Times
Bake in Easton's Bible Dictionary
The duty of preparing bread was usually, in ancient times,
committed to the females or the slaves of the family
Lev. 26:26; 1 Sam. 8:13); but at a later period we
find a class
of public bakers mentioned (Hos. 7:4, 6; Jer. 37:21).
The bread was generally in the form of long or round
(Ex. 29:23; 1 Sam. 2:36), of a thinness that rendered
easily broken (Isa. 58:7; Matt. 14:19; 26:26; Acts
Common ovens were generally used; at other times a jar
half-filled with hot pebbles, and the dough was spread
them. Hence we read of "cakes baken on the coals" (1
19:6), and "baken in the oven" (Lev. 2:4). (See BREAD)
Bake in Smiths Bible Dictionary
Reference to baking is found in Le 26:26; 1Sa 8:13; 2Sa 13:8;
Jer 7:18; 37:21; Ho 7:4-7
Baker in Naves Topical Bible
General scriptures concerning
1Sa 8:13; Jer 37:21; Ho 7:4,6
-Pharaoh's chief baker
Baking Bread and Ovens
Baking of bread. The most primitive method of baking bread was the laying of cakes of dough on heated stones.11
A Scriptural example of this is from the experience of Elijah. (I Kings 19:6): "And he looked, and, behold, there was a cake baken on the coals, and a cruse of water at his head."
Another simple method of baking is the digging in the ground of a hole four or five feet deep, and three feet in diameter, and after this oven is heated, the dough is rolled out until it is no thicker than a person's finger, and then it is struck against the oven's sides where it instantly bakes.
Sometimes a great stone pitcher is used as an oven. In the bottom of it a fire is made among small flints that retain the heat. The dough is placed on these and is quickly baked. Sometimes the dough is rolled out quite thin and is stuck on the outside of the hot pitcher where it bakes. Some have thought that it was this pitcher-oven that was meant in Leviticus 2:4, where two types of unleavened bread were to be baked. The cakes of fine flour would be baked inside the pitcher-oven, and the wafers would be baked on the outside of it.
Another type of simple oven is a large earthenware jar, into which the fuel is placed, and when the jar is hot enough the thin cakes are laid on the outside to cook.14 When bread was baked individually by each family in Bible days, some such method as has been described was probably used by the ordinary homes.
But often today, as in the days of Sacred Writ, bread was and is baked in either a semipublic oven, or in the oven of a public baker. Sometimes each town might have several of these ovens. One type of such an oven consists of a big earthen tube, some three feet in diameter, and about five feet long. It is sunk in the ground inside a hut. The women take their turn in baking their bread. The fuel is thrown into the tube, and when the fire gets hot, and billows of smoke and tongues of flame come from the deep hole, the hut, without any chimney in it, begins to resemble an active crater. Malachi must have seen such an oven when he wrote the words, "For behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven: and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble" (Malachi 4:1).15
Another type of Oriental oven "is a long, low, stonebuilt vault, like half a railway-engine's boiler,
with a stone pavement down the middle, and a long narrow strip at each side for the firewood."16 Each night the ashes are taken out, and often the children of poor families will bring a piece of tin, or of a broken water jar, and carry home on this some of the embers of the fire with which to start the fire at home for the evening meal.
Hosea makes mention of "an oven heated by the baker" (Hosea 7:4). This would indicate that some of the people brought their bread to a baker to do the baking. The city of Jerusalem had its Baker's Street in the time of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 37:21).
[Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]
Baking in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE
bak'-ing. See BREAD.
Baking Scripture - 1Samuel 8:13
And he will take your daughters [to be] confectionaries, and
[to be] cooks, and [to be] bakers.
Baking Scripture - 2Samuel 13:8
So Tamar went to her brother Amnon's house; and he was laid
down. And she took flour, and kneaded [it], and made cakes in
his sight, and did bake the cakes.
Baking Scripture - Jeremiah 37:21
Then Zedekiah the king commanded that they should commit
Jeremiah into the court of the prison, and that they should
give him daily a piece of bread out of the bakers' street,
until all the bread in the city were spent. Thus Jeremiah
remained in the court of the prison.
Baking Scripture - Jeremiah 7:18
The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and
the women knead [their] dough, to make cakes to the queen of
heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that
they may provoke me to anger.
Baking Scripture - Leviticus 26:26
[And] when I have broken the staff of your bread, ten women
shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver
[you] your bread again by weight: and ye shall eat, and not be
Baking the Pottery
Baking the pottery. After the potter is through working with the vessel on the wheel, he places it on a shelf where there are rows of other vessels, and where they are kept from the direct rays of the sun, and yet where they are exposed to the wind from all directions. The brickkiln where they are baked is a shallow well of stone or brick around four feet deep and eight to ten feet in diameter, which has a small brick oven at its base. The vessels are piled up over this oven in cone-shape, sometimes to a height of twelve feet. It is then covered thickly with brushwood in order that the heat may be kept in and that there may come no sudden chilling. The fire is made to burn until the pottery is hardened sufficiently.5
The prophet Nahum refers to the preparation for baking pottery when he says: "Make strong the brick kiln" (Nahum 3:14). Sometimes inferior products are made by insufficient burning of vessels.
[Manners And Customs of Bible Lands]
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